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he  passing  of 
he  great  race 



I  7  H^o 













C  -i 

Copyright,  1916,  1918,  1921,  by 

Printed  in  the  United  States  of  America 

Published  October,  1916 
Reprinted  December,  1916 

Published  March,  1918 
Reprinted  March,  1919 

Pubb'shed  May,  1920 


Published  August,  1921 

Reprinted  February,  July,  1922 

February,  September,  1923 

November,  1924;  December,  1926 

May,  1930;  May,  1932 

All  rights  reserved.    No  part  of  this  book 

c\\\  may  ^e  ^froduced  in  any  form  without 

*\H  *      the  permission  of  Charles  Scribner's  Sons 



European  history  has  been  written  in  terms  of 
nationality  and  of  language,  but  never  before  in 
terms  of  race;  yet  race  has  played  a  far  larger  part 
than  either  language  or  nationality  in  moulding  the 
destinies  of  men;  race  implies  heredity  and  hered- 
ity implies  all  the  moral,  social  and  intellectual 
characteristics  and  traits  which  are  the  springs  of 
politics  and  government. 

Quite  independently  and  unconsciously  the  au- 
thor, never  before  a  historian,  has  turned  this 
historical  sketch  into  the  current  of  a  great  bio- 
logical movement,  which  may  be  traced  back  to 
the  teachings  of  Gal  ton  and  Weismann,  beginning 
in  the  last  third  of  the  nineteenth  century.  This 
movement  has  compelled  us  to  recognize  the 
superior  force  and  stability  of  heredity,  as  being 
more  enduring  and  potent  than  environment. 
This  movement  is  also  a  reaction  from  the  teach- 
ings of  Hippolyte  Taine  among  historians  and  of 
Herbert  Spencer  among  biologists,  because  it  proves 
that  environment  and  in  the  case  of  man  educa- 
tion have  an  immediate,  apparent  and  temporary 
influence,  while  heredity  has  a  deep,  subtle  and 

permanent  influence  on  the  actions  of  men. 


viii  PREFACE 

Thus  the  racial  history  of  Europe,  which  forms 
the  author's  main  outline  and  subject  and  which 
is  wholly  original  in  treatment,  might  be  para- 
phrased as  the  heredity  history  of  Europe.  It  is 
history  as  influenced  by  the  hereditary  impulses, 
predispositions  and  tendencies  which,  as  highly 
distinctive  racial  traits,  date  back  many  thousands 
of  years  and  were  originally  formed  when  man  was 
still  in  the  tribal  state,  long  before  the  advent  of 

In  the  author's  opening  chapters  these  traits 
and  tendencies  are  commented  upon  as  they  are 
observed  to-day  under  the  varying  influences  of 
migration  and  changes  of  social  and  physical  en- 
vironment. In  the  chapters  relating  to  the  racial 
history  of  Europe  we  enter  a  new  and  fascinating 
field  of  study,  which  I  trust  the  author  himself 
may  some  day  expand  into  a  longer  story.  There 
is  no  gainsaying  that  this  is  the  correct  scientific 
method  of  approaching  the  problem  of  the  past. 

The  moral  tendency  of  the  heredity  interpreta- 
tion of  history  is  for  our  day  and  generation  and 
is  in  strong  accord  with  the  true  spirit  of  the 
modern  eugenics  movement  in  relation  to  patriot- 
ism, namely,  the  conservation  and  multiplication 
for  our  country  of  the  best  spiritual,  moral,  intel- 
lectual and  physical  forces  of  heredity;  thus  only 
will  the  integrity  of  our  institutions  be  maintained 
in  the  future.    These  divine  forces  are  more  or 


less  sporadically  distributed  in  all  races,  some  of 
them  are  found  in  what  we  call  the  lowest  races, 
some  are  scattered  widely  throughout  humanity, 
but  they  are  certainly  more  widely  and  uniformly 
distributed  in  some  races  than  in  others. 

Thus  conservation  of  that  race  which  has  given 
us  the  true  spirit  of  Americanism  is  not  a  matter 
either  of  racial  pride  or  of  racial  prejudice;  it  is  a 
matter  of  love  of  country,  of  a  true  sentiment 
which  is  based  upon  knowledge  and  the  lessons  of 
history  rather  than  upon  the  sentimentalism  which 
is  fostered  by  ignorance.  If  I  were  asked:  What 
is  the  greatest  danger  which  threatens  the  American 
republic  to-day?  I  would  certainly  reply:  The  grad- 
ual dying  out  among  our  people  of  those  hereditary 
traits  through  which  the  principles  of  our  religious, 
political  and  social  foundations  were  laid  down  and 
their  insidious  replacement  by  traits  of  less  noble 

Henry  Fairfield  Osborn. 

July  i|,  1916. 


History  is  repeating  itself  in  America  at  the 
present  time  and  incidentally  is  giving  a  convinc- 
ing demonstration  of  the  central  thought  in  this 
volume,  namely,  that  heredity  and  racial  predis- 
position are  stronger  and  more  stable  than  envi- 
ronment and  education. 

Whatever  may  be  its  intellectual,  its  literary, 
its  artistic  or  its  musical  aptitudes,  as  compared 
with  other  races,  the  Anglo-Saxon  branch  of  the 
Nordic  race  is  again  showing  itself  to  be  that  upon 
which  the  nation  must  chiefly  depend  for  leader- 
ship, for  courage,  for  loyalty,  for  unity  and  har- 
mony of  action,  for  self-sacrifice  and  devotion  to 
an  ideal.  Not  that  members  of  other  races  are 
not  doing  their  part,  many  of  them  are,  but  in  no 
other  human  stock  which  has  come  to  this  country 
is  there  displayed  the  unanimity  of  heart,  mind 
and  action  which  is  now  being  displayed  by  the 
descendants  of  the  blue-eyed,  fair-haired  peoples 
of  the  north  of  Europe.  In  a  recent  journey  in 
northern  California  and  Oregon  I  noted  that,  in 
the  faces  of  the  regiments  which  were  first  to  leave 
for  the  city  of  New  York  and  later  that,  in  the 
wonderful  array  of  young  men  at  Plattsburg,  the 


Anglo-Saxon  type  was  clearly  dominant  over  every 
other  and  the  purest  members  of  this  type  largely 
outnumbered  the  others.  In  northern  California  I 
saw  a  great  regiment  detrain  and  with  one  or  two 
exceptions  they  were  all  native  Americans,  de- 
scendants of  the  English,  Scotch  and  north  of 
Ireland  men  who  founded  the  State  of  Oregon 
in  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century.  At 
Plattsburg  fair  hair  and  blue  eyes  were  very  no- 
ticeable, much  more  so  than  in  any  ordinary  crowds 
of  American  collegians  as  seen  assembled  in  our 

It  should  be  remembered  also  that  many  of  the 
dark-haired,  dark-eyed  youths  of  Plattsburg  and 
other  volunteer  training  camps  are  often  three- 
fourths  or  seven-eighths  Nordic,  because  it  only  re- 
quires a  single  dark-eyed  ancestor  to  lend  the  dark 
hair  and  eye  color  to  an  otherwise  pure  Nordic 
strain.  There  is  a  clear  differentiation  between  the 
original  Nordic,  the  Alpine  and  the  Mediterranean 
strains;  but  where  physical  characters  and  char- 
acteristics are  partly  combined  in  a  mosaic,  and  to 
a  less  degree  are  blended,  it  requires  long  experience 
to  judge  which  strain  dominates. 

With  a  race  having  these  predispositions,  ex- 
tending back  to  the  very  beginnings  of  European 
history,  there  is  no  hesitation  or  even  waiting  for 
conscription  and  the  sad  thought  was  continually 
in  my  mind  in  California,  in  Oregon  and  in  Platts- 


burg  that  again  this  race  was  passing,  that  this 
war  will  take  a  very  heavy  toll  of  this  strain  of 
Anglo-Saxon  life  which  has  played  so  large  a  part 
in  American  history. 

War  is  in  the  highest  sense  dysgenic  rather  than 
eugenic.  It  is  destructive  of  the  best  strains,  spiri- 
tually, morally  and  physically.  For  the  world's 
future  the  destruction  of  wealth  is  a  small  matter 
compared  with  the  destruction  of  the  best  human 
strains,  for  wealth  can  be  renewed  while  these  strains 
of  the  real  human  aristocracy  once  lost  are  lost 
forever.  In  the  new  world  that  we  are  working 
and  fighting  for,  the  world  of  liberty,  of  justice  and 
of  humanity,  we  shall  save  democracy  only  when 
democracy  discovers  its  own  aristocracy  as  in  the 
days  when  our  Republic  was  founded. 

Henry  Fairfield  Osborn. 

Decemter,  191 7. 




I.    Race  and  Democracy 3 

II.    The  Physical  Basis  or  Race 13 

III.  Race  and  Habitat 37 

IV.  The  Competition  of  Races 46 

V.    Race,  Language  and  Nationality       ...  56 

VI.    Race  and  Language 69 

VII.    The  European  Races  in  Colonies      ...  76 


I.    Eolithic  Man 97 

II.    Paleolithic  Man 104 

III.  The  Neolithic  and  Bronze  Ages   .     .     .     .  119 

IV.  The  Alpine  Race 134 

V.    The  Mediterranean  Race 148 

VI.    The  Nordic  Race 167 




VII.    Teutonic  Europe 179 

VIII.    The  Expansion  of  the  Nordics    ....  188 

DC.    The  Nordic  Fatherland 213 

X.    The  Nordic  Race  Outside  of  Europe    .     .  223 

XL    Racial  Aptitudes 226 

XII.    Arya 233 

XIII.  Origin  of  the  Aryan  Languages      .     .     .  242 

XIV.  The  Aryan  Language  in  Asia      ....  253 

Appendix  with  Colored  Maps      ....  265 

Bibliography 275 

Index 281 



Chronological  Table Pages  132-133 

Classification  or  the  Races  of  Europe 

Facing  page     123 

Provisional   Outline   of   Nordic   Invasions   and 
Metal  Cultures Facing  page    191 


Maximum  Expansion  of  Alpines  with  Bronze  Cul- 
ture, 3000-1800  B.  C Facing  page    266 

Expansion  of  the  Pre-Teutonic  Nordics,   1800- 
100  B.  C Facing  page    268 

Expansion  of  the  Teutonic  Nordics  and  Slavic 
Alpines,  100  B.  C.-noo  A.  D.   .     .    Facing  page    270 

Present  Distribution  of  European  Races 

Facing  page    272 


The  following  pages  are  devoted  to  an  attempt 
to  elucidate  the  meaning  of  history  in  terms  of 
race;  that  is,  by  the  physical  and  psychical  char- 
acters of  the  inhabitants  of  Europe  instead  of  by 
their  political  grouping  or  by  their  spoken  lan- 
guage. Practically  all  historians,  while  using  the 
word  race,  have  relied  on  tribal  or  national  names 
as  its  sole  definition.  The  ancients,  like  the  mod- 
erns, in  determining  ethnical  origin  did  not  look 
beyond  a  man's  name,  language  or  country  and 
the  actual  information  furnished  by  classic  lit- 
erature on  the  subject  of  physical  characters  is 
limited  to  a  few  scattered  and  often  obscure 

Modern  anthropology  has  demonstrated  that 
racial  lines  are  not  only  absolutely  independent  of 
both  national  and  linguistic  groupings,  but  that  in 
many  cases  these  racial  lines  cut  through  them  at 
sharp  angles  and  correspond  closely  with  the  divi- 
sions of  social  cleavage.  The  great  lesson  of  the 
science  of  race  is  the  immutability  of  somatological 
or  bodily  characters,  with  which  is  closely  asso- 
ciated the  immutability  of  psychical  predisposi- 
tions  and   impulses.     This   continuity   of   inheri- 


tance  has  a  most  important  bearing  on  the  theory 
of  democracy  and  still  more  upon  that  of  socialism, 
for  it  naturally  tends  to  reduce  the  relative  im- 
portance of  environment.  Those  engaged  in  social 
uplift  and  in  revolutionary  movements  are  there- 
fore usually  very  intolerant  of  the  limitations 
imposed  by  heredity.  Discussion  of  these  limita- 
tions is  also  most  offensive  to  the  advocates  of 
the  obliteration,  under  the  guise  of  international- 
ism, of  all  existing  distinctions  based  on  national- 
ity, language,  race,  religion  and  class.  Those  indi- 
viduals who  have  neither  country,  nor  flag,  nor 
language,  nor  class,  nor  even  surnames  of  their 
own  and  who  can  only  acquire  them  by  gift  or 
assumption,  very  naturally  decry  and  sneer  at  the 
value  of  these  attributes  of  the  higher  types. 

Democratic  theories  of  government  in  their  mod- 
ern form  are  based  on  dogmas  of  equality  formu- 
lated some  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  and  rest 
upon  the  assumption  that  environment  and  not 
heredity  is  the  controlling  factor  in  human  develop- 
ment. Philanthropy  and  noble  purpose  dictated 
the  doctrine  expressed  in  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence, the  document  which  to-day  constitutes 
the  actual  basis  of  American  institutions.  The  men 
who  wrote  the  words,  "we  hold  these  truths  to  be 
self-evident,  that  all  men  are  created  equal,"  were 
themselves  the  owners  of  slaves  and  despised 
Indians  as  something  less  than  human.     Equality 


in  their  minds  meant  merely  that  they  were  just 
as  good  Englishmen  as  their  brothers  across  the 
sea.  The  words  "that  all  men  are  created  equal" 
have  since  been  subtly  falsified  by  adding  the 
word  "free,"  although  no  such  expression  is  found 
in  the  original  document  and  the  teachings  based 
on  these  altered  words  in  the  American  public 
schools  of  to-day  would  startle  and  amaze  the  men 
who  formulated  the  Declaration. 

It  will  be  necessary  for  the  reader  to  divest  his 
mind  of  all  preconceptions  as  to  race,  since  mod- 
ern anthropology,  when  applied  to  history,  involves 
an  entire  change  of  definition.  We  must,  first  of 
all,  realize  that  race  pure  and  simple,  the  physical 
and  psychical  structure  of  man,  is  something  en- 
tirely distinct  from  either  nationality  or  language. 
Furthermore,  race  lies  at  the  base  of  all  the  mani- 
festation of  modern  society,  just  as  it  has  done 
throughout  the  unrecorded  eons  of  the  past  and 
the  laws  of  nature  operate  with  the  same  relentless 
and  unchanging  force  in  human  affairs  as  in  the 
phenomena  of  inanimate  nature. 

The  antiquity  of  existing  European  populations, 
viewed  in  the  light  thrown  upon  their  origins  by 
the  discoveries  of  the  last  few  decades,  enables  us 
to  carry  back  history  and  prehistory  into  periods 
so  remote  that  the  classic  world  is  but  of  yester- 
day. The  living  peoples  of  Europe  consist  of  layer 
upon  layer  of  diverse  racial  elements  in  varying 


proportions  and  historians  and  anthropologists, 
while  studying  these  populations,  have  been  con- 
cerned chiefly  with  the  recent  strata  and  have 
neglected  the  more  ancient  and  submerged  types. 

Aboriginal  populations  from  time  immemorial 
have  been  again  and  again  swamped  under  floods 
of  newcomers  and  have  disappeared  for  a  time 
from  historic  view.  In  the  course  of  centuries, 
however,  these  primitive  elements  have  slowly  re- 
asserted their  physical  type  and  have  gradually  bred 
out  their  conquerors,  so  that  the  racial  history  of 
Europe  has  been  in  the  past,  and  is  to-day,  a  story 
of  the  repression  and  resurgence  of  ancient  races. 

Invasions  of  new  races  have  ordinarily  arrived  in 
successive  waves,  the  earlier  ones  being  quickly 
absorbed  by  the  conquered,  while  the  later  arrivals 
usually  maintain  longer  the  purity  of  their  type. 
Consequently  the  more  recent  elements  are  found 
in  a  less  mixed  state  than  the  older  and  the  more 
primitive  strata  of  the  population  always  contain 
physical  traits  derived  from  still  more  ancient  pred- 

Man  has  inhabited  Europe  in  some  form  or 
other  for  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years  and 
during  all  this  lapse  of  time  the  population  has 
been  as  dense  as  the  food  supply  permitted.  Tribes 
in  the  hunting  stage  are  necessarily  of  small  size, 
no  matter  how  abundant  the  game  and  in  the 
Paleolithic  period  man  probably  existed  only  in 


specially  favorable  localities  and  in  relatively 
small  communities. 

In  the  Neolithic  and  Bronze  periods  domesti- 
cated animals  and  the  knowledge  of  agriculture, 
although  of  primitive  character,  afforded  an  en- 
larged food  supply  and  the  population  in  conse- 
quence greatly  increased.  The  lake  dwellers  of 
the  Neolithic  were,  for  example,  relatively  numer- 
ous. With  the  clearing  of  the  forests  and  the 
draining  of  the  swamps  during  the  Middle  Ages 
and,  above  all,  with  the  industrial  expansion  of 
the  last  century  the  population  multiplied  with 
great  rapidity.  We  can,  of  course,  form  little  or 
no  estimate  of  the  numbers  of  the  Paleolithic 
population  of  Europe  and  not  much  more  of  those 
of  Neolithic  times,  but  even  the  latter  must  have 
been  very  small  in  comparison  with  the  census  of 

Some  conception  of  the  growth  of  population  in 
recent  times  may  be  based  on  the  increase  in  Eng- 
land. It  has  been  computed  that  Saxon  England 
at  the  time  of  the  Conquest  contained  about 
1,500,000  inhabitants,  at  the  time  of  Queen  Eliz- 
abeth the  population  was  about  4,000,000,  while 
in  191 1  the  census  gave  for  the  same  area  some 

The  immense  range  of  the  subject  of  race  in  con- 
nection with  history  from  its  nebulous  dawn  and 
the  limitations  of  space,  require  that  generaliza- 


tions  must  often  be  stated  without  mention  of 
exceptions.  These  sweeping  statements  may  even 
appear  to  be  too  bold,  but  they  rest,  to  the  best  of 
the  writer's  belief,  upon  solid  foundations  of  facts 
or  else  are  legitimate  conclusions  from  evidence 
now  in  hand.  In  a  science  as  recent  as  modern 
anthropology,  new  facts  are  constantly  revealed 
and  require  the  modification  of  existing  hypotheses. 
The  more  the  subject  is  studied,  the  more  pro- 
visional even  the  best-sustained  theory  appears, 
but  modern  research  opens  a  vista  of  vast  interest 
and  significance  to  man,  now  that  we  have  dis- 
carded the  shackles  of  former  false  viewpoints  and 
are  able  to  discern,  even  though  dimly,  the  solu- 
tion of  many  of  the  problems  of  race.  In  the  future 
new  data  will  inevitably  expand  and  perhaps 
change  our  ideas,  but  such  facts  as  are  now  in 
hand  and  the  conclusions  based  thereupon  are 
provisionally  set  forth  in  the  following  chapters 
and  necessarily  often  in  a  dogmatic  form. 

The  statements  relating  to  time  have  presented 
the  greatest  difficulty,  as  the  authorities  differ 
widely,  but  the  dates  have  been  fixed  with  ex- 
treme conservatism  and  the  writer  believes  that 
whatever  changes  in  them  are  hereafter  required 
by  further  investigation  and  study,  will  result  in 
pushing  them  back  and  not  forward  in  prehistory. 
The  dates  given  in  the  chapter  on  "Paleolithic 
Man"   are  frankly  taken  from  the  most  recent 


authority  on  this  subject,  "The  Men  of  the  Old 
Stone  Age,"  by  Prof.  Henry  Fairfield  Osborn  and 
the  writer  desires  to  take  this  opportunity  to 
acknowledge  his  great  indebtedness  to  this  source 
of  information,  as  well  as  to  Mr.  M.  Taylor  Pyne 
and  to  Mr.  Charles  Stewart  Davison  for  their  as- 
sistance and  many  helpful  suggestions. 

The  author  also  wishes  to  acknowledge  his 
obligation  to  Prof.  William  Z.  Ripley's  "The 
Races  of  Europe,"  which  contains  a  large  array  of 
anthropological  measurements,  maps  and  type 
portraits,  providing  valuable  data  for  the  present 
distribution  of  the  three  primary  races  of  Europe. 

The  American  Geographical  Society  and  its 
staff,  particularly  Mr.  Leon  Dominian,  have  also 
been  of  great  help  in  the  preparation  of  the  maps 
herein  contained  and  this  occasion  is  taken  by  the 
writer  to  express  his  appreciation  for  their  assist- 


The  addition  of  a  Documentary  Supplement  to 
the  latest  revision  of  this  book  has  been  made  in  re- 
sponse to  a  persistent  demand  for  "authorities." 

The  author  has  endeavored  to  make  the  references 
and  quotations  in  this  Supplement  very  full  and, 
so  far  as  possible,  interesting  in  themselves  as  well 
as  entirely  distinct  from  the  text,  which  stands 
substantially  unchanged,  and  the  authorities  quoted 
are  not  necessarily  the  sources  of  the  views  herein 
expressed  but  more  often  are  given  in  support  of 
them.  The  contents  of  the  book,  since  its  first 
appearance,  have  had  the  advantage  of  the  criticism 
of  virtually  every  anthropologist  in  America  and  in 
England,  France  and  Italy — many  of  whom  have 
furnished  the  author  with  valuable  corroborative 
material.  Some  of  this  material  appears  in  the 
notes,  but  accessible  authorities  and  the  classical 
writers  have  been  given  the  more  prominent  place. 
The  supplement  covered,  as  first  prepared,  substan- 
tially every  statement  in  the  book,  but  much  was 
afterward  omitted  because  it  would  seem  that  some 
things  could  be  taken  without  proof. 


"The  Passing  of  the  Great  Race,"  in  its  original 
form,  was  designed  by  the  author  to  rouse  his  fellow- 
Americans  to  the  overwhelming  importance  of  race 
and  to  the  folly  of  the  "Melting  Pot"  theory,  even 
at  the  expense  of  bitter  controversy.  This  purpose 
has  been  accomplished  thoroughly,  and  one  of  the 
most  far-reaching  effects  of  the  doctrines  enunciated 
in  this  volume  and  in  the  discussions  that  followed 
its  publication  was  the  decision  of  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States  to  adopt  discriminatory  and  re- 
strictive measures  against  the  immigration  of  unde- 
sirable races  and  peoples. 

Another  of  the  results  has  been  the  publication  in 
America  and  Europe  of  a  series  of  books  and  ar- 
ticles more  or  less  anthropological  in  character 
which  have  sustained  or  controverted  its  main 
theme.  The  new  definition  of  race  and  the  control- 
ling role  played  by  race  in  all  the  manifestations  of 
what  we  call  civilization  are  now  generally  accepted 
even  by  those  whose  political  position  depends  upon 
popular  favor. 

It  was  to  be  expected  that  there  would  be  bitter 
opposition  to  those  definitions  of  race  which  are 
based  on  physical  and  psychical  characters  that  are 
immutable,  rather  than  upon  those  derived  from 
language  or  political  allegiance,  that  are  easily 

To  admit  the  unchangeable  differentiation  of  race 
in  its  modern  scientific  meaning  is  to  admit  inevi- 


tably  the  existence  of  superiority  in  one  race  and  of 
inferiority  in  another.  Such  an  admission  we  can 
hardly  expect  from  those  of  inferior  races.  These 
inferior  races  and  classes  are  prompt  to  recognize 
in  such  an  admission  the  very  real  danger  to 
themselves  of  being  relegated  again  to  their  former 
obscurity  and  subordinate  position  in  society.  The 
favorite  defense  of  these  inferior  classes  is  an  un- 
qualified denial  of  the  existence  of  fixed  inherited 
qualities,  either  physical  or  spiritual,  which  cannot 
be  obliterated  or  greatly  modified  by  a  change 
of  environment.  Failing  in  this,  as  they  must 
necessarily  fail,  they  point  out  the  presence  of 
mixed  or  intermediate  types,  and  claim  that  in 
these  mixtures,  or  blends  as  they  choose  to  call  them, 
the  higher  type  tends  to  predominate.  In  fact,  of 
course,  the  exact  opposite  is  the  case  and  it  is 
scarcely  necessary  to  cite  the  universal  distrust, 
often  contempt,  that  the  half-breed  between  two 
sharply  contrasted  races  inspires  the  world  over. 
Belonging  physically  and  spiritually  to  the  lower 
race,  but  aspiring  to  recognition  as  one  of  the  higher 
race,  the  unfortunate  mongrel,  in  addition  to  a  dis- 
harmonic  physique,  often  inherits  from  one  parent 
an  unstable  brain  which  is  stimulated  and  at  times 
overexcited  by  flashes  of  brilliancy  from  the  other. 
The  result  is  a  total  lack  of  continuity  of  purpose, 
an  intermittent  intellect  goaded  into  spasmodic  out- 
bursts of  energy.    Physical  and  psychical  dishar- 


monies  are  common  among  crosses  between  Indians, 
negroes  and  whites,  but  where  the  parents  are  more 
closely  related  racially  we  often  obtain  individuals  oc- 
cupying the  border-land  between  genius  and  insanity. 

The  essential  character  of  all  these  racial  mixtures 
is  a  lack  of  harmony — both  physical  and  mental — in 
the  first  few  generations.  Then,  if  the  strain  sur- 
vives, it  is  by  the  slow  reversion  to  one  of  the  par- 
ent types — almost  inevitably  the  lower. 

The  temporary  advantage  of  mere  numbers  en- 
joyed by  the  inferior  classes  in  modern  democracies 
can  only  be  made  permanent  by  the  destruction  of 
superior  types — by  massacre,  as  in  Russia,  or  by  taxa- 
tion, as  in  England.  In  the  latter  country  the  finan- 
cial burdens  of  the  war  and  the  selfish  interests  of 
labor  have  imposed  such  a  load  of  taxation  upon 
the  upper  and  middle  classes  that  marriage  and  chil- 
dren are  becoming  increasingly  burdensome. 

The  best  example  of  complete  elimination  of  a 
dominant  class  is  in  Santo  Domingo.  The  horrors 
of  the  black  revolt  were  followed  by  the  slow  death 
of  the  culture  of  the  white  man.  This  history  should 
be  studied  carefully  because  it  gives  in  prophetic 
form  the  sequence  of  events  that  we  may  expect  to 
find  in  Mexico  and  in  parts  of  South  America  where 
the  replacement  of  the  higher  type  by  the  resurgent 
native  is  taking  place. 

In  the  countries  inhabited  by  a  population  more 
or  less  racially  uniform  the  phenomenon  of  the  mul- 


tiplication  of  the  inferior  classes  fostered  and  aided 
by  the  noble  but  fatuous  philanthropy  of  the  well- 
to-do  everywhere  appears.  Nature's  laws  when 
unchecked  maintain  a  relatively  fixed  ratio  between 
the  classes,  which  is  greatly  impaired  in  modern 
society  by  humanitarian  and  charitable  activities. 
The  resurgence  of  inferior  races  and  classes  through- 
out not  merely  Europe  but  the  world,  is  evident  in 
every  despatch  from  Egypt,  Ireland,  Poland,  Ru- 
mania, India  and  Mexico.  It  is  called  nationalism, 
patriotism,  freedom  and  other  high-sounding  names, 
but  it  is  everywhere  the  phenomenon  of  the  long- 
suppressed,  conquered  servile  classes  rising  against 
the  master  race.  The  late  Peloponnesian  War  in  the 
world  at  large,  like  the  Civil  War  in  America,  has 
shattered  the  prestige  of  the  white  race  and  it  will 
take  several  generations  and  perhaps  wars  to  re- 
cover its  former  control,  if  it  ever  does  regain  it. 
The  danger  is  from  within  and  not  from  without. 
Neither  the  black,  nor  the  brown,  nor  the  yellow,  nor 
the  red  will  conquer  the  white  in  battle.  But  if  the 
valuable  elements  in  the  Nordic  race  mix  with  in- 
ferior strains  or  die  out  through  race  suicide,  then 
the  citadel  of  civilization  will  fall  for  mere  lack  of 

One  of  the  curious  effects  of  democracy  is  the 
unquestionable  fact  that  there  is  less  freedom  of  the 
press  than  under  autocratic  forms  of  government. 
It  is  well-nigh  impossible  to  publish  in  the  Amer- 


ican  newspapers  any  reflection  upon  certain  religions 
or  races  which  are  hysterically  sensitive  even  when 
mentioned  by  name.  The  underlying  idea  seems 
to  be  that  if  publication  can  be  suppressed  the  facts 
themselves  will  ultimately  disappear.  Abroad,  con- 
ditions are  fully  as  bad,  and  we  have  the  authority 
of  one  of  the  most  eminent  anthropologists  in  France 
that  the  collection  of  anthropological  measurements 
and  data  among  French  recruits  at  the  outbreak  of 
the  Great  War  was  prevented  by  Jewish  influence, 
which  aimed  to  suppress  any  suggestion  of  racial 
differentiation  in  France.  In  the  United  States  also, 
during  the  war,  we  were  unable  to  obtain  complete 
measurements  and  data,  in  spite  of  the  self-devo- 
tion of  certain  scientists,  like  Drs.  Davenport,  Sulli- 
van and  others.  This  failure  was  due  to  lack  of  time 
and  equipment  and  not  to  racial  influences,  but  in 
the  near  future  we  may  confidently  expect  in  this 
country  strenuous  opposition  to  any  public  discus- 
sion of  race  as  such. 

The  rapidly  growing  appreciation  of  the  impor- 
tance of  race  during  the  last  few  years,  the  study  of 
the  influence  of  race  on  nationality  as  shown  by  the 
after-war  disputes  over  boundaries,  the  increasing 
complexity  of  our  own  problems  between  the  whites 
and  blacks,  between  the  Americans  and  Japs,  and 
between  the  native  Americans  and  the  hyphenated 
aliens  in  our  midst  upon  whom  we  have  carelessly 
urged  citizenship,  and,  above  all,  the  recognition 


that  the  leaders  of  labor  and  their  more  zealous  fol- 
lowers are  almost  all  foreigners,  have  served  to  arouse 
Americans  to  a  realization  of  the  menace  of  the  im- 
pending Migration  of  Peoples  through  unrestrained 
freedom  of  entry  here.  The  days  of  the  Civil  War 
and  the  provincial  sentimentalism  which  governed  or 
misgoverned  our  public  opinion  are  past,  and  this 
generation  must  completely  repudiate  the  proud 
boast  of  our  fathers  that  they  acknowledged  no 
distinction  in  "race,  creed,  or  color,"  or  else  the  na- 
tive* American  must  turn  the  page  of  history  and 






Failure  to  recognize  the  clear  distinction  be- 
tween race  and  nationality  and  the  still  greater 
distinction  between  race  and  language  and  the  easy 
assumption  that  the  one  is  indicative  of  the  other 
have  been  in  the  past  serious  impediments  to  an 
understanding  of  racial  values.  Historians  and 
philologists  have  approached  the  subject  from  the 
viewpoint  of  linguistics  and  as  a  result  we  are 
to-day  burdened  with  a  group  of  mythical  races, 
such  as  the  Latin,  the  Aryan,  the  Indo- Germanic, 
the  Caucasian  and,  perhaps,  most  inconsistent  of 
all,  the  Celtic  race. 

Man  is  an  animal  differing  from  his  fellow  in- 
habitants of  the  globe  not  in  kind  but  only  in 
degree  of  development  and  an  intelligent  study  of 
the  human  species  must  be  preceded  by  an  extended 
knowledge  of  other  mammals,  especially  the  pri- 
mates. Instead  of  such  essential  training,  an- 
thropologists often  seek  to  qualify  by  research 
in  linguistics,  religion  or  marriage  customs  or  in 
designs  of  pottery  or  blanket  weaving,  all  of  which 
relate  to  ethnology  alone.     As  a  result  the  influence 



of  environment  is  often  overestimated  and  over- 
stated at  the  expense  of  heredity. 

The  question  of  race  has  been  further  com- 
plicated by  the  effort  of  old-fashioned  theologians 
to  cramp  all  mankind  into  the  scant  six  thousand 
years  of  Hebrew  chronology  as  expounded  by  Arch- 
bishop Ussher.  Religious  teachers  have  also  main- 
tained the  proposition  not  only  that  man  is  some- 
thing fundamentally  distinct  from  other  living 
creatures,  but  that  there  are  no  inherited  dif- 
ferences in  humanity  that  cannot  be  obliterated 
by  education  and  environment. 

It  is,  therefore,  necessary  at  the  outset  for  the 
reader  to  appreciate  thoroughly  that  race,  lan- 
guage and  nationality  are  three  separate  and 
distinct  things  and  that  in  Europe  these  three 
elements  are  found  only  occasionally  persisting 
in  combination,  as  in  the  Scandinavian  nations. 

To  realize  the  transitory  nature  of  political 
boundaries  one  has  but  to  consider  the  changes 
which  have  occurred  during  the  past  century 
and  as  to  language,  here  in  America  we  hear  daily 
the  English  language  spoken  by  many  men  who 
possess  not  one  drop  of  English  blood  and  who,  a 
few  years  since,  knew  not  one  word  of  Saxon  speech. 

As  a  result  of  certain  religious  and  social 
doctrines,  now  happily  becoming  obsolete,  race 
consciousness  has  been  greatly  impaired  among 
civilized  nations  but  in  the  beginning  all  differ- 


ences  of  class,  of  caste  and  of  color  marked  actual 
lines  of  race  cleavage. 

In  many  countries  the  existing  classes  rep- 
resent races  that  were  once  distinct.  In  the  city 
of  New  York  and  elsewhere  in  the  United  States 
there  is  a  native  American  aristocracy  resting  upon 
layer  after  layer  of  immigrants  of  lower  races 
and  these  native  Americans,  while,  of  course,  dis- 
claiming the  distinction  of  a  patrician  class  and 
lacking  in  class  consciousness  and  class  dignity, 
have,  nevertheless,  up  to  this  time  supplied  the 
leaders  in  thought  and  in  the  control  of  capital  as 
well  as  of  education  and  of  the  religious  ideals  and 
altruistic  bias  of  the  community. 

In  the  democratic  forms  of  government  the 
operation  of  universal  suffrage  tends  toward  the 
selection  of  the  average  man  for  public  office  rather 
than  the  man  qualified  by  birth,  education  and 
integrity.  How  this  scheme  of  administration 
will  ultimately  work  out  remains  to  be  seen  but 
from  a  racial  point  of  view  it  will  inevitably  in- 
crease the  preponderance  of  the  lower  types  and 
cause  a  corresponding  loss  of  efficiency  in  the 
community  as  a  whole. 

The  tendency  in  a  democracy  is  toward  a  stand- 
ardization of  type  and  a  diminution  of  the  in- 
fluence of  genius.  A  majority  must  of  necessity 
be  inferior  to  a  picked  minority  and  it  always 
resents  specializations  in  which  it  cannot  share. 


In  the  French  Revolution  the  majority,  calling 
itself  "the  people,"  deliberately  endeavored  to 
destroy  the  higher  type  and  something  of  the 
same  sort  was  in  a  measure  done  after  the  Amer- 
ican Revolution  by  the  expulsion  of  the  Loyalists 
and  the  confiscation  of  their  lands,  with  a  resultant 
loss  to  the  growing  nation  of  good  race  strains, 
which  were  in  the  next  century  replaced  by  immi- 
grants of  far  lower  type. 

In  America  we  have  nearly  succeeded  in  de- 
stroying the  privilege  of  birth;  that  is,  the  intellec- 
tual and  moral  advantage  a  man  of  good  stock 
brings  into  the  world  with  him.  We  are  now  en- 
gaged in  destroying  the  privilege  of  wealth;  that 
is,  the  reward  of  successful  intelligence  and  in- 
dustry and  in  some  quarters  there  is  developing 
a  tendency  to  attack  the  privilege  of  intellect 
and  to  deprive  a  man  of  the  advantage  gained  from 
an  early  and  thorough  classical  education.  Simpli- 
fied spelling  is  a  step  in  this  direction.  Ignorance 
of  English  grammar  or  classic  learning  must  not, 
forsooth,  be  held  up  as  a  reproach  to  the  political 
or  social  aspirant. 

Mankind  emerged  from  savagery  and  barbar- 
ism under  the  leadership  of  selected  individuals 
whose  personal  prowess,  capacity  or  wisdom  gave 
them  the  right  to  lead  and  the  power  to  compel 
obedience.  Such  leaders  have  always  been  a  mi- 
nute fraction  of  the  whole,  but  as  long  as  the 


tradition  of  their  predominance  persisted  they  were 
able  to  use  the  brute  strength  of  the  unthinking 
herd  as  part  of  their  own  force  and  were  able  to 
direct  at  will  the  blind  dynamic  impulse  of  the 
slaves,  peasants  or  lower  classes.  Such  a  despot 
had  an  enormous  power  at  his  disposal  which,  if 
he  were  benevolent  or  even  intelligent,  could  be 
used  and  most  frequently  was  used  for  the  general 
uplift  of  the  race.  Even  those  rulers  who  most 
abused  this  power  put  down  with  merciless  rigor 
the  antisocial  elements,  such  as  pirates,  brigands 
or  anarchists,  which  impair  the  progress  of  a  com- 
munity, as  disease  or  wounds  cripple  an  individual. 
True  aristocracy  or  a  true  republic  is  govern- 
ment by  the  wisest  and  best,  always  a  small  mi- 
nority in  any  population.  Human  society  is  like 
a  serpent  dragging  its  long  body  on  the  ground, 
but  with  the  head  always  thrust  a  little  in  advance 
and  a  little  elevated  above  the  earth.  The  ser- 
pent's tail,  in  human  society  represented  by  the 
antisocial  forces,  was  in  the  past  dragged  by 
sheer  strength  along  the  path  of  progress.  Such  has 
been  the  organization  of  mankind  from  the  begin- 
ning, and  such  it  still  is  in  older  communities  than 
ours.  What  progress  humanity  can  make  under 
the  control  of  universal  suffrage,  or  the  rule  of  the 
average,  may  find  a  further  analogy  in  the  habits  of 
certain  snakes  which  wiggle  sideways  and  dis- 
regard the  head  with  its  brains  and  eyes.     Such 


serpents,  however,  are  not  noted  for  their  ability 
to  make  rapid  progress. 

A  true  republic,  the  function  of  which  is  ad- 
ministration in  the  interests  of  the  whole  com- 
munity— in  contrast  to  a  pure  democracy,  which  in 
last  analysis  is  the  rule  of  the  demos  or  a  majority 
in  its  own  interests — should  be,  and  often  is,  the 
medium  of  selection  for  the  technical  task  of 
government  of  those  best  qualified  by  antecedents, 
character  and  education,  in  short,  of  experts. 

To  use  another  simile,  in  an  aristocratic  as 
distinguished  from  a  plutocratic  or  democratic 
organization  the  intellectual  and  talented  classes 
form  the  point  of  the  lance  while  the  massive 
shaft  represents  the  body  of  the  population  and 
adds  by  its  bulk  and  weight  to  the  penetrative 
impact  of  the  tip.  In  a  democratic  system  this 
concentrated  force  is  dispersed  throughout  the 
mass.  It  supplies,  to  be  sure,  a  certain  amount 
of  leaven  but  in  the  long  run  the  force  and  genius 
of  the  small  minority  is  dissipated,  and  its  effi- 
ciency lost.  Vox  populi,  so  far  from  being  Vox 
Dei,  thus  becomes  an  unending  wail  for  rights  and 
never  a  chant  of  duty. 

Where  a  conquering  race  is  imposed  on  another 
race  the  institution  of  slavery  often  arises  to  com- 
pel the  servient  race  to  work  and  to  introduce 
it  forcibly  to  a  higher  form  of  civilization.  As 
soon  as  men  can  be  induced  to  labor  to  supply 


their  own  needs  slavery  becomes  wasteful  and 
tends  to  vanish.  From  a  material  point  of  view 
slaves  are  often  more  fortunate  than  freemen  when 
treated  with  reasonable  humanity  and  when  their 
elemental  wants  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter  are 

The  Indians  around  the  fur  posts  in  northern 
Canada  were  formerly  the  virtual  bond  slaves  of 
the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  each  Indian  and  his 
squaw  and  pappoose  being  adequately  supplied 
with  simple  food  and  equipment.  He  was  pro- 
tected as  well  against  the  white  man's  rum  as  the 
red  man's  scalping  parties  and  in  return  gave  the 
Company  all  his  peltries — the  whole  product  of  his 
year's  work.  From  an  Indian's  point  of  view  this 
was  nearly  an  ideal  condition  but  was  to  all  in- 
tents serfdom  or  slavery.  When  through  the  open- 
ing up  of  the  country  the  continuance  of  such  an 
archaic  system  became  an  impossibility,  the  Indian 
sold  his  furs  to  the  highest  bidder,  received  a  large 
price  in  cash  and  then  wasted  the  proceeds  in 
trinkets  instead  of  blankets  and  in  rum  instead  of 
flour,  with  the  result  that  he  is  now  gloriously  free 
but  is  on  the  highroad  to  becoming  a  diseased  out- 
cast. In  this  case  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Indian  the 
advantages  of  the  upward  step  from  serfdom  to 
freedom  are  not  altogether  clear.  A  very  similar 
condition  of  vassalage  existed  until  recently  among 
the  peons  of  Mexico,  but  without  the  compensa- 


tion  of  the  control  of  an  intelligent  and  provident 
ruling  class. 

In  the  same  way  serfdom  in  mediaeval  Europe 
apparently  was  a  device  through  which  the  land- 
owners repressed  the  nomadic  instinct  in  their 
tenantry  which  became  marked  when  the  fertility 
of  the  land  declined  after  the  dissolution  of  the 
Roman  Empire.  Years  are  required  to  bring  land 
to  its  highest  productivity  and  agriculture  cannot 
be  successfully  practised  even  in  well-watered  and 
fertile  districts  by  farmers  who  continually  drift 
from  one  locality  to  another.  The  serf  or  villein 
was,  therefore,  tied  by  law  to  the  land  and  could 
not  leave  except  with  his  master's  consent.  As 
soon  as  the  nomadic  instinct  was  eliminated 
serfdom  vanished.  One  has  but  to  read  the 
severe  laws  against  vagrancy  in  England  just 
before  the  Reformation  to  realize  how  wide- 
spread and  serious  was  this  nomadic  instinct. 
Here  in  America  we  have  not  yet  forgotten  the 
wandering  instincts  of  our  Western  pioneers,  which 
in  that  case  proved  beneficial  to  every  one  except 
the  migrants. 

While  democracy  is  fatal  to  progress  when  two 
races  of  unequal  value  live  side  by  side,  an  aris- 
tocracy may  be  equally  injurious  whenever,  in 
order  to  purchase  a  few  generations  of  ease  and 
luxury,  slaves  or  immigrants  are  imported  to  do  the 
heavy  work.     It  was  a  form  of  aristocracy  that 


brought  slaves  to  the  American  colonies  and  the 
West  Indies  and  if  there  had  been  an  aristocratic 
form  of  governmental  control  in  California,  Chinese 
coolies  and  Japanese  laborers  would  now  form  the 
controlling  element,  so  far  as  numbers  are  con- 
cerned, on  the  Pacific  coast. 

It  was  the  upper  classes  who  encouraged  the 
introduction  of  immigrant  labor  to  work  American 
factories  and  mines  and  it  is  the  native  American 
gentleman  who  builds  a  palace  on  the  country  side 
and  who  introduces  as  servants  all  manner  of 
foreigners  into  purely  American  districts.  The 
farming  and  artisan  classes  of  America  did  not 
take  alarm  until  it  was  too  late  and  they  are  now 
seriously  threatened  with  extermination  in  many 
parts  of  the  country.  In  Rome,  also,  it  was  the  ple- 
beian, who  first  went  under  in  the  competition  with 
slaves  but  the  patrician  followed  in  his  turn  a  few 
generations  later. 

The  West  Indian  sugar  planters  flourished  in  the 
eighteenth  century  and  produced  some  strong 
men;  to-day  from  the  same  causes  they  have  van- 
ished from  the  scene. 

During  the  last  century  the  New  England  manu- 
facturer imported  the  Irish  and  French  Canadians 
and  the  resultant  fall  in  the  New  England  birth- 
rate at  once  became  ominous.  The  refusal  of  the 
native  American  to  work  with  his  hands  when  he 
can  hire  or  import  serfs  to  do  manual  labor  for  him 


is  the  prelude  to  his  extinction  and  the  immigrant 
laborers  are  now  breeding  out  their  masters  and 
killing  by  filth  and  by  crowding  as  effectively  as  by 
the  sword. 

Thus  the  American  sold  his  birthright  in  a  con- 
tinent to  solve  a  labor  problem.  Instead  of  re- 
taining political  control  and  making  citizenship  an 
honorable  and  valued  privilege,  he  intrusted  the 
government  of  his  country  and  the  maintenance  of 
his  ideals  to  races  who  have  never  yet  succeeded  in 
governing  themselves,  much  less  any  one  else. 

Associated  with  this  advance  of  democracy  and 
the  transfer  of  power  from  the  higher  to  the  lower 
races,  from  the  intellectual  to  the  plebeian  class,  we 
find  the  spread  of  socialism  and  the  recrudescence 
of  obsolete  religious  forms.  Although  these  phe- 
nomena appear  to  be  contradictory,  they  are  in  real- 
ity closely  related  since  both  represent  reactions 
from  the  intense  individualism  which  a  century 
ago  was  eminently  characteristic  of  Americans. 



In  the  modern  and  scientific  study  of  race  we 
have  long  since  discarded  the  Adamic  theory  that 
man  is  descended  from  a  single  pair,  created  a  few 
thousand  years  ago  in  a  mythical  Garden  of  Eden 
somewhere  in  Asia,  to  spread  later  over  the  earth 
in  successive  waves. 

It  is  a  fact,  however,  that  Asia  was  the  chief 
area  of  evolution  and  differentiation  of  man  and 
that  the  various  groups  had  their  main  development 
there  and  not  on  the  peninsula  we  call  Europe. 

Many  of  the  races  of  Europe,  both  living  and 
extinct,  did  come  from  the  East  through  Asia 
Minor  or  by  way  of  the  African  littoral,  but  most 
of  the  direct  ancestors  of  existing  populations 
have  inhabited  Europe  for  many  thousands  of 
years.  During  that  time  numerous  races  of  men 
have  passed  over  the  scene.  Some  undoubtedly 
have  utterly  vanished  and  some  have  left  their 
blood  behind  them  in  the  Europeans  of  to-day. 

We  now  know,  since  the  elaboration  of  the 
Mendelian  Laws  of  Inheritance,  that  certain  bodfr^ 
characters,  such  as  skull  shape,  stature,  eye  color, 
hair  color  and  nose  form,  some  of  which  are  so« 



called  unit  characters,  are  transmitted  in  accordance 
with  fixed  laws,  and,  further,  that  various  char- 
acters which  are  normally  correlated  or  linked 
together  in  pure  races  may,  after  a  prolonged 
admixture  of  races,  pass  down  separately  and 
form  what  is  known  as  disharmonic  combinations. 
Such  disharmonic  combinations  are,  for  example,  a 
tall  brunet  or  a  short  blond;  blue  eyes  associated 
with  brunet  hair  or  brown  eyes  with  blond  hair. 

The  process  of  intermixture  of  characters  has 
gone  far  in  existing  populations  and  through  the 
ease  of  modern  methods  of  transportation  this 
process  is  going  much  further  in  Europe  and  in 
America.  The  results  of  such  mixture  are  not 
blends  or  intermediate  types,  but  rather  mosaics 
of  contrasted  characters.  Such  blends,  if  any,  as 
ultimately  occur  are  too  remote  to  concern  us  here. 

The  crossing  of  an  individual  of  pure  brunet  race 
with  an  individual  of  pure  blond  race  produces  in 
the  first  generation  offspring  which  are  distinctly 
dark.  In  subsequent  generations,  brunets  and 
blonds  appear  in  various  proportions  but  the  former 
tend  to  be  much  the  more  numerous.  The  blond  is 
consequently  said  to  be  recessive  to  the  brunet  be- 
cause it  recedes  from  view  in  the  first  generation. 
This  or  any  similar  recessive  or  suppressed  trait  is 
not  lost  to  the  germ  plasm,  but  reappears  in  later 
generations  of  the  hybridized  stock.  A  similar  rule 
prevails  with  other  physical  characters. 


In  denning  race  in  Europe  it  is  necessary  not 
only  to  consider  pure  groups  or  pure  types  but 
also  the  distribution  of  characters  belonging  to 
each  particular  subspecies  of  man  found  there. 
The  interbreeding  of  these  populations  has  pro- 
gressed to  such  an  extent  that  in  many  cases  such 
an  analysis  of  physical  characters  is  necessary  to 
reconstruct  the  elements  which  have  entered  into 
their  ethnic  composition.  To  rely  on  averages 
alone  leads  to  misunderstanding  and  to  disregard 
of  the  relative  proportion  of  pure,  as  contrasted 
with  mixed  types. 

Sometimes  we  find  a  character  appearing  here 
and  there  as  the  sole  remnant  of  a  once  numer- 
ous race,  for  example,  the  rare  appearance  in 
European  populations  of  a  skull  of  the  Neander- 
thal type,  a  race  widely  spread  over  Europe  40,000 
years  ago,  or  of  the  Cro-Magnon  type,  the  pre- 
dominant race  16,000  years  ago.  Before  the  fossil 
remains  of  the  Neanderthal  and  Cro-Magnon  races 
were  studied  and  understood  such  reversional 
specimens  were  considered  pathological,  instead 
of  being  recognized  as  the  reappearance  of  an 
ancient  and  submerged  type. 

These  physical  characters  are  to  all  intents  and 
purposes  immutable  and  they  do  not  change  dur- 
ing the  lifetime  of  a  language  or  an  empire.  The 
skull  shape  of  the  Egyptian  fellaheen,  in  the  un- 
changing   environment    of    the    Nile    Valley,    is 


absolutely  identical  in  measurements,  proportions 
and  capacity  with  skulls  found  in  the  predy- 
nastic  tombs  dating  back  more  than  six  thousand 

There  exists  to-day  a  widespread  and  fatuous 
belief  in  the  power  of  environment,  as  well  as  of 
education  and  opportunity  to  alter  heredity,  which 
arises  from  the  dogma  of  the  brotherhood  of  man, 
derived  in  its  turn  from  the  loose  thinkers  of  the 
French  Revolution  and  their  American  mimics. 
Such  beliefs  have  done  much  damage  in  the  past 
and  if  allowed  to  go  uncontradicted,  may  do  even 
more  serious  damage  in  the  future.  Thus  the  view 
that  the  Negro  slave  was  an  unfortunate  cousin 
of  the  white  man,  deeply  tanned  by  the  tropic 
sun  and  denied  the  blessings  of  Christianity  and 
civilization,  played  no  small  part  with  the  senti- 
mentalists of  the  Civil  War  period  and  it  has 
taken  us  fifty  years  to  learn  that  speaking  English, 
wearing  good  clothes  and  going  to  school  and  to 
church  do  not  transform  a  Negro  into  a  white 
man.  Nor  was  a  Syrian  or  Egyptian  freedman 
transformed  into  a  Roman  by  wearing  a  toga  and 
applauding  his  favorite  gladiator  in  the  amphi- 
theatre. Americans  will  have  a  similar  experience 
with  the  Polish  Jew,  whose  dwarf  stature,  peculiar 
mentality  and  ruthless  concentration  on  self-in- 
terest are  being  engrafted  upon  the  stock  of  the 


Recent  attempts  have  been  made  in  the  in- 
terest of  inferior  races  among  our  immigrants  to 
show  that  the  shape  of  the  skull  does  change,  not 
merely  in  a  century,  but  in  a  single  generation. 
In  1 9 10,  the  report  of  the  anthropological  expert 
of  the  Congressional  Immigration  Commission 
gravely  declared  that  a  round  skull  Jew  on  his  way 
across  the  Atlantic  might  and  did  have  a  round 
skull  child;  but  a  few  years  later,  in  response  to 
the  subtle  elixir  of  American  institutions  as  ex- 
emplified in  an  East  Side  tenement,  might  and 
did  have  a  child  whose  skull  was  appreciably 
longer;  and  that  a  long  skull  south  Italian,  breed- 
ing freely,  would  have  precisely  the  same  experi- 
ence in  the  reverse  direction.  In  other  words  the 
Melting  Pot  was  acting  instantly  under  the  in- 
fluence of  a  changed  environment. 

What  the  Melting  Pot  actually  does  in  prac- 
tice can  be  seen  in  Mexico,  where  the  absorption 
of  the  blood  of  the  original  Spanish  conquerors 
by  the  native  Indian  population  has  produced 
the  racial  mixture  which  we  call  Mexican  and 
which  is  now  engaged  in  demonstrating  its  inca- 
pacity for  self-government.  The  world  has  seen 
many  such  mixtures  and  the  character  of  a  mon- 
grel race  is  only  just  beginning  to  be  understood 
at  its  true  value. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  specializa- 
tions which  characterize  the  higher  races  are  of 


relatively  recent  development,  are  highly  unstable 
and  when  mixed  with  generalized  or  primitive 
characters  tend  to  disappear.  Whether  we  like 
to  admit  it  or  not,  the  result  of  the  mixture  of 
two  races,  in  the  long  run,  gives  us  a  race  re- 
verting to  the  more  ancient,  generalized  and  lower 
type.  The  cross  between  a  white  man  and  an  In- 
dian is  an  Indian;  the  cross  between  a  white  man 
and  a  Negro  is  a  Negro;  the  cross  between  a  white 
man  and  a  Hindu  is  a  Hindu;  and  the  cross  be- 
tween any  of  the  three  European  races  and  a  Jew 
is  a  Jew. 

In  the  crossing  of  the  blond  and  brunet  ele- 
ments of  a  population,  the  more  deeply  rooted 
and  ancient  dark  traits  are  prepotent  or  dominant. 
This  is  matter  of  every-day  observation  and  the 
working  of  this  law  of  nature  is  not  influenced  or 
affected  by  democratic  institutions  or  by  religious 
beliefs.  Nature  cares  not  for  the  individual  nor 
how  he  may  be  modified  by  environment.  She 
is  concerned  only  with  the  perpetuation  of  the  spe- 
cies or  type  and  heredity  alone  is  the  medium 
through  which  she  acts. 

As  measured  in  terms  of  centuries  these  char- 
acters are  fixed  and  rigid  and  the  only  benefit  to  be 
derived  from  a  changed  environment  and  better 
food  conditions  is  the  opportunity  afforded  a 
race  which  has  lived  under  adverse  conditions 
to  achieve  its    maximum    development   but    the 


limits  of  that  development  are  fixed  for  it  by 
heredity  and  not  by  environment. 

In  dealing  with  European  populations  the  best 
method  of  determining  race  has  been  found  to  lie 
in  a  comparison  of  proportions  of  the  skull,  the  so- 
called  cephalic  index.  This  is  the  ratio  of  maximum 
width,  taken  at  the  widest  part  of  the  skull  above 
the  ears,  to  maximum  length.  Skulls  with  an  index 
of  75  or  less,  that  is,  those  with  a  width  that  is  three- 
fourths  of  the  length  or  less,  are  considered  doli- 
chocephalic or  long  skulls.  Skulls  of  an  index  of 
80  or  over  are  round  or  brachycephalic  skulls. 
Intermediate  indices,  between  75  and  80,  are  con- 
sidered mesaticephalic.  These  are  cranial  indices. 
To  allow  for  the  flesh  on  living  specimens  about 
two  per  cent  is  to  be  added  to  this  index  and  the 
result  is  the  cephalic  index.  In  the  following 
pages  only  long  and  round  skulls  are  considered 
and  the  intermediate  forms  are  assigned  to  the 
dolichocephalic  group. 

This  cephalic  index,  though  an  extremely  im- 
portant if  not  the  controlling  character,  is,  never- 
theless, but  a  single  character  and  must  be  checked 
up  with  other  somatological  traits.  Normally,  a 
long  skull  is  associated  with  a  long  face  and  a 
round  skull  with  a  round  face 

The  use  of  this  test,  the  cephalic  index,  enables 
us  to  divide  the  great  bulk  of  the  European  pop- 
ulations  into   three   distinct   subspecies   of   man, 


one  northern  and  one  southern,  both  dolicho- 
cephalic or  characterized  by  a  long  skull  and  a 
central  subspecies  which  is  brachycephalic  or  char- 
acterized by  a  round  skull. 

The  first  is  the  Nordic  or  Baltic  subspecies.  This 
race  is  long  skulled,  very  tall,  fair  skinned  with 
blond  or  brown  hair  and  light  colored  eyes.  The 
Nordics  inhabit  the  countries  around  the  North 
and  Baltic  Seas  and  include  not  only  the  great 
Scandinavian  and  Teutonic  groups,  but  also  other 
early  peoples  who  first  appear  in  southern  Europe 
and  in  Asia  as  representatives  of  Aryan  language 
and  culture. 

The  second  is  the  dark  Mediterranean  or  Iberian 
subspecies,  occupying  the  shores  of  the  inland  sea 
and  extending  along  the  Atlantic  coast  until  it 
reaches  the  Nordic  species.  It  also  spreads  far 
east  into  southern  Asia.  It  is  long  skulled  like 
the  Nordic  race  but  the  absolute  size  of  the  skull 
is  less.  The  eyes  and  hair  are  very  dark  or  black 
and  the  skin  more  or  less  swarthy.  The  stature  is 
distinctly  less  than  that  of  the  Nordic  race  and  the 
musculature  and  bony  framework  weak. 

The  third  is  the  Alpine  subspecies  occupying 
all  central  and  eastern  Europe  and  extending 
through  Asia  Minor  to  the  Hindu  Kush  and  the 
Pamirs.  The  Armenoids  constitute  an  Alpine  sub- 
division and  may  possibly  represent  the  ancestral 
type  of  this  race  which  remained  in  the  mouu- 


tains  and  high  plateaux  of  Anatolia  and  western 

The  Alpines  are  round  skulled,  of  medium 
height  and  sturdy  build  both  as  to  skeleton  and 
muscles.  The  coloration  of  both  hair  and  eyes  was 
originally  very  dark  and  still  tends  strongly  in  that 
direction  but  many  light  colored  eyes,  especially 
gray,  are  now  common  among  the  Alpine  popula- 
tions of  western  Europe. 

While  the  inhabitants  of  Europe  betray  as  a 
whole  their  mixed  origin,  nevertheless,  individuals' 
of  each  of  the  three  main  subspecies  are  found  in 
large  numbers  and  in  great  purity,  as  well  as  sparse 
remnants  of  still  more  ancient  races  represented 
by  small  groups  or  by  individuals  and  even  by 
single  characters. 

These  three  main  groups  have  bodily  characters 
which  constitute  them  distinct  subspecies.  Each 
group  is  a  large  one  and  includes  several  well- 
marked  varieties,  which  differ  even  more  widely 
in  cultural  development  than  in  physical  diver- 
gence so  that  when  the  Mediterranean  of  England 
is  compared  with  the  Hindu,  or  the  Alpine  Savoy- 
ard with  the  Rumanian  or  Turcoman,  a  wide  gulf 
is  found. 

In  zoology,  related  species  when  grouped  to- 
gether constitute  subgenera  and  genera  and  the 
term  species  implies  the  existence  of  a  certain 
definite  amount  of  divergence  from  the  most  closely 


related  type  but  race  does  not  require  a  similar 
amount  of  difference.  In  man,  where  all  groups 
are  more  or  less  fertile  when  crossed,  so  many- 
intermediate  or  mixed  types  occur  that  the  word 
species  has  at  the  present  day  too  extended  a 

For  the  sake  of  clearness  the  word  race  and 
not  the  word  species  or  subspecies  will  be  used  in 
the  following  chapters  as  far  as  possible. 

The  old  idea  that  fertility  or  infertility  of  races 
of  animals  was  the  measure  of  species  is  now 
abandoned.  One  of  the  greatest  difficulties  in 
classifying  man  is  his  perverse  predisposition  to 
mismate.  This  is  a  matter  of  daily  observation, 
especially  among  the  women  of  the  better  classes, 
*  probably  because  of  their  wider  range  of  choice. 

There  must  have  existed  many  subspecies  and 
species,  if  not  genera,  of  men  since  the  Pliocene  and 
new  discoveries  of  their  remains  may  be  expected 
at  any  time  and  in  any  part  of  the  eastern  hemi- 

The  cephalic  index  is  of  less  value  in  the  classi- 
fication of  Asiatic  populations  but  the  distribu- 
tion of  round  and  long  skulls  is  similar  to  that  in 
Europe.  The  vast  central  plateau  of  that  con- 
tinent is  inhabited  by  round  skulls.  In  fact,  Thibet 
and  the  western  Himalayas  were  probably  the 
centre  of  radiation  of  all  the  round  skulls  of  the 
world.     In  India  and  Persia  south  of  this  central 


area  occurs  a  long  skull  race  related  to  Mediter- 
ranean man  in  Europe. 

Both  skull  types  occur  much  intermixed  among 
the  American  Indians  and  the  cephalic  index  is 
of  little  value  in  classifying  the  Amerinds.  No 
satisfactory  explanation  of  the  variability  of  the 
skull  shape  in  the  western  hemisphere  has  as  yet 
been  found,  but  the  total  range  of  variation  of 
physical  characters  among  them,  from  northern 
Canada  to  southern  Patagonia,  is  less  than  the 
range  of  such  variation  from  Normandy  to  Provence 
in  France. 

In  Africa  the  cephalic  index  is  also  of  small 
classification  value  because  all  of  the  populations 
are  characterized  by  a  long  skull. 

The  distinction  between  a  long  skull  and  a 
round  skull  in  mankind  probably  goes  back  at 
least  to  early  Paleolithic  times,  if  not  to  a  period 
still  more  remote.  It  is  of  such  great  antiquity 
that  when  new  species  or  races  appear  in  Europe 
at  the  close  of  the  Paleolithic,  between  10,000  and 
7,000  years  B.  C,  the  skull  characters  among 
them  are  as  clearly  defined  as  they  are  to-day. 

The  fact  that  two  distinct  species  of  mankind 
have  long  skulls,  as  have  the  north  European  and 
the  African  Negro,  is  no  necessary  indication  of 
relationship  and  in  that  instance  is  merely  a  case 
of  parallel  specialization,  but  the  fact,  however,  that 
the  Swede  has  a  long  skull  and  the  Savoyard  a 


round  skull  does  prove  them  to  be  racially  dis- 

The  claim  that  the  Nordic  race  is  a  mere  vari- 
ation of  the  Mediterranean  race  and  that  the  lat- 
ter is  in  turn  derived  from  the  Ethiopian  Negro 
rests  upon  a  mistaken  idea  that  a  dolichocephaly  in 
common  must  mean  identity  of  origin,  as  well  as 
upon  a  failure  to  take  into  consideration  many  so- 
matological  characters  of  almost  equal  value  with 
the  cephalic  index.  Indeed,  the  cephalic  index, 
being  merely  a  ratio,  may  be  identical  for  skulls 
differing  in  every  other  proportion  and  detail,  as 
well  as  in  absolute  size  and  capacity. 

Eye  color  is  of  very  great  importance  in  race 
determination  because  all  blue,  gray  or  green 
eyes  in  the  world  to-day  came  originally  from  the 
same  source,  namely,  the  Nordic  race  of  northern 
Europe.  This  light  colored  eye  has  appeared  no- 
where else  on  earth,  is  a  specialization  of  this 
subspecies  of  man  only  and  consequently  is 
of  extreme  value  in  the  classification  of  European 
races.  Dark  colored  eyes  are  all  but  universal 
among  wild  mammals  and  entirely  so  among  the 
primates,  man's  nearest  relatives.  It  may  be 
taken  as  an  absolute  certainty  that  all  the  original 
races  of  man  had  dark  eyes. 

One  subspecies  of  man  and  one  alone  specialized 
in  light  colored  eyes.  This  same  subspecies  also 
evolved  light  brown  or  blond  hair,  a  character  far 


less  deeply  rooted  than  eye  color,  as  blond  children 
tend  to  grow  darker  with  advancing  years  and 
populations  partly  of  Nordic  extraction,  such  as 
those  of  Lombardy,  upon  admixture  with  darker 
races  lose  their  blond  hair  more  readily  than  their 
light  colored  eyes.  In  short,  light  colored  eyes 
are  far  more  common  than  light  colored  hair.  In 
crosses  between  Alpines  and  Nordics,  the  Alpine 
stature  and  the  Nordic  eye  appear  to  prevail. 
Light  color  in  eyes  is  largely  due  to  a  greater  or 
less  absence  of  pigment  but  it  is  not  associated 
with  weak  eyesight,  as  in  the  case  of  Albinos.  In 
fact,  among  marksmen,  it  has  been  noted  that 
nearly  all  the  great  rifle-shots  in  England  or  Amer- 
ica have  had  light  colored  eyes. 

Blond  hair  also  comes  everywhere  from  the 
Nordic  subspecies  and  from  nowhere  else.  When- 
ever we  find  blondness  among  the  darker  races  of 
the  earth  we  may  be  sure  some  Nordic  wanderer  has 
passed  that  way.  When  individuals  of  perfect 
blond  type  occur,  as  sometimes  in  Greek  islands, 
we  may  suspect  a  recent  visit  of  sailors  from  a 
passing  ship  but  when  only  single  characters  re- 
main spread  thinly,  but  widely,  over  considerable 
areas,  like  the  blondness  of  the  Atlas  Berbers  or 
of  the  Albanian  mountaineers,  we  must  search  in 
the  dim  past  for  the  origin  of  these  blurred  traits 
of  early  invaders. 

The  range  of  blond  hair  color  in  pure  Nordic 


peoples  runs  from  flaxen  and  red  to  shades  of  chest- 
nut and  brown.  The  darker  shades  may  indicate 
crossing  in  some  cases,  but  absolutely  black  hair 
certainly  does  mean  an  ancestral  cross  with  a 
dark  race — in  England  with  the  Mediterranean 

It  must  be  clearly  understood  that  blondness  of 
hair  and  of  eye  is  not  a  final  test  of  Nordic  race. 
The  Nordics  include  all  the  blonds,  and  also  those 
of  darker  hair  or  eye  when  possessed  of  a  preponder- 
ance of  other  Nordic  characters.  In  this  sense  the 
word  "blond"  means  those  lighter  shades  of  hair 
or  eye  color  in  contrast  to  the  very  dark  or  black 
shades  which  are  termed  brunet.  The  meaning 
of  "blond"  as  now  used  is  therefore  not  limited 
to  the  lighter  or  flaxen  shades  as  in  colloquial 

In  England  among  Nordic  populations  there  are 
large  numbers  of  individuals  with  hazel  brown 
eyes  joined  with  the  light  brown  or  chestnut  hair 
which  is  the  typical  hair  shade  of  the  English  and 
Americans.  This  combination  is  also  common  in 
Holland  and  Westphalia  and  is  frequently  associated 
with  a  very  fair  skin.  These  men  are  all  of  "blond" 
aspect  and  constitution  and  consequently  are  to 
be  classed  as  members  of  the  Nordic  race. 

In  Nordic  populations  the  women  are,  in  gen- 
eral, lighter  haired  than  the  men,  a  fact  which 
points  to  a  blond  past  and  a  darker  future  for 


those  populations.  Women  in  all  human  races, 
as  the  females  among  all  mammals,  tend  to  exhibit 
the  older,  more  generalized  and  primitive  traits  of 
the  past  of  the  race.  The  male  in  his  individual 
development  indicates  the  direction  in  which  the 
race  is  tending  under  the  influence  of  variation  and 

It  is  interesting  to  note  in  connection  with  the 
more  primitive  physique  of  the  female,  that  in 
the  spiritual  sphere  also  women  retain  the  an- 
cient and  intuitive  knowledge  that  the  great  mass 
of  mankind  is  not  free  and  equal  but  bond  and 

The  color  of  the  skin  is  a  character  of  impor- 
tance but  one  that  is  exceedingly  hard  to  measure 
as  the  range  of  variation  in  Europe  between 
skins  of  extreme  fairness  and  those  that  are 
exceedingly  swarthy  is  almost  complete.  The 
Nordic  race  in  its  purity  has  an  absolutely  fair 
skin  and  is  consequently  the  white  man  par 

Many  members  of  the  Nordic  race  otherwise 
apparently  pure  have  skins,  as  well  as  hair,  more 
or  less  dark,  so  that  the  determinative  value  of 
this  character  is  uncertain.  There  can  be  no 
doubt  that  the  quality  of  the  skin  and  the  ex- 
treme range  of  its  variation  in  color  from  black, 
brown,  red,  yellow  to  ivory-white  are  excellent 
measures  of  the  specific  or  subgeneric  distinctions 


between  the  larger  groups  of  mankind  but  in  deal- 
ing with  European  populations  it  is  sometimes 
difficult  to  correlate  the  shades  of  fairness  with  other 
physical  characters. 

In  general,  hair  color  and  skin  color  are  linked 
together,  but  it  often  happens  that  an  individual 
with  all  other  Nordic  characters  in  great  purity- 
has  a  skin  of  an  olive  or  dark  tint.  Even  more 
frequently  we  find  individuals  with  absolutely  pure 
brunet  traits  in  possession  of  a  skin  of  almost  ivory 
whiteness  and  of  great  clarity.  This  last  combi- 
nation is  very  frequent  among  the  brunets  of  the 
British  Isles.  That  these  are,  to  some  extent,  dis- 
harmonic  combinations  we  may  be  certain  but  be- 
yond that  our  knowledge  does  not  lead.  Women, 
however,  of  fair  skin  have  always  been  the  objects 
of  keen  envy  by  those  of  the  sex  whose  skins  are 
black,  yellow  or  red. 

Stature  is  another  character  of  greater  value 
than  skin  color  and,  perhaps,  than  hair  color  and 
is  one  of  much  importance  in  European  classi- 
fication for  on  that  continent  we  have  the  most 
i  extreme  variations  of  human  height. 

Exceedingly  adverse  economic  conditions  may 
inhibit  a  race  from  attaining  the  full  measure  of 
its  growth  and  to  this  extent  environment  plays  its 
part  in  determining  stature  but  fundamentally  it 
is  race,  always  race,  that  sets  the  limit.  The  tall 
Scot  and  the  dwarfed  Sardinian  owe  their  respec- 


tive  sizes  to  race  and  not  to  oatmeal  or  olive  oil. 
It  is  probable,  however,  that  the  fact  that  the  stat- 
ure of  the  Irish  is,  on  the  average,  shorter  than 
that  of  the  Scotch  is  due  partly  to  economic  con- 
ditions and  partly  to  the  depressive  effect  of  a 
considerable  population  of  primitive  short  stock. 

The  Mediterranean  race  is  everywhere  marked 
by  a  relatively  short  stature,  sometimes  greatly 
depressed,  as  in  south  Italy  and  in  Sardinia,  and 
also  by  a  comparatively  light  bony  framework  and 
feeble  muscular  development. 

The  Alpine  race  is  taller  than  the  Mediterranean, 
although  shorter  than  the  Nordic,  and  is  char- 
acterized by  a  stocky  and  sturdy  build.  The  Al- 
pines rarely,  if  ever,  show  the  long  necks  and  grace- 
ful figures  so  often  found  in  the  other  two  races. 

The  Nordic  race  is  nearly  everywhere  distin- 
guished by  great  stature.  Almost  the  tallest  stature 
in  the  world  is  found  among  the  pure  Nordic  pop- 
ulations of  the  Scottish  and  English  borders  while 
the  native  British  of  Pre-Nordic  brunet  blood 
are  for  the  most  part  relatively  short.  No  one 
can  question  the  race  value  of  stature  who  ob- 
serves on  the  streets  of  London  the  contrast 
between  the  Piccadilly  gentleman  of  Nordic  race 
and  the  cockney  costermonger  of  the  old  Neolithic  & 


In  some  cases  where  these  three  European  races 
have  become  mixed  stature  seems  to  be  one  of 


the  first  Nordic  characters  to  vanish,  but  wherever 
in  Europe  we  find  great  stature  in  a  population 
otherwise  lacking  in  Nordic  characters  we  may 
suspect  a  Nordic  crossing,  as  in  the  case  of  a 
large  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  of  Burgundy, 
of  the  Tyrol  and  of  the  Dalmatian  Alps  south  to 

These  four  characters,  skull  shape,  eye  color, 
hair  color  and  stature,  are  sufficient  to  enable 
us  to  differentiate  clearly  between  the  three  main 
subspecies  of  Europe,  but  if  we  wish  to  discuss  the 
minor  variations  in  each  race  and  mixtures  between 
them,  we  must  go  much  further  and  take  up  other 
proportions  of  the  skull  than  the  cephalic  index,  as 
well  as  the  shape  and  position  of  the  eyes,  the 
proportions  and  shape  of  the  jaws,  the  chin  and 
other  features. 

The  nose  is  an  exceedingly  important  character. 
The  original  human  nose  was,  of  course,  broad 
and  bridgeless.  This  trait  is  shown  clearly  in 
new-born  infants  who  recapitulate  in  their  devel- 
opment the  various  stages  of  the  evolution  of  the 
human  genus.  A  bridgeless  nose  with  wide,  flaring 
nostrils  is  a  very  primitive  character  and  is  still 
retained  by  some  of  the  larger  divisions  of  man- 
kind throughout  the  world.  It  appears  occasion- 
ally in  white  populations  of  European  origin  but  is 
everywhere  a  very  ancient,  generalized  and  low 


The  high  bridge  and  long,  narrow  nose,  the  so- 
called  Roman,  Norman  or  aquiline  nose,  is  char- 
acteristic of  the  most  highly  specialized  races  of 
mankind.  While  an  apparently  unimportant  char- 
acter, this  feature  is  one  of  the  very  best  clews  to 
racial  origin  and  in  the  details  of  its  form,  and  es- 
pecially in  the  lateral  shape  of  the  nostrils,  is  a 
race  determinant  of  the  greatest  value. 

The  lips,  whether  thin  or  fleshy  or  whether  clean- 
cut  or  everted,  are  race  characters.  Thick,  pro- 
truding, everted  lips  are  very  ancient  traits  and 
are  characteristic  of  many  primitive  races.  A  high 
instep  also  has  long  been  esteemed  an  indication  of 
patrician  type  while  the  flat  foot  is  often  the  test 
of  lowly  origin. 

The  absence  or  abundance  of  hair  and  beard 
and  the  relative  absence  or  abundance  of  body 
hair  are  characters  of  no  little  value  in  classifica- 
tion. Abundant  body  hair  is,  to  a  large  extent, 
peculiar  to  populations  of  the  very  highest  as 
well  as  the  very  lowest  species,  being  characteristic 
of  the  north  European  as  well  as  of  the  Australian 
savages.  It  merely  means  the  retention  in  both 
these  groups  of  a  very  early  and  primitive  trait 
which  has  been  lost  by  the  Negroes,  Mongols  and 

The  Nordic  and  Alpine  races  are  far  better 
equipped  with  head  and  body  hair  than  the  Medi- 
terranean, which  is  throughout  its  range  a  glabrous 


or  relatively  naked  race  but  among  the  Nordics 
the  extreme  blond  types  are  less  equipped  with 
body  hair  or  down  than  are  darker  members  of 
the  race.  A  contrast  in  color  between  head  hair 
and  beard,  the  latter  always  being  lighter  than 
the  former,  may  be  one  of  the  results  of  an  ancient 
crossing  of  races. 

The  so-called  red  haired  branch  of  the  Nordic 
race  has  special  characters  in  addition  to  red 
hair,  such  as  a  greenish  cast  of  eye,  a  skin  of  deli- 
cate texture  tending  either  to  great  clarity  or  to 
freckles  and  certain  peculiar  temperamental  traits. 
This  was  probably  a  variety  closely  related  to  the 
blonds  and  it  first  appears  in  history  in  associa- 
tion with  them. 

While  the  three  main  European  races  are  the 
subject  of  this  book  and  while  it  is  not  the  inten- 
tion of  the  author  to  deal  with  the  other  human 
types,  it  is  desirable  in  connection  with  the  dis- 
cussion of  this  character,  hair,  to  state  that  the 
three  European  subspecies  are  subdivisions  of  one 
of  the  primary  groups  or  species  of  the  genus 
Homo  which,  taken  together,  we  may  call  the 
Caucasian  for  lack  of  a  better  name. 

The  existing  classification  of  man  must  be 
radically  revised,  as  the  differences  between  the 
most  divergent  human  types  are  far  greater  than 
are  usually  deemed  sufficient  to  constitute  separate 
species  and  even  subgenera  in  the  animal  kingdom 


at  large.  Outside  of  the  three  European  sub- 
species the  greater  portion  of  the  genus  Homo  can 
be  roughly  divided  into  the  Negroes  and  Negroids, 
and  the  Mongols  and  Mongoloids. 

The  former  apparently  originated  in  south  Asia 
and  entered  Africa  by  way  of  the  northeastern  corner 
of  that  continent.  Africa  south  of  the  Sahara  is 
now  the  chief  home  of  this  race,  though  remnants 
of  Negroid  aborigines  are  found  throughout  south 
Asia  from  India  to  the  Philippines,  while  the  very 
distinct  black  Melanesians  and  the  Australoids 
lie  farther  to  the  east  and  south. 

The  Mongoloids  include  the  round  skulled  Mon- 
gols and  their  derivatives,  the  Amerinds  or  Amer- 
ican Indians.  This  group  is  essentially  Asiatic 
and  occupies  the  centre  and  the  eastern  half  of 
that  continent. 

A  description  of  these  Negroids  and  Mongoloids 
and  their  derivatives,  as  well  as  of  certain  ab- 
errant species  of  man,  lies  outside  the  scope  of 
this  work. 

In  the  structure  of  the  head  hair  of  all  races 
of  mankind  we  find  a  regular  progression  from 
extreme  kinkiness  to  lanky  straightness  and  this 
straightness  or  curliness  depends  on  the  shape  of 
the  cross  section  of  the  hair  itself.  This  cross 
section  has  three  distinct  forms,  corresponding 
with  the  most  extreme  divergences  among  human 


The  cross  section  of  the  hair  of  the  Negroes  is 
a  flat  ellipse  with  the  result  that  they  all  have 
kinky  hair.  This  kinkiness  of  the  Negroes'  hair  is 
also  due  somewhat  to  the  acute  angle  at  which  the 
hair  is  set  into  the  skin  and  the  peppercorn  form 
of  hair  probably  represents  an  extreme  specializa- 

The  cross  section  of  the  hair  of  the  Mongols 
and  their  derivatives,  the  Amerinds,  is  a  complete 
circle  and  their  hair  is  perfectly  straight  and  lank. 

The  cross  section  of  the  hair  of  the  so-called 
Caucasians,  including  the  Mediterranean,  Alpine 
and  Nordic  subspecies,  is  an  oval  ellipse  and  con- 
sequently is  intermediate  between  the  cross  sec- 
tions of  the  Negroes  and  Mongoloids.  Hair  of 
this  structure  is  wavy  or  curly,  never  either  kinky 
or  absolutely  straight  and  is  characteristic  of  all  the 
European  populations  almost  without  exception. 

Of  these  three  hair  types  the  straighter  forms 
most  closely  represent  the  earliest  human  form  of 

We  have  confined  the  discussion  to  the  most 
important  characters  but  there  are  many  other 
valuable  aids  to  classification  to  be  found  in  the 
proportions  of  the  body  and  the  relative  length 
of  the  limbs.  In  this  latter  respect,  it  is  a  matter 
of  common  knowledge  that  there  occur  two  dis- 
tinct types,  the  one  long  legged  and  short  bodied, 
the  other  long  bodied  and  short  legged. 


Without  going  into  further  physical  details,  it  is 
probable  that  all  relative  proportions  in  the  body, 
the  features,  the  skeleton  and  the  skull  which  are 
fixed  and  constant  and  lie  outside  of  the  range  of 
individual  variation  represent  dim  inheritances 
from  the  past.  Every  generation  of  human  beings 
carries  the  blood  of  thousands  of  ancestors,  stretch- 
ing back  through  thousands  of  years,  superim- 
posed upon  a  prehuman  inheritance  of  still  greater 
antiquity  and  the  face  and  body  of  every  living 
man  offer  an  intricate  mass  of  hieroglyphs  that 
science  will  some  day  learn  to  read  and  interpret. 

Only  the  foregoing  main  characters  will  be  used 
as  the  basis  for  determining  race  and  attention 
will  be  called  later  to  such  temperamental  and 
spiritual  traits  as  seem  to  be  associated  with  distinct 
physical  types. 

We  shall  discuss  only  European  populations  and, 
as  said,  shall  not  deal  with  exotic  and  alien  races 
scattered  among  them  nor  with  those  quarters  of 
the  globe  where  the  races  of  man  are  such  that 
other  physical  characters  must  be  called  upon  to 
provide  clear  definitions. 

A  fascinating  subject  would  open  up  if  we  were 
to  dwell  upon  the  effect  of  racial  combinations  and 
disharmonies,  as,  for  instance,  where  the  mixed 
Nordic  and  Alpine  populations  of  Lombardy  usu- 
ally retain  the  skull  shape,  hair  color  and  stature 
of  the  Alpine  race,  with  the  light  eye  color  of  the 


Nordic  race,  or  where  the  mountain  populations 
along  the  east  coast  of  the  Adriatic  from  the  Tyrol 
to  Albania  have  the  stature  of  the  Nordic  race  and 
an  Alpine  skull  and  coloration. 



The  laws  which  govern  the  distribution  of  the 
various  races  of  man  and  their  evolution  through 
selection  are  substantially  the  same  as  those  con- 
trolling the  evolution  and  distribution  of  the 
larger  mammals. 

Man,  however,  with  his  superior  mentality  has 
freed  himself  from  many  of  the  conditions  which 
impose  restraint  upon  the  expansion  of  animals. 
In  his  case  selection  through  disease  and  social 
and  economic  competition  has  largely  replaced  se- 
lection through  adjustment  to  the  limitations  of 
food  supply. 

Man  is  the  most  cosmopolitan  of  animals  and  in 
one  form  or  another  thrives  in  the  tropics  and  in 
the  arctics,  at  sea  level  and  on  high  plateaux,  in 
the  desert  and  in  the  reeking  forests  of  the  equa- 
tor. Nevertheless,  the  various  races  of  Europe 
have  each  a  certain  natural  habitat  in  which  it 
achieves  its  highest  development. 

The  Nordic  Habitat 

The  Nordics  appear  in  their  present  centre  of 
distribution,  the  basin  of  the  Baltic,  at  the  close 



of  the  Paleolithic,  as  soon  as  the  retreating  glaciers 
left  habitable  land.  This  race  was  probably  at 
that  time  in  possession  of  its  fundamental  charac- 
ters, and  its  extension  from  the  plains  of  Russia 
to  Scandinavia  was  not  in  the  nature  of  a  radical 
change  of  environment.  The  race  in  consequence 
is  now,  always  has  been  and  probably  always  will 
be,  adjusted  to  certain  environmental  conditions, 
chief  of  which  is  protection  from  a  tropical  sun. 
The  actinic  rays  of  the  sun  at  the  same  latitude 
are  uniform  in  strength  the  world  over  and  con- 
tinuous sunlight  affects  adversely  the  delicate 
nervous  organization  of  the  Nordics.  The  fogs 
and  long  winter  nights  of  the  North  serve  as  a  pro- 
tection from  too  much  sun  and  from  its  too  direct 

Scarcely  less  important  is  the  presence  of  a 
large  amount  of  moisture  but  above  all  a  constant 
*  variety  of  temperature  is  needed.  Sharp  contrast 
between  night  and  day  temperature  and  between 
summer  and  winter  are  necessary  to  maintain  the 
vigor  of  the  Nordic  race  at  a  high  pitch.  Uniform 
weather,  if  long  continued,  lessens  its  energy.  Too 
great  extremes  as  in  midwinter  or  midsummer  in 
parts  of  New  England  are  injurious.  Limited  but 
constant  alternations  of  heat  and  cold,  of  moisture 
and  dryness,  of  sun  and  clouds,  of  calm  and  cy- 
clonic storms  offer  the  ideal  surroundings. 

Where  the  environment  is  too  soft  and  luxurious 


and  no  strife  is  required  for  survival,  not  only  are 
weak  strains  and  individuals  allowed  to  survive 
and  encouraged  to  breed  but  the  strong  types  also 
grow  fat  mentally  and  physically,  like  overfed 
Indians  on  reservations  or  wingless  birds  on 
oceanic  islands,  which  have  lost  the  power  of  flight 
as  a  result  of  prolonged  protective  conditions. 

Men  of  the  Nordic  race  may  not  enjoy  the 
fogs  and  snows  of  the  North,  the  endless  changes 
of  weather  and  the  violent  fluctuations  of  the 
thermometer  and  they  may  seek  the  sunny  south- 
ern isles,  but  under  the  former  conditions  they 
flourish,  do  their  work  and  raise  their  families. 
In  the  south  they  grow  listless  and  cease  to  breed. 

In  the  lower  classes  in  the  Southern  States  of 
America  the  increasing  proportion  of  "poor  whites " 
and  "crackers"  are  symptoms  of  lack  of  climatic 
adjustment.  The  whites  in  Georgia,  in  the  Ba- 
hamas and,  above  all,  in  Barbadoes  are  excellent 
examples  of  the  deleterious  effects  of  residence  out- 
side the  natural  habitat  of  the  Nordic  race. 

The  poor  whites  of  the  Cumberland  Mountains 
in  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  present  a  more  dif- 
ficult problem,  because  here  the  altitude,  even 
though  moderate,  should  modify  the  effects  of  lati- 
tude and  the  climate  of  these  mountains  cannot 
be  particularly  unfavorable  to  men  of  Nordic 
breed.  There  are  probably  other  hereditary  forces 
at  work  there  as  yet  little  understood. 


No  doubt  bad  food  and  economic  conditions, 
prolonged  inbreeding  and  the  loss  through  emigra- 
tion of  the  best  elements  have  played  a  large 
part  in  the  degeneration  of  these  mountaineers. 
They  represent  to  a  large  extent  the  offspring  of 
indentured  servants  brought  over  by  the  rich 
planters  in  early  Colonial  times  and  their  names 
indicate  that  many  of  them  are  the  descendants  of 
the  old  borderers  along  the  Scotch  and  English 
frontier.  The  persistence  with  which  family  feuds 
are  maintained  certainly  points  to  such  an  origin. 
The  physical  type  is  typically  Nordic,  for  the 
most  part  pure  Saxon  or  Anglian,  and  the  whole 
mountain  population  show  somewhat  aberrant  but 
very  pronounced  physical,  moral  and  mental  char- 
acteristics which  would  repay  scientific  investiga- 
tion. The  problem  is  too  complex  to  be  disposed 
of  by  reference  to  the  hookworm,  illiteracy  or 
competition  with  Negroes. 

This  type  played  a  large  part  in  the  settlement 
of  the  Middle  West,  by  way  of  Kentucky,  Ten- 
nessee and  Missouri.  Thence  they  passed  both  up 
the  Missouri  River  and  down  the  Santa  Fe  trail 
and  contributed  rather  more  than  their  share  of 
the  train  robbers,  horse  thieves  and  bad  men  of 
the  West. 

Scotland  and  the  Bahamas  are  inhabited  by 
men  of  precisely  the  same  race,  but  the  vigor  of 
the  English  in  the  Bahamas  is  gone  and  the  beauty 


of  their  women  has  faded.  The  fact  that  they 
were  not  in  competition  with  an  autochthonous 
race  better  adjusted  to  climatic  conditions  has 
enabled  them  to  survive,  but  the  type  could  not 
have  persisted,  even  during  the  last  two  hundred 
years,  if  they  had  been  compelled  to  compete  on 
terms  of  equality  with  a  native  and  acclimated 

Another  element  entering  into  racial  degenera- 
tion on  many  other  islands  and  for  that  matter 
in  many  New  England  villages,  is  the  loss  through 
emigration  of  the  more  vigorous  and  energetic 
individuals,  leaving  behind  the  less  efficient  to 
continue  the  race  at  home. 

In  subtropical  countries  where  the  energy  of 
the  Nordics  is  at  a  low  ebb  it  would  appear  that 
the  racial  inheritance  of  physical  strength  and 
mental  vigor  was  suppressed  and  recessive  rather 
than  destroyed.  Many  individuals  born  in  unfa- 
vorable climatic  surroundings,  who  move  back  to 
the  original  habitat  of  their  race  in  the  north,  re- 
cover their  full  quota  of  energy  and  vigor.  New 
York  and  other  Northern  cities  have  many  South- 
erners who  are  fully  as  efficient  as  pure  Northerners. 

This  Nordic  race  can  exist  outside  of  its  native 
environment  as  land  owning  aristocrats  who  are 
not  required  to  do  manual  labor  in  the  fields  under 
a  blazing  sun.  As  such  an  aristocracy  it  continues 
to  exist  under  Italian  skies,  but  as  a  field  laborer 


the  man  of  Nordic  blood  cannot  compete  with 
his  Alpine  or  Mediterranean  rival.  It  is  not  to 
be  supposed  that  the  various  Nordic  tribes  and 
armies,  which  for  a  thousand  years  after  the  fall  of 
Rome  poured  down  from  the  Alps  like  the  glaciers 
to  melt  in  the  southern  sun,  were  composed  solely 
of  knights  and  gentlemen  who  became  the  landed 
nobility  of  Italy.  The  man  in  the  ranks  also  took 
up  his  land  and  work  in  Italy,  but  he  had  to  com- 
pete directly  with  the  native  under  climatic  condi- 
tions which  were  unfavorable  to  his  race.  In  this 
competition  the  blue  eyed  Nordic  giant  died  and 
the  native  survived.  His  officer,  however,  lived  in 
the  castle  and  directed  the  labor  of  his  bondsmen 
without  other  preoccupation  than  the  chase  and 
war  and  he  long  maintained  his  vigor. 

The  same  thing  happened  in  our  South  before 
the  Civil  War.  There  the  white  men  did  not 
work  in  the  fields  or  in  the  factory.  The  heavy 
work  under  the  blazing  sun  was  carried  on  by 
Negro  slaves  and  the  planter  was  spared  ex- 
posure to  an  unfavorable  environment.  Under 
these  conditions  he  was  able  to  retain  much  of  his 
vigor.  When  slavery  was  abolished  and  the 
white  man  had  to  plough  his  own  fields  or  work 
in  the  factory  deterioration  began. 

The  change  in  type  of  the  men  who  are  now 
sent  by  the  Southern  States  to  represent  them  in 
the  Federal  Government  from  their  predecessors 


in  ante-bellum  times  is  partly  due  to  these  causes, 
but  in  greater  degree  it  is  to  be  attributed  to  the 
fact  that  a  large  portion  of  the  best  racial  strains 
in  the  South  were  killed  off  during  the  Civil  War. 
In  addition  the  war  shattered  the  aristocratic 
traditions  which  formerly  secured  the  selection  of 
the  best  men  as  rulers.  The  new  democratic  ideals, 
with  universal  suffrage  in  free  operation  among 
the  whites,  result  in  the  choice  of  representatives 
who  lack  the  distinction  and  ability  of  the  leaders 
of  the  Old  South. 

A  race  may  be  thoroughly  adjusted  to  a  cer- 
tain country  at  one  stage  of  its  development  and 
be  at  a  disadvantage  when  an  economic  change 
occurs,  such  as  was  experienced  in  England  a  cen- 
tury ago  when  the  nation  changed  from  an  agri- 
cultural to  a  manufacturing  community.  The  type 
of  man  that  flourishes  in  the  fields  is  not  the  type 
of  man  that  thrives  in  the  factory,  just  as  the 
type  of  man  required  for  the  crew  of  a  sailing 
ship  is  not  the  type  useful  as  stokers  on  a  modern 

The  Habitat  of  the  Alpines  and 

The  environment  of  the  Alpine  race  seems  to 
have  always  been  the  mountainous  country  of 
central  and  eastern  Europe,  as  well  as  western 
Asia,  but  they  are  now  spreading  into  the  plains, 


notably  in  Poland  and  Russia.  This  type  has 
never  flourished  in  the  deserts  of  Arabia  or  the 
Sahara,  nor  has  it  succeeded  well  in  maintaining 
its  early  colonies  in  the  northwest  of  Europe  with- 
in the  domain  of  the  Nordic  long  heads.  It  is, 
however,  a  sturdy  and  persistent  stock  and,  while 
much  of  it  may  not  be  overrefined  or  cultured,  un- 
doubtedly possesses  great  potentialities  for  future 

The  Alpines  in  the  west  of  Europe,  especially 
in  Switzerland  and  the  districts  immediately  sur- 
rounding, have  been  so  thoroughly  Nordicized  and 
so  saturated  with  the  culture  of  the  adjoining  na- 
tions that  they  stand  in  sharp  contrast  to  back- 
ward Alpines  of  Slavic  speech  in  the  Balkans  and 
east  of  Europe. 

The  Mediterranean  race,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
clearly  a  southern  type  with  eastern  affinities. 
It  is  a  type  that  did  not  endure  in  the  north  of 
Europe  under  former  agricultural  conditions  nor  is 
it  suitable  to  the  farming  districts  and  frontiers 
of  America  and  Canada.  It  is  adjusted  to  sub- 
tropical and  tropical  countries  better  than  any 
other  European  type  and  will  flourish  in  our 
Southern  States  and  around  the  coasts  of  the  Span- 
ish Main.  In  France  it  is  well  known  that  mem- 
bers of  the  Mediterranean  race  are  better  adapted 
for  colonization  in  Algeria  than  are  French  Alpines 
or  Nordics.     This  subspecies  of  man  is  notoriously 


intolerant  of  extreme  cold,  owing  to  its  suscepti- 
bility to  diseases  of  the  lungs  and  it  shrinks  from 
the  blasts  of  the  northern  winter  in  which  the  Nor- 
dics revel. 

The  brunet  Mediterranean  element  in  the  native 
American  seems  to  be  increasing  at  the  expense  of 
the  blond  Nordic  element  generally  throughout  the 
Southern  States  and  probably  also  in  the  large 
cities.  This  type  of  man,  however,  is  scarce  on 
our  frontiers.  In  the  Northwest  and  in  Alaska  in 
the  days  of  the  gold  rush  it  was  in  the  mining 
camps  a  matter  of  comment  if  a  man  turned  up 
with  dark  eyes,  so  universal  were  blue  and  gray 
eyes  among  the  American  pioneers. 



Where  two  races  occupy  a  country  side  by  side, 
it  is  not  correct  to  speak  of  one  type  as  changing 
into  the  other.  Even  if  present  in  equal  numbers 
one  of  the  two  contrasted  types  will  have  some 
small  advantage  or  capacity  which  the  other 
lacks  toward  a  perfect  adjustment  to  surround- 
ings. Those  possessing  these  favorable  variations 
will  flourish  at  the  expense  of  their  rivals  and 
their  offspring  will  not  only  be  more  numerous, 
but  will  also  tend  to  inherit  such  variations.  In 
this  way  one  type  gradually  breeds  the  other  out. 
In  this  sense,  and  in  this  sense  only,  do  races 

Man  continuously  undergoes  selection  through 
the  operation  of  the  forces  of  social  environment. 
Among  native  Americans  of  the  Colonial  period 
a  large  family  was  an  asset  and  social  pressure 
and  economic  advantage  counselled  both  early 
marriage  and  numerous  children.  Two  hundred 
years  of  continuous  political  expansion  and  material 
prosperity  changed  these  conditions  and  children, 
instead  of  being  an  asset  to  till  the  fields  and  guard 
the  cattle,  became  an  expensive  liability.     They 



now  require  support,  education  and  endowment 
from  their  parents  and  a  large  family  is  regarded 
by  some  as  a  serious  handicap  in  the  social  struggle. 

These  conditions  do  not  obtain  at  first  among 
immigrants,  and  large  families  among  the  newly 
arrived  population  are  still  the  rule,  precisely  as 
they  were  in  Colonial  America  and  are  to-day  in 
French  Canada  where  backwoods  conditions  still 

The  result  is  that  one  class  or  type  in  a  popula- 
tion expands  more  rapidly  than  another  and  ul- 
timately replaces  it.  This  process  of  replacement 
of  one  type  by  another  does  not  mean  that  the 
race  changes  or  is  transformed  into  another.  It 
is  a  replacement  pure  and  simple  and  not  a  trans- 

The  lowering  of  the  birth  rate  among  the  most 
valuable  classes,  while  the  birth  rate  of  the  lower 
classes  remains  unaffected,  is  a  frequent  phe- 
nomenon of  prosperity.  Such  a  change  becomes 
extremely  injurious  to  the  race  if  unchecked,  unless 
nature  is  allowed  to  maintain  by  her  own  cruel 
devices  the  relative  numbers  of  the  different  classes 
in  their  due  proportions.  To  attack  race  suicide 
by  encouraging  indiscriminate  reproduction  is  not 
only  futile  but  is  dangerous  if  it  leads  to  an  increase 
in  the  undesirable  elements.  What  is  needed  in  the 
community  most  of  all  is  an  increase  in  the  desir- 
able classes,  which  are  of  superior  type  physically, 


intellectually  and  morally  and  not  merely  an  in- 
crease in  the  absolute  numbers  of  the  population. 

The  value  and  efficiency  of  a  population  are  not 
numbered  by  what  the  newspapers  call  souls,  but 
by  the  proportion  of  men  of  physical  and  intel- 
lectual vigor.  The  small  Colonial  population  of 
America  was,  on  an  average  and  man  for  man,  far 
superior  to  the  present  inhabitants,  although  the 
latter  are  twenty-five  times  more  numerous.  The 
ideal  in  eugenics  toward  which  statesmanship  should 
be  directed  is,  of  course,  improvement  in  quality 
rather  than  quantity.  This,  however,  is  at  present 
a  counsel  of  perfection  and  we  must  face  condi- 
tions as  they  are. 

The  small  birth  rate  in  the  upper  classes  is  to 
some  extent  offset  by  the  care  received  by  such 
children  as  are  born  and  the  better  chance  they 
have  to  become  adult  and  breed  in  their  turn.  The 
large  birth  rate  of  the  lower  classes  is  under  nor- 
mal conditions  offset  by  a  heavy  infant  mortality, 
which  eliminates  the  weaker  children. 

Where  altruism,  philanthropy  or  sentimentalism 
intervene  with  the  noblest  purpose  and  forbid  na- 
ture to  penalize  the  unfortunate  victims  of  reckless 
breeding,  the  multiplication  of  inferior  types  is 
encouraged  and  fostered.  Indiscriminate  efforts 
to  preserve  babies  among  the  lower  classes  often 
result  in  serious  injury  to  the  race.  At  the  existing 
stage  of  civilization,  the  legalizing  of  birth  control 


would  probably  be  of  benefit  by  reducing  the  num- 
ber of  offspring  in  the  undesirable  classes.  Regula- 
tion of  the  number  of  children  is,  for  good  or  evil, 
in  full  operation  among  the  better  classes  and  its 
recognition  by  the  state  would  result  in  no  further 
harm  among  them. 

Mistaken  regard  for  what  are  believed  to  be 
divine  laws  and  a  sentimental  belief  in  the  sanctity 
of  human  life  tend  to  prevent  both  the  elimination 
of  defective  infants  and  the  sterilization  of  such 
adults  as  are  themselves  of  no  value  to  the  com- 
munity. The  laws  of  nature  require  the  oblitera- 
tion of  the  unfit  and  human  life  is  valuable  only 
when  it  is  of  use  to  the  community  or  race. 

It  is  highly  unjust  that  a  minute  minority  should 
be  called  upon  to  supply  brains  for  the  unthinking 
mass  of  the  community,  but  it  is  even  worse  to  bur- 
den the  responsible  and  larger  but  still  overworked 
elements  in  the  community  with  an  ever  increasing 
number  of  moral  perverts,  mental  defectives  and 
hereditary  cripples.  As  the  percentage  of  incom- 
petents increases,  the  burden  of  their  support  will 
become  ever  more  onerous  until,  at  no  distant  date, 
society  will  in  self-defense  put  a  stop  to  the  sup- 
ply of  feebleminded  and  criminal  children  of  weak- 

The  church  assumes  a  serious  responsibility 
toward  the  future  of  the  race  whenever  it  steps  in 
and  preserves  a  defective  strain.     The  marriage  of 


deaf  mutes  was  hailed  a  generation  ago  as  a  tri- 
umph of  humanity.  Now  it  is  recognized  as  an 
absolute  crime  against  the  race.  A  great  injury  is 
done  to  the  community  by  the  perpetuation  of 
worthless  types.  These  strains  are  apt  to  be  meek 
and  lowly  and  as  such  make  a  strong  appeal  to 
the  sympathies  of  the  successful.  Before  eugenics 
were  understood  much  could  be  said  from  a  Chris- 
tian and  humane  viewpoint  in  favor  of  indiscrimi- 
nate charity  for  the  benefit  of  the  individual.  The 
societies  for  charity,  altruism  or  extension  of 
rights,  should  have  in  these  days,  however,  in  their 
management  some  small  modicum  of  brains,  other- 
wise they  may  continue  to  do,  as  they  have  some- 
times done  in  the  past,  more  injury  to  the  race  than 
black  death  or  smallpox. 

As  long  as  such  charitable  organizations  confine 
themselves  to  the  relief  of  suffering  individuals, 
no  matter  how  criminal  or  diseased  they  may  be, 
no  harm  is  done  except  to  our  own  generation  and 
if  modern  society  recognizes  a  duty  to  the  humblest 
malefactors  or  imbeciles  that  duty  can  be  harm- 
lessly performed  in  full,  provided  they  be  deprived 
of  the  capacity  to  procreate  their  defective  strain. 

Those  who  read  these  pages  will  feel  that  there 
is  little  hope  for  humanity,  but  the  remedy  has  been 
found,  and  can  be  quickly  and  mercifully  applied. 
A  rigid  system  of  selection  through  the  elimina- 
tion of  those  who  are  weak  or  unfit — in  other  words, 


Social  failures — would  solve  the  whole  question  in 
a  century,  as  well  as  enable  us  to  get  rid  of  the 
undesirables  who  crowd  our  jails,  hospitals  and 
insane  asylums.  The  individual  himself  can  be 
nourished,  educated  and  protected  by  the  com- 
munity during  his  lifetime,  but  the  state  through 
sterilization  must  see  to  it  that  his  line  stops  with 
him  or  else  future  generations  will  be  cursed  with 
an  ever  increasing  load  of  victims  of  misguided  sen- 
timentalism.  This  is  a  practical,  merciful  and  in- 
evitable solution  of  the  whole  problem  and  can  be 
applied  to  an  ever  widening  circle  of  social  dis- 
cards, beginning  always  with  the  criminal,  the  dis- 
eased and  the  insane  and  extending  gradually  to 
types  which  may  be  called  weaklings  rather  than 
defectives  and  perhaps  ultimately  to  worthless 
race  types. 

Efforts  to  increase  the  birth  rate  of  the  genius 
producing  classes  of  the  community,  while  most 
desirable,  encounter  great  difficulties.  In  such 
efforts  we  encounter  social  conditions  over  which 
we  have  as  yet  no  control.  It  was  tried  two  thou- 
sand years  ago  by  Augustus  and  his  efforts  to 
avert  race  suicide  and  the  extinction  of  the  old  Ro- 
man stock  were  singularly  prophetic  of  what  some 
far  seeing  men  are  attempting  in  order  to  preserve 
the  race  of  native  Americans  of  Colonial  descent. 

Man  has  the  choice  of  two  methods  of  race  im- 
provement.    He  can  breed  from  the  best  or  he  can 


eliminate  the  worst  by  segregation  or  sterilization. 
The  first  method  was  adopted  by  the  Spartans, 
who  had  for  their  national  ideals  military  effici- 
ency and  the  virtues  of  self-control,  and  along  these 
lines  the  results  were  completely  successful.  Under 
modern  social  conditions  it  would  be  extremely 
difficult  in  the  first  instance  to  determine  which 
were  the  most  desirable  types,  except  in  the  most 
general  way  and  even  if  a  satisfactory  selection 
were  finally  made,  it  would  be  in  a  democracy  a 
virtual  impossibility  to  limit  by  law  the  right  to 
breed  to  a  privileged  and  chosen  few. 

Interesting  efforts  to  improve  the  quality  as  well 
as  the  quantity  of  the  population,  however,  will 
probably  be  made  in  more  than  one  country  after 
the  war  has  ended. 

Experiments  in  limiting  reproduction  to  the  un- 
desirable classes  were  unconsciously  made  in  medi- 
aeval Europe  under  the  guidance  of  the  church. 
After  the  fall  of  Rome  social  conditions  were  such 
that  all  those  who  loved  a  studious  and  quiet  life 
were  compelled  to  seek  refuge  from  the  violence  of 
the  times  in  monastic  institutions  and  upon  such 
the  church  imposed  the  obligation  of  celibacy  and 
thus  deprived  the  world  of  offspring  from  these 
desirable  classes. 

In  the  Middle  Ages,  through  persecution  result- 
ing in  actual  death,  life  imprisonment  and  banish- 
ment, the  free  thinking,  progressive   and  intellec- 


tual  elements  were  persistently  eliminated  over 
large  areas,  leaving  the  perpetuation  of  the  race  to 
be  carried  on  by  the  brutal,  the  servile  and  the 
stupid.  It  is  now  impossible  to  say  to  what  ex- 
tent the  Roman  Church  by  these  methods  has  im- 
paired the  brain  capacity  of  Europe,  but  in  Spain 
alone,  for  a  period  of  over  three  centuries  from  the 
years  147 1  to  1781,  the  Inquisition  condemned  to  the 
stake  or  imprisonment  an  average  of  1,000  persons 
annually.  During  these  three  centuries  no  less 
than  32,000  were  burned  alive  and  291,000  were 
condemned  to  various  terms  of  imprisonment  and 
other  penalties  and  17,000  persons  were  burned  in 
effigy,  representing  men  who  had  died  in  prison  or 
had  fled  the  country. 

No  better  method  of  eliminating  the  genius  pro- 
ducing strains  of  a  nation  could  be  devised  and 
if  such  were  its  purpose  the  result  was  eminently 
satisfactory,  as  is  demonstrated  by  the  superstitious 
and  unintelligent  Spaniard  of  to-day.  A  similar 
elimination  of  brains  and  ability  took  place  in 
northern  Italy,  in  France  and  in  the  Low  Countries, 
where  hundreds  of  thousands  of  Huguenots  were 
murdered  or  driven  into  exile. 

Under  existing  conditions  the  most  practical 
and  hopeful  method  of  race  improvement  is  through 
the  elimination  of  the  least  desirable  elements  in 
the  nation  by  depriving  them  of  the  power  to  con- 
tribute to  future  generations.     It  is  well  known  to 


stock  breeders  that  the  color  of  a  herd  of  cattle  can 
be  modified  by  continuous  destruction  of  worth- 
less shades  and  of  course  this  is  true  of  other  char- 
acters. Black  sheep,  for  instance,  have  been  prac- 
tically obliterated  by  cutting  out  generation  after 
generation  all  animals  that  show  this  color  phase, 
until  in  carefully  maintained  flocks  a  black  indi- 
vidual only  appears  as  a  rare  sport. 

In  mankind  it  would  not  be  a  matter  of  great 
difficulty  to  secure  a  general  consensus  of  public 
opinion  as  to  the  least  desirable,  let  us  say,  ten  per 
cent  of  the  community.  When  this  unemployed 
and  unemployable  human  residuum  has  been  elimi- 
nated together  with  the  great  mass  of  crime,  pov- 
erty, alcoholism  and  feeblemindedness  associated 
therewith  it  would  be  easy  to  consider  the  advis- 
ability of  further  restricting  the  perpetuation  of 
the  then  remaining  least  valuable  types.  By  this 
method  mankind  might  ultimately  become  suffi- 
ciently intelligent  to  choose  deliberately  the  most 
vital  and  intellectual  strains  to  carry  on  the  race. 

In  addition  to  selection  by  climatic  environ- 
ment man  is  now,  and  has  been  for  ages,  under- 
going selection  through  disease.  He  has  been  deci- 
mated throughout  the  centuries  by  pestilences  such 
as  the  black  death  and  bubonic  plague.  In  our 
fathers'  days  yellow  fever  and  smallpox  cursed 
humanity.  These  plagues  are  now  under  control, 
but  similar  diseases  now  regarded   as  mere  nui- 


sauces  to  childhood,  such  as  measles,  mumps  and 
scarlatina,  are  terrible  scourges  to  native  popula- 
tions without  previous  experience  with  them.  Add 
to  these  smallpox  and  other  white  men's  diseases 
and  one  has  the  great  empire  builders  of  yester- 
day. It  was  not  the  swords  in  the  hands  of 
Columbus  and  his  followers  that  decimated  the 
American  Indians,  it  was  the  germs  that  his  men 
and  their  successors  brought  over,  implanting  the 
white  man's  maladies  in  the  red  man's  world. 
Long  before  the  arrival  of  the  Puritans  in  New 
England,  smallpox  had  nickered  up  and  down  the 
coast  until  the  natives  were  but  a  broken  remnant 
of  their  former  numbers. 

At  the  present  time  the  Nordic  race  is  under- 
going selection  through  alcoholism,  a  peculiarly 
Nordic  vice,  and  through  consumption.  Both 
these  dread  scourges  unfortunately  attack  those 
members  of  the  race  that  are  otherwise  most  de- 
sirable, differing  in  this  respect  from  filth  diseases 
like  typhus,  typhoid  or  smallpox.  One  has  only 
to  look  among  the  more  desirable  classes  for  the 
victims  of  rum  and  tubercule  to  realize  that 
death  or  mental  and  physical  impairment  through 
these  two  causes  have  cost  the  race  many  of  its 
most  brilliant  and  attractive  members. 


Nationality  is  an  artificial  political  grouping 
of  population  usually  centring  around  a  single 
language  as  an  expression  of  traditions  and  aspira- 
tions. Nationality  can,  however,  exist  indepen- 
dently of  language  but  states  thus  formed,  such  as 
Belgium  or  Austria,  are  far  less  stable  than  those 
where  a  uniform  language  is  prevalent,  as,  for  ex- 
ample, France  or  England. 

States  without  a  single  national  language  are 
constantly  exposed  to  disintegration,  especially 
where  a  substantial  minority  of  the  inhabitants 
speak  a  tongue  which  is  predominant  in  an  ad- 
joining state  and,  as  a  consequence,  tend  to  gravi- 
tate toward  such  state. 

The  history  of  the  last  century  in  Europe  has 
been  the  record  of  a  long  series  of  struggles  to  unite 
in  one  political  unit  all  those  speaking  the  same 
or  closely  allied  dialects.  With  the  exception  of 
internal  and  social  revolutions,  every  European 
war  since  the  Napoleonic  period  has  been  caused 
by  the  effort  to  bring  about  the  unification  either 
of  Italy  or  of  Germany  or  by  the  desperate  at- 
tempts of  the  Balkan  States  to  struggle  out  of 



Turkish  chaos  into  modern  European  nations  on  a 
basis  of  community  of  language.  The  unification 
of  both  Italy  and  Germany  is  as  yet  incomplete  ac- 
cording to  the  views  held  by  their  more  advanced 
patriots  and  the  solution  of  the  Balkan  question 
is  still  in  the  future. 

Men  are  keenly  aware  of  their  nationality  and 
are  very  sensitive  about  their  language,  but  only 
in  a  few  cases,  notably  in  Sweden  and  Germany, 
does  any  large  section  of  the  population  possess 
anything  analogous  to  true  race  consciousness,  al- 
though the  term  "race"  is  everywhere  misused  to 
designate  linguistic  or  political  groups. 

The  unifying  power  of  a  common  language  works 
subtly  and  unceasingly.  In  the  long  run  it  forms  a 
bond  which  draws  peoples  together — as  the  English- 
speaking  peoples  of  the  British  Empire  with  those 
of  America.  In  the  same  manner  this  linguistic 
sympathy  will  bring  the  German-speaking  Austrians 
into  a  closer  political  community  with  the  rest 
of  Germany  and  will  hold  together  all  the  German- 
speaking  provinces. 

It  sometimes  happens  that  a  section  of  the  pop- 
ulation of  a  large  nation  gathers  around  language, 
reinforced  by  religion,  as  an  expression  of  individu- 
ality. The  struggle  between  the  French-speaking 
Alpine  Walloons  and  the  Nordic  Flemings  of  Low 
Dutch  tongue  in  Belgium  is  an  example  of  two 
competing  languages  in  an  artificial  nation  which 


was  formed  originally  around  religion.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  Irish  National  movement  centres 
chiefly  around  religion  reinforced  by  myths  of 
ancient  grandeur.  The  French  Canadians  and 
the  Poles  use  both  religion  and  language  to  hold 
together  what  they  consider  a  political  unit.  None 
of  these  so-called  nationalities  are  founded  on  race. 

During  the  past  century  side  by  side  with  the  ten- 
dency to  form  imperial  or  large  national  groups, 
such  as  the  Pan- Germanic,  Pan-Slavic,  Pan-Ru- 
manian or  Italia  Irredenta  movements,  there  has 
appeared  a  counter  movement  on  the  part  of  small 
disintegrating  "nationalities"  to  reassert  them- 
selves, such  as  the  Bohemian,  Bulgarian,  Serbian, 
Irish,  and  Egyptian  national  revivals.  The  up- 
heaval is  usually  caused,  as  in  the  cases  of  the  Irish 
and  the  Serbians,  by  delusions  of  former  greatness 
now  become  national  obsessions,  but  sometimes  it 
means  the  resistance  of  a  small  group  of  higher  cul- 
ture to  absorption  by  a  lower  civilization.  The 
reassertion  of  these  small  nationalities  is  associated 
with  the  resurgence  of  the  lower  races  at  the 
expense  of  the  Nordics. 

Examples  of  a  high  type  threatened  by  a  lower 
culture  are  afforded  by  the  Finlanders,  who  are  try- 
ing to  escape  the  dire  fate  of  their  neighbors  across 
the  Gulf  of  Finland — the  Russification  of  the  Ger- 
mans and  Swedes  of  the  Baltic  Provinces — and  by 
the  struggle  of  the  Danes  of  Schleswig  to  escape 


Germanization.  The  Armenians,  too,  have  re- 
sisted stoutly  the  pressure  of  Islam  to  force  them 
away  from  their  ancient  Christian  faith.  This 
people  really  represents  the  last  outpost  of  Eu- 
rope toward  the  Mohammedan  East  and  consti- 
tutes the  best  remaining  medium  through  which 
Western  ideals  and  culture  can  be  introduced  into 

In  these  as  in  other  cases,  the  process  of  absorp- 
tion from  the  viewpoint  of  the  world  at  large  is 
good  or  evil  exactly  in  proportion  to  the  relative 
value  of  the  culture  and  race  of  the  two  groups. 
The  world  would  be  no  richer  in  civilization  with 
an  independent  Bohemia  or  an  enlarged  Rumania; 
but,  on  the  contrary,  an  independent  Hungarian  na- 
tion strong  enough  to  stand  alone,  a  Finland  self- 
governing  or  reunited  to  Sweden,  or  an  enlarged 
Greece  would  add  greatly  to  the  forces  that  make 
for  good  government  and  progress.  An  inde- 
pendent Ireland  worked  out  on  a  Tammany  model 
is  not  a  pleasing  prospect.  A  free  Poland,  apart 
from  its  value  as  a  buffer  state,  might  be  actually  a 
step  backward.  Poland  was  once  great,  but  the 
elements  that  made  it  so  are  scattered  and  gone 
and  the  Poland  of  to-day  is  a  geographical  expres- 
sion and  nothing  more. 

The  prevailing  lack  of  true  race  consciousness 
is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  every  important 
nation  in  Europe  as  at  present  organized,  with  the 


sole  exception  of  the  Iberian  and  Scandinavian 
states,  possesses  in  large  proportions  representa- 
tives of  at  least  two  of  the  fundamental  European 
subspecies  of  man  and  of  all  manner  of  crosses  be- 
tween them.  In  France  to-day,  as  in  Caesar's 
Gaul,  the  three  races  divide  the  nation  in  unequal 

In  the  future,  however,  with  an  increased  knowl- 
edge of  the  correct  definition  of  true  human  races 
and  types  and  with  a  recognition  of  the  immuta- 
bility of  fundamental  racial  characters  and  of  the 
results  of  mixed  breeding,  far  more  value  will  be 
attached  to  racial  in  contrast  to  national  or  lin- 
guistic affinities.  In  marital  relations  the  con- 
sciousness of  race  will  also  play  a  much  larger  part 
than  at  present,  although  in  the  social  sphere  we 
shall  have  to  contend  with  a  certain  strange  attrac- 
tion for  contrasted  types./  When  it  becomes  thor- 
oughly understood  that  the  children  of  mixed  mar- 
riages between  contrasted  races  belong  to  the  lower 
type,  the  importance  of  transmitting  in  unim- 
paired purity  the  blood  inheritance  of  ages  will  be 
appreciated  at  its  full  value  and  to  bring  half- 
breeds  into  the  world  will  be  regarded  as  a  social 
and  racial  crime  of  the  first  magnitude.^  The  laws 
against  miscegenation  must  be  greatly  extended 
if  the  higher  races  are  to  be  maintained. 

The  language  that  a  man  speaks  may  be  noth- 
ing more  than  evidence  that  at  some  time  in  the 


past  his  race  has  been  in  contact,  either  as  con- 
queror or  as  conquered,  with  its  original  posses- 
sors. Postulating  the  Nordic  origin  and  dissemi- 
nation of  the  Proto-Aryan  language,  then  in  Asia 
and  elsewhere  existing  Aryan  speech  on  the  lips 
of  populations  showing  no  sign  of  Nordic  charac- 
ters is  to  be  considered  evidence  of  a  former  dom- 
inance of  Nordics  now  long  vanished. 

One  has  only  to  consider  the  spread  of  the  lan- 
guage of  Rome  over  the  vast  extent  of  her  Empire 
to  realize  how  few  of  those  who  speak  to-day 
Romance  tongues  derive  any  portion  of  their  blood 
from  the  pure  Latin  stock  and  the  error  of  talk- 
ing about  a  "Latin  race"  becomes  evident. 

There  is,  however,  such  a  thing  as  a  large  group 
of  nations  which  have  a  mutual  understanding  and 
sympathy  based  on  the  possession  of  a  common 
or  closely  related  group  of  languages  and  on  the 
culture  of  which  it  is  the  medium.  This  assemblage 
maybe  called  the  "Latin  nations,"  but  never  the 
"Latin  race." 

"Latin  America"  is  a  still  greater  misnomer 
as  the  great  mass  of  the  populations  of  South 
and  Central  America  is  not  even  European  and 
still  less  "Latin,"  being  overwhelmingly  of  Amer- 
indian blood. 

In  the  Teutonic  group  a  large  majority  of  those 
who  speak  Teutonic  languages,  as  the  English, 
Flemings,  Dutch,  North  Germans  and  Scandina- 


vians,  are  descendants  of  the  Nordic  race  while 
the  dominant  class  in  Europe  is  everywhere  of 
that  blood. 

As  to  the  so-called  "Celtic  race,"  the  fantastic 
inapplicability  of  the  term  is  at  once  apparent 
when  we  consider  that  those  populations  on  the 
borders  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  who  to-day  speak 
Celtic  dialects,  are  divided  into  three  groups,  each 
one  showing  in  great  purity  the  characters  of  one  of 
the  three  entirely  distinct  human  subspecies  found 
in  Europe.  To  class  together  the  Breton  peasant 
with  his  round  Alpine  skull;  the  little,  long-skulled, 
brunet  Welshman  of  Mediterranean  race,  and 
the  tall,  blond,  light-eyed  Scottish  Highlander  of 
pure  Nordic  blood,  in  a  single  group  labelled  Celtic 
is  obviously  impossible.  These  peoples  have  nei- 
ther physical,  mental  nor  cultural  characteristics 
in  common.  If  one  be  of  "Celtic"  blood  then  the 
other  two  are  clearly  of  different  origin. 

There  was  once  a  people  who  used  the  original 
Celtic  language  and  they  formed  the  western  van- 
guard of  the  Nordic  race.  This  people  was  spread 
all  over  central  and  western  Europe  prior  to  the  ir- 
ruption of  the  Teutonic  tribes  and  were,  no  doubt, 
much  mixed  with  Alpines  among  the  lower  classes. 
The  descendants  of  these  Celts  must  be  sought  to- 
day among  those  having  the  characters  of  the 
Nordic  race  and  not  elsewhere. 

In  England  the  short,  dark  Mediterranean  Welsh- 


man  talks  about  being  "Celtic,"  quite  unconscious 
that  he  is  the  residuum  of  Pre-Nordic  races  of  im- 
mense antiquity.  If  the  Celts  are  Mediterranean 
in  race  then  they  are  absent  from  central  Europe 
and  we  must  regard  as  Celts  all  the  Berbers  and 
Egyptians,  as  well  as  many  Persians  and  Hin- 

In  France  many  anthropologists  regard  the 
Breton  of  Alpine  blood  in  the  same  light  and 
ignore  his  remote  Asiatic  origin.  If  these  Alpine 
Bretons  are  Celts  then  there  is  no  substantial 
trace  of  their  blood,  in  the  British  Isles,  as  round 
skulls  are  practically  absent  there  and  all  the 
blond  elements  in  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland 
must  be  attributed  to  the  historic  Teutonic  inva- 
sions. Furthermore,  we  must  call  all  the  conti- 
nental Alpines  "Celts,"  and  must  also  include  all 
Slavs,  Armenians  and  other  brachycephs  of  west- 
ern Asia  within  that  designation,  which  would  be 
obviously  grotesque.  The  fact  that  the  original 
Celts  left  their  speech  on  the  tongues  of  Mediter- 
raneans in  Wales  and  of  Alpines  in  Brittany  must 
not  mislead  us,  as  it  indicates  nothing  more  than 
that  Celtic  speech  antedates  the  Anglo-Saxons  in 
England  and  the  Romans  in  France.  We  must 
once  and  for  all  time  discard  the  name  "Celt"- 
for  any  existing  race  whatever  and  speak  only  of 
"Celtic"  language  and  culture. 

In  Ireland  the  big,  blond  Nordic  Danes  claim 


the  honor  of  the  name  of  "Celt,"  if  honor  it  be, 
but  they  are  fully  as  Nordic  as  the  English  and 
the  great  mass  of  the  Irish  are  of  Danish,  Norse 
and  Anglo-Norman  blood  in  addition  to  earlier 
and  Pre-Nordic  elements.  We  are  all  familiar  with 
the  blond  and  the  brunet  type  of  Irishman.  These 
represent  precisely  the  same  racial  elements  as 
those  which  enter  into  the  composition  of  the 
English,  namely,  the  tall  Nordic  blond  and  the 
little  Mediterranean  brunet  pure  or  combined  with 
Paleolithic  remnants.  The  Irish  are  consequently 
not  entitled  to  independent  national  existence  on 
the  ground  of  race,  but  if  there  be  any  ground  for 
political  separation  from  England  it  must  rest  like 
that  of  Belgium  on  religion,  a  basis  for  political 
combinations  now  happily  obsolete  in  communities 
well  advanced  in  culture. 

In  the  case  of  the  so-called  "Slavic  race,"  there 
is  much  more  unity  between  racial  type  and  lan- 
guage. It  is  true  that  in  most  Slavic-speaking 
countries  the  predominant  race  is  clearly  Alpine, 
except  perhaps  in  Russia  where  there  is  a  very 
large  substratum  of  Nordic  type — which  may  be 
considered  as  Proto-Nordic.  The  objection  which 
is  made  to  the  identification  of  the  Slavic  race 
with  the  Alpine  type  rests  chiefly  on  the  fact  that 
a  very  large  portion  of  the  Alpine  race  is  German- 
speaking  in  Germany,  Italian-speaking  in  Italy 
and  French-speaking  in  central  France.    Moreover, 


large  portions  of  Rumania  are  of  exactly  the  same 
racial  complexion. 

Many  of  the  modern  Greeks  are  also  Alpines;  in 
fact,  are  little  more  than  Byzantinized  Slavs.  It 
was  through  the  Byzantine  Empire  that  the  Slavs 
first  came  in  contact  with  the  Mediterranean  world 
and  through  this  Greek  medium  the  Russians,  the 
Serbians,  the  Rumanians  and  the  Bulgarians  re- 
ceived their  Christianity. 

Situated  on  the  eastern  marches  of  Europe,  the 
Slavs  were  submerged  during  long  periods  in  the 
Middle  Ages  by  Mongolian  hordes  and  were 
checked  in  development  and  warped  in  culture. 
Definite  traces  remain  of  the  blood  of  the  Mongols 
both  in  isolated  and  compact  groups  in  south  Russia 
and  also  scattered  throughout  the  whole  country  as 
far  west  as  the  German  boundary.  The  high  tide 
of  the  Mongol  invasion  was  during  the  thirteenth 
century.  Three  hundred  years  later  the  great  Mus- 
covite expansion  began,  first  over  the  steppes  to 
the  Urals  and  then  across  Siberian  tundras  and 
forests  to  the  waters  of  the  Pacific,  taking  up  in 
its  course  much  Mongolian  blood,  especially  during 
the  early  stages  of  its  advance. 

The  term  "Caucasian  race"  has  ceased  to  have 
any  meaning  except  where  it  is  used,  in  the 
United  States,  to  contrast  white  populations  with 
Negroes  or  Indians  or  in  the  Old  World  with  Mon- 
gols.    It  is,  however,  a  convenient  term  to  include 


the  three  European  subspecies  when  considered  as 
divisions  of  one  of  the  primary  branches  or  species 
of  mankind  but  it  is,  at  best,  a  cumbersome  and 
archaic  designation.  The  name  "Caucasian"  arose 
a  century  ago  from  a  false  assumption  that  the 
cradle  of  the  blond  Europeans  was  in  the  Cau- 
casus where  no  traces  are  now  found  of  any  such 
race,  except  a  small  and  decreasing  minority  of 
blond  traits  among  the  Ossetes,  a  tribe  whose 
Aryan  speech  is  related  to  that  of  the  Armenians, 
and  who  while  mainly  brachycephalic  still  retain 
some  blond  and  dolichocephalic  elements  which 
apparently  are  fading  fast.  The  Ossetes  now  have 
about  thirty  per  cent  fair  eyes  and  ten  per  cent  fair 
hair.  They  are  supposed  to  be  to  some  extent  a 
remnant  of  the  Alans,  the  easternmost  Teutonic 
tribe  and  closely  related  to  the  Goths.  Both  Alans 
and  Goths  very  early  in  the  Christian  era  occupied 
southern  Russia,  and  were  the  latest  known  Nor- 
dics in  the  vicinity  of  the  Caucasus  Mountains.  If 
these  Ossetes  are  not  partly  of  Alan  origin  they 
may  possibly  represent  the  last  lingering  trace  of 
ancient  Scythian  dolichocephalic  blondness. 

The  phrase  "Indo-European  or  Indo- Germanic 
race"  is  also  of  little  use.  If  it  has  any  meaning 
at  all  it  must  include  all  the  three  European  races 
as  well  as  members  of  the  Mediterranean  race  in 
Persia  and  India.  The  use  of  this  name  also  in- 
volves a  false  assumption  of  blood   relationship 


between  the  north  European  populations  and  the 
Hindus,  because  of  their  possession  in  common  of 
Aryan  speech. 

The  name  "Aryan  race"  must  also  be  frankly  dis- 
carded as  a  term  of  racial  significance.  It  is  to-day 
purely  linguistic,  although  there  was  at  one  time,  of 
course,  an  identity  between  the  original  Proto- 
Aryan  mother  tongue  and  the  race  that  first  spoke 
and  developed  it.  In  short,  there  is  not  nor  has 
there  ever  been  either  a  Caucasian  or  an  Indo-Eu- 
ropean race,  but  there  was  once,  thousands  of  years 
ago,  an  original  Aryan  race  long  since  vanished  into 
dim  memories  of  the  past.  If  used  in  a  racial 
sense  other  than  as  above,  it  should  be  limited  to 
the  Nordic  invaders  of  Hindustan  now  long  extinct. 
The  great  lapse  of  time  since  the  disappearance  of 
the  ancient  Aryan  race  as  such  is  measured  by 
the  extreme  disintegration  of  the  various  groups  of 
Aryan  languages.  These  linguistic  divergences  are 
chiefly  due  to  the  imposition  by  conquest  of  Aryan 
speech  upon  several  distinct  subspecies  of  man 
throughout  western  Asia  and  Europe. 

It  may  be  pertinent  before  leaving  this  subject 
to  point  out  that,  as  a  whole,  "Germans," 
"French,"  and  "English,"  as  certain  populations 
are  now  called,  are  but  little  more  entitled  to  be 
considered  the  direct  descendants,  or  even  the  ex- 
clusive modern  representatives,  of  the  ancient  Ger- 
mans, Franks  or  Anglo-Saxons,  than  are  the  living 


Italians  or  Greeks  to  be  regarded  as  the  offspring 
of  the  Romans  of  the  days  of  the  Republic  or  the 
Hellenes  of  the  classic  period.  There  are,  of  course, 
many  individuals  and  groups,  perhaps  even  classes, 
in  each  of  these  nations,  who  do  accurately  repre- 
sent the  race  from  which  the  national  name  was  de- 
rived. The  Scandinavians,  on  the  other  hand,  are 
racially  what  they  were  two  thousand  years  ago, 
though  diminished  somewhat  in  race  vigor  by  the 
loss  through  the  emigration  of  some  of  their  more 
enterprising  members.  Meanwhile,  at  the  other 
end  of  Europe,  the  modern  Spaniard  probably  more 
closely  represents  the  Iberians  before  the  arrival 
of  the  Gauls  than  did  the  Spaniard  of  five  hundred 
years  ago. 



When  a  country  is  invaded  and  conquered  by  a 
race  speaking  a  foreign  language,  one  of  several 
things  may  happen:  replacement  of  both  popu- 
lation and  language,  as  in  the  case  of  eastern 
England  when  conquered  by  the  Saxons  or  adop- 
tion of  the  language  of  the  victors  by  the  natives, 
as  happened  in  Roman  Gaul,  where  the  invaders 
imposed  their  Latin  tongue  throughout  the  land 
without  substantially  altering  the  race. 

The  Romans  probably  modified  the  race  in  Gaul 
by  killing  a  much  larger  proportion  of  the  Nordic 
fighting  classes  than  of  the  more  submissive  Alpines 
and  Mediterraneans.  This  is  confirmed  by  the 
fact  that  when  the  prolonged  and  brilliant  resistance 
to  Caesar's  legions  was  finally  broken,  no  serious 
attempt  was  ever  again  made  to  throw  off  the  Ro- 
man yoke  and  a  few  centuries  later  the  Teutonic 
invaders  encountered  no  determined  opposition 
from  the  inhabitants  when  they  entered  and 
occupied  the  land. 

In  England  and  Scotland  later  conquerors,  Norse- 
men, Danes  and  Normans,  failed  to  change  radically 
the  Saxon  speech  of  the  country  and  in  Gaul  the 



Teutonic  tongues  of  the  Franks,  Burgundians  and 
Northmen  could  not  displace  the  language  of 
Autochthonous  inhabitants  frequently  impose 
'  upon  their  invaders  their  own  language  and  cus- 
toms. In  Normandy  the  conquering  Norse  pi- 
rates accepted  the  language,  religion  and  customs 
of  the  natives  and  in  a  century  they  vanish  from 
history  as  Scandinavian  heathen  and  appear  as  the 
foremost  representatives  of  the  speech  and  religion 
of  Rome. 

In  Hindustan  the  blond  Nordic  invaders  forced 
their  Aryan  language  on  the  aborigines,  but  their 
blood  was  quickly  and  utterly  absorbed  in  the 
darker  strains  of  the  original  owners  of  the  land. 
A  record  of  the  desperate  efforts  of  the  conqueror 
classes  in  India  to  preserve  the  purity  of  their 
blood  persists  until  this  very  day  in  their  carefully 
regulated  system  of  castes.  In  our  Southern  States 
Jim  Crow  cars  and  social  discriminations  have 
exactly  the  same  purpose  and  justification. 
*  ,  The  Hindu  to-day  speaks  a  very  ancient  form  of 
/  Aryan  language,  but  there  remains  not  one  recog- 
S  nizable  trace  of  the  blood  of  the  white  conquerors 
who  poured  in  through  the  passes  of  the  North- 
west. The  boast  of  the  modern  Indian  that  he  is 
of  the  same  race  as  his  English  ruler  is  entirely 
without  basis  in  fact  and  the  little  swarthy  native 
lives  amid  the  monuments  of  a  departed  grandeur. 


professing  the  religion  and  speaking  the  tongue  of 
his  long  forgotten  Nordic  conquerors,  without  the 
slightest  claim  to  blood  kinship.  The  dim  and  un- 
certain traces  of  Nordic  blood  in  northern  India 
only  serve  to  emphasize  the  utter  swamping  of  the 
white  man  in  the  burning  South. 

The  power  of  racial  resistance  of  a  dense  and  ■ 
thoroughly  acclimated  population  to  an  incoming 
army  is  very  great.  No  ethnic  conquest  can  be 
complete  unless  the  natives  are  exterminated  and 
the  invaders  bring  their  own  women  with  them. 
If  the  conquerors  are  obliged  to  depend  upon 
the  women  of  the  vanquished  to  carry  on  the 
race,  the  intrusive  blood  strain  of  the  invaders 
in  a  short  time  becomes  diluted  beyond  recogni- 

It  sometimes  happens  that  an  infiltration  of  pop- 
ulation takes  place  either  in  the  guise  of  unwilling 
slaves  or  of  willing  immigrants,  who  fill  up  waste 
places  and  take  to  the  lowly  tasks  which  the 
lords  of  the  land  despise,  tnus  gradually  occupy- 
ing the  country  and  literally  breeding  out  their 

The  former  catastrophe  happened  in  the  declin- 
ing days  of  the  Roman  Republic  and  the  south 
Italians  of  to-day  are  very  largely  descendants  of 
the  nondescript  slaves  of  all  races,  chiefly  from  the 
southern  and  eastern  coasts  of  the  Mediterranean, 
who  were  imported  by  the  Romans  under  the  Em- 



pire  to  work  their  vast  estates.  The  latter  is  oc- 
curring to-day  in  many  parts  of  America,  especially 
in  New  England. 

The  eastern  half  of  Germany  has  a  Slavic  Alpine 
substratum  which  represents  the  descendants  of 
the  Wends,  who  first  appear  about  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Christian  era  and  who  by  the  sixth 
century  had  penetrated  as  far  west  as  the  Elbe, 
occupying  the  lands  left  vacant  by  the  Teutonic 
tribes  which  had  migrated  southward.  These 
Wends  in  turn  were  Teutonized  by  a  return  wave  of 
military  conquest  from  the  tenth  century  onward, 
and  to-day  their  descendants  are  considered  Ger- 
mans in  good  standing.  Having  adopted  the  Ger- 
man as  their  sole  tongue  they  are  now  in  relig- 
ious, political  and  cultural  sympathy  with  the  pure 
Teutons;  in  fact,  they  are  quite  unconscious  of 
any  racial  distinction. 

This  historic  fact  underlies  the  ferocious  contra 
versy  which  has  been  raised  over  the  ethnic  origin 
of  the  Prussians,  the  issue  being  whether  the  popu- 
lations in  Brandenburg,  Silesia,  Posen,  West  Prus- 
sia, and  other  districts  in  eastern  Germany,  are 
Alpine  Wends  or  true  Nordics.  The  truth  is  that 
the  dominant  half  of  the  population  is  purely  Teu- 
tonic and  the  remainder  of  the  population  are  merely 
Teutonized  Wends  and  Poles  of  Alpine  affinities. 
Of  course,  these  territories  must  also  retain  some 
of  their  early  Teutonic  population  and  the  blood 


of  the  Goth,  Burgund,  Vandal  and  Lombard,  who 
at  the  commencement  of  the  Christian  era  were 
located  there,  as  well  as  of  the  later  Saxon  element, 
must  enter  largely  into  the  composition  of  the 
Prussian  of  to-day. 

Some  anthropologists  regard  the  Teutonized 
round  heads  of  south  Germany  as  a  distinct  sub- 
division of  the  Alpines  because  of  the  large  per- 
centage of  blond  hair  and  still  larger  percentage  of 
light  colored  eyes. 

The  most  important  communities  in  continental 
Europe  of  pure  German  type  are  to  be  found  in 
old  Saxony,  the  country  around  Hanover,  and  this 
element  prevails  generally  in  the  northwestern  part 
of  the  German  Empire  among  the  Low  German- 
speaking  population,  while  the  High  German-speak- 
ing population  is  largely  composed  of  Teutonized 

The  coasts  of  the  North  Sea  extending  from 
Schleswig  and  Holstein  into  Holland  are  inhabited 
by  a  very  pure  Nordic  type  known  as  the  Frisians. 
They  are  the  handsomest  and  in  many  respects 
the  finest  of  the  continental  Nordics  and  are 
closely  related  to  the  English,  as  many  of  the 
Post-Roman  invaders  of  England  either  came  from 
Frisia  or  from  adjoining  districts. 

All  the  states  involved  in  the  present  world  war 
have  sent  to  the  front  their  fighting  Nordic  ele- 
ment and  the  loss  of  life  now  going  on  in  Europe 


will  fall  much  more  heavily  on  the  blond  giant  than 
on  the  little  brunet. 

As  in  all  wars  since  Roman  times  from  a  breeding  x 
point  of  view  the  little  dark  man  is  the  final  win- 
ner. No  one  who  saw  one  of  our  regiments  march 
on  its  way  to  the  Spanish  War  could  fail  to  be  im-  u 
pressed  with  the  size  and  blondness  of  the  men  in 
the  ranks  as  contrasted  with  the  complacent  citi- 
zen, who  from  his  safe  stand  on  the  gutter  curb 
gave  his  applause  to  the  fighting  man  and  then 
stayed  behind  to  perpetuate  his  own  brunet  type. 
In  the  present  war  one  has  merely  to  study  the 
type  of  officer  and  of  the  man  in  the  ranks  to 
realize  that,  in  spite  of  the  draft  net,  the  Nordic  race 
is  contributing  an  enormous  majority  of  the  fight- 
ing men,  out  of  all  proportion  to  their  relative 
numbers  in  the  nation  at  large. 

This  same  Nordic  element,  everywhere  the  type 
of  the  sailor,  the  soldier,  the  adventurer  and  the 
pioneer,  was  ever  the  type  to  migrate  to  new  coun- 
tries, until  the  ease  of  transportation  and  the  de- 
sire to  escape  military  service  in  the  last  forty  years 
reversed  the  immigrant  tide.  In  consequence  of 
this  change  our  immigrants  now  largely  represent 
lowly  refugees  from  "persecution,"  and  other  social 

In  most  cases  the  blood  of  pioneers  has  been  lost 
to  their  race.  They  did  not  take  their  women  with 
them.    They   either   died   childless   or   left   half- 


breeds  behind  them.  The  virile  blood  of  the  Span- 
ish conquistadores,  who  are  now  little  more  than  a 
memory  in  Central  and  South  America,  died  out 
from  these  causes. 

This  was  also  true  in  the  early  days  of  our 
Western  frontiersmen,  who  individually  were  a  far 
finer  type  than  the  settlers  who  followed  them. 
In  fact,  it  is  said  that  practically  every  one  of  the 
Forty-Niners  in  California  was  of  Nordic  type. 



For  reasons  already  set  forth  there  are  few  com- 
munities outside  of  Europe  of  pure  European  blood. 
The  racial  destiny  of  Mexico  and  of  the  islands  and 
coasts  of  the  Spanish  Main  is  clear.  The  white  man 
is  being  rapidly  bred  out  by  Negroes  on  the  islands 
and  by  Indians  on  the  mainland.  It  is  quite  evi- 
dent that  the  West  Indies,  the  coast  region  of  our 
Gulf  States,  perhaps,  also  the  black  belt  of  the  lower 
Mississippi  Valley  must  be  abandoned  to  Negroes. 
This  transformation  is  already  complete  in  Haiti 
and  is  going  rapidly  forward  in  Cuba  and  Jamaica. 
Mexico  and  the  northern  part  of  South  America 
must  also  be  given  over  to  native  Indians  with 
an  ever  thinning  veneer  of  white  culture  of  the 
"Latin"  type. 

In  Venezuela  the  pure  whites  number  about  one 
per  cent  of  the  whole  population,  the  balance  being 
Indians  and  various  crosses  between  Indians,  Ne- 
groes and  whites.  In  Jamaica  the  whites  number 
not  more  than  two  per  cent,  while  the  remainder  are 
Negroes  or  mulattoes.  In  Mexico  the  proportion 
is  larger,   but  the  unmixed  whites  number  Its* 

than  twenty  per  cent  of  the  whole,  the  others 



being  Indians  pure  or  mixed.     These  latter  are  the 
"greasers"  of  the  American  frontiersman. 

Whenever  the  incentive  to  imitate  the  dominant 
race  is  removed  the  Negro  or,  for  that  matter, 
the  Indian,  reverts  shortly  to  his  ancestral  grade 
of  culture.  In  other  words,  it  is  the  individual 
and  not  the  race  that  is  affected  by  religion,  edu- 
cation and  example.  Negroes  have  demonstrated^ 
throughout  recorded  time  that  they  are  a  station- 
ary species  and  that  they  do  not  possess  the  poten- 
tiality of  progress  or  initiative  from  within.  Pro- 
gress from  self-impulse  must  not  be  confounded 
with  mimicry  or  with  progress  imposed  from  with- 
out by  social  pressure  or  by  the  slaver's  lash. 

When  the  impulse  of  an  inferior  race  to  imitate 
or  mimic  the  dress,  manners  or  morals  of  the 
dominant  race  is  destroyed  by  the  acquisition  of 
political  or  social  independence,  the  servient  race 
tends  to  revert  to  its  original  status  as  in  Haiti. 

Where  two  distinct  species  are  located  side  by  side 
history  and  biology  teach  that  but  one  of  two  things 
can  happen ;  either  one  race  drives  the  other  out,  as 
the  Americans  exterminated  the  Indians  and  as  the 
Negroes  are  now  replacing  the  whites  in  various 
parts  of  the  South;  or  else  they  amalgamate  and 
form  a  population  of  race  bastards  in  which  the 
lower  type  ultimately  preponderates.  This  is  a 
disagreeable  alternative  with  which  to  confront 
sentimentalists  but  nature  is  only  concerned  with 


results  and  neither  makes  nor  takes  excuses.  The 
chief  failing  of  the  day  with  some  of  our  well  mean- 
ing philanthropists  is  their  absolute  refusal  to  face 
inevitable  facts,  if  such  facts  appear  cruel. 

In  the  Argentine  white  blood  of  the  various 
European  races  is  pouring  in  so  rapidly  that  a 
community  preponderantly  white,  but  of  the  Medi- 
terranean race,  may  develop,  but  the  type  is  sus- 
piciously swarthy. 

In  Brazil,  Negro  blood  together  with  that  of 
the  native  inhabitants  is  rapidly  overwhelming  the 
white  Europeans,  although  in  the  southern  prov- 
inces German  immigration  has  played  an  important 
role  and  the  influx  of  Italians  has  also  been  con- 
y  In  Asia,  with  the  sole  exception  of  the  Russian 
settlements  in  Siberia,  there  can  be  and  will  be  no 
ethnic  conquest  and  all  the  white  men  in  India, 
the  East  Indies,  the  Philippines  and  China  will 
leave  not  the  slightest  trace  behind  them  in  the 
blood  of  the  native  population.  After  several  cen- 
turies of  contact  and  settlement  the  pure  Spanish 
in  the  Philippines  are  about  half  of  one  per  cent. 
The  Dutch  in  their  East  Indian  islands  are  even 
less,  while  the  resident  whites  in  Hindustan  amount 
to  about  one-tenth  of  one  per  cent.  Such  numbers 
are  infinitesimal  and  of  no  force  in  a  democracy,  but 
in  a  monarchy,  if  kept  free  from  contamination,  they 
suffice  for  a  ruling  caste  or  a  military  aristocracy. 


Throughout  history  it  is  only  the  race  of  the  leaders 
that  has  counted  and  the  most  vigorous  have  been 
in  control  and  will  remain  in  mastery  in  one 
form  or  another  until  such  time  as  democracy  and 
its  illegitimate  offspring,  socialism,  definitely  esta- 
blish cacocracy  and  the  rule  of  the  worst  and  put 
an  end  to  progress.  The  salvation  of  humanity 
will  then  lie  in  the  chance  survival  of  some  sane  ^r- 
barbarians  who  may  retain  the  basic  truth  that 
inequality  and  not  equality  is  the  law  of  nature. 

Australia  and  New  Zealand,  where  the  natives 
have  been  virtually  exterminated  by  the  whites,  are 
developing  into  communities  of  pure  Nordic  blood 
and  will  for  that  reason  play  a  large  part  in  the 
future  history  of  the  Pacific.  The  bitter  opposition 
of  the  Australians  and  Californians  to  the  admis- 
sion of  Chinese  coolies  and  Japanese  farmers  is 
due  primarily  to  a  blind  but  absolutely  justified 
determination  to  keep  those  lands  as  white  man's 

In  Africa,  south  of  the  Sahara,  the  density  of  the 
native  population  will  prevent  the  establishment 
of  any  purely  white  communities,  except  at  the 
southern  extremity  of  the  continent  and  possibly 
on  portions  of  the  plateaux  of  eastern  Africa. 
The  stoppage  of  famines  and  wars  and  the  abo-  .  » 
lition  of  the  slave  trade,  while  dictated  by  the 
noblest  impulses  of  humanity,  are  suicidal  to  the 
white  man.     Upon  the  removal  of  these  natural 


checks  Negroes  multiply  so  rapidly  that  there  will 
not  be  standing  room  on  the  continent  for  white 
men,  unless,  perchance,  the  lethal  sleeping  sickness, 
which  attacks  the  natives  far  more  frequently  than 
^^    the  whites,  should  run  its  course  unchecked. 

In  South  Africa  a  community  of  mixed  Dutch 
and  English  extraction  is  developing.  Here  the 
only  difference  is  one  of  language.  English,  being 
a  world  tongue,  will  inevitably  prevail  over  the 
Dutch  patois  called  "Taal."  This  Frisian  dialect, 
as  a  matter  of  fact,  is  closer  to  old  Saxon  or  rather 
Kentish  than  any  living  continental  tongue  and  the 
blood  of  the  North  Hollander  is  extremely  close  to 
that  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  of  England.  The  English 
and  the  Dutch  will  merge  in  a  common  type  just 
as  they  have  in  the  past  two  hundred  years  in  the 
Colony  and  State  of  New  York.  They  must  stand 
together  if  they  are  to  maintain  any  part  of  Africa 
as  a  white  man's  country,  because  they  are  con- 
fronted with  the  menace  of  an  enormous  black 
Bantu  population  which  will  drive  out  the  whites 
unless  the  problem  is  bravely  faced. 

The  only  possible  solution  is  to  establish  large 
colonies  for  the  Negroes  and  to  allow  them  outside 
of  them  only  as  laborers  and  not  as  settlers.  There 
must  be  ultimately  a  black  South  Africa  and  a 
white  South  Africa  side  by  side  or  else  a  pure 
'  black  Africa  from  the  Cape  to  the  cataracts  of  the 
*    Nile. 


In  upper  Canada,  as  in  the  United  States  up  to 
the  time  of  our  Civil  War,  the  white  population 
was  purely  Nordic.  The  Dominion  is,  as  a  whole, 
handicapped  by  the  presence  of  an  indigestible 
mass  of  French-Canadians,  largely  from  Brittany 
and  of  Alpine  origin,  although  the  habitant  patois 
is  an  archaic  Norman  of  the  time  of  Louis  XIV. 
These  Frenchmen  were  granted  freedom  of  lan- 
guage and  religion  by  their  conquerors  and  are 
now  using  those  privileges  to  form  separatist  groups 
in  antagonism  to  the  English  population.  The 
Quebec  Frenchmen  will  succeed  in  seriously  im- 
peding the  progress  of  Canada  and  will  succeed 
even  better  in  keeping  themselves  a  poor  and 
ignorant  community  of  little  more  importance  to 
the  world  at  large  than  are  the  Negroes  in  the  South. 
The  selfishness  of  the  Quebec  Frenchmen  is  mea- 
sured by  the  fact  that  in  the  present  war  they  will 
not  fight  for  the  British  Empire  or  for  France  or 
even  for  clerical  Belgium  and  they  are  now  endeav- 
oring to  make  use  of  the  military  crisis  to  secure  a 
further  extension  of  their  " nationalistic  ideals." 

Personally  the  writer  believes  that  the  finest  and 
purest  type  of  a  Nordic  community  outside  of  Eu- 
rope will  develop  in  northwest  Canada  and  on  the 
Pacific  coast  of  the  United  States.  Most  of  the 
other  countries  in  which  the  Nordic  race  is  now 
settling  lie  outside  the  special  environment  in  which 
alone  it  can  flourish. 


The  Negroes  of  the  United  States  while  station- 
ary, were  not  a  serious  drag  on  civilization  until 
in  the  last  century  they  were  given  the  rights  of  citi- 
zenship and  were  incorporated  in  the  body  politic. 
These  Negroes  brought  with  them  no  language  or 
religion  or  customs  of  their  own  which  persisted 
but  adopted  all  these  elements  of  environment 
from  the  dominant  race,  taking  the  names  of  their 
masters  just  as  to-day  the  German  and  Polish  Jews 
are  assuming  American  names.  They  came  for 
the  most  part  from  the  coasts  of  the  Bight  of 
Benin,  but  some  of  the  later  ones  came  from  the 
southeast  coast  of  Africa  by  way  of  Zanzibar. 
They  were  of  various  black  tribes  but  have  been 
from  the  beginning  saturated  with  white  blood. 

Looking  at  any  group  of  Negroes  in  America,  es- 
pecially in  the  North,  it  is  easy  to  see  that  while  they 
are  all  essentially  Negroes,  whether  coal-black, 
brown  or  yellow,  a  great  many  of  them  have  vary- 
ing amounts  of  Nordic  blood  in  them,  which  has 
in  some  respects  modified  their  physical  structure 
without  transforming  them  in  any  way  into  white 
men.  This  miscegenation  was,  of  course,  a  frightful 
disgrace  to  the  dominant  race  but  its  effect  on  the 
Nordics  has  been  negligible,  for  the  simple  reason 
that  it  was  confined  to  white  men  crossing  with 
Negro  women  and  did  not  involve  the  reverse  proc- 
ess, which  would,  of  course,  have  resulted  in  the 
infusion  of  Negro  blood  into  the  American  stock. 


The  United  States  of  America  must  be  regarded 
racially  as  a  European  colony  and  owing  to  cur- 
rent ignorance  of  the  physical  bases  of  race,  one 
often  hears  the  statement  made  that  native  Amer- 
icans of  Colonial  ancestry  are  of  mixed  ethnic 

This  is  not  true. 

At  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  War  the  set- 
tlers in  the  thirteen  Colonies  were  overwhelmingly 
Nordic,  a  very  large  majority  being  Anglo-Saxon 
in  the  most  limited  meaning  of  that  term.  The 
New  England  settlers  in  particular  came  from 
those  counties  of  England  where  the  blood  was 
almost  purely  Saxon,  Anglian,  Norse  and  Dane. 
The  date  of  their  migration  was  earlier  than  the 
resurgence  of  the  Mediterranean  type  that  has  so 
greatly  expanded  in  England  during  the  last  cen- 
tury with  the  growth  of  manufacturing  towns. 

New  England  during  Colonial  times  and  long 
afterward  was  far  more  Nordic  than  old  Eng- 
land; that  is,  it  contained  a  smaller  percentage  of 
small,  Pre-Nordic  brunets.  Any  one  familiar  with 
the  native  New  Englander  knows  the  clean  cut  face, 
the  high  stature  and  the  prevalence  of  gray  and  blue 
eyes  and  light  brown  hair  and  recognizes  that  the 
brunet  element  is  less  noticeable  there  than  in  the 

The  Southern  States  were  populated  also  by 
Englishmen  of  the  purest  Nordic  type  but  there  is 


to-day,  except  among  the  mountains,  an  appreci- 
ably larger  amount  of  brunet  types  than  in  the 
North.  Virginia  is  in  the  same  latitude  as  North 
Africa  and  south  of  this  line  no  blonds  have  ever 
been  able  to  survive  in  full  vigor,  chiefly  because 
the  actinic  rays  of  the  sun  are  the  same  regardless 
of  other  climatic  conditions.  These  rays  beat 
heavily  on  the  Nordic  race  and  disturb  their  ner- 
vous system,  wherever  the  white  man  ventures  too 
far  from  the  cold  and  foggy  North. 

The  remaining  Colonial  elements,  the  Holland 
Dutch  and  the  Palatine  Germans,  who  came  over  in 
small  numbers  to  New  York  and  Pennsylvania, 
were  also  largely  Nordic,  while  many  of  the  French 
Huguenots  who  escaped  to  America  were  drawn 
from  the  same  racial  element  in  France.  The 
Scotch-Irish,  who  were  numerous  on  the  frontier 
of  the  middle  Colonies  were,  of  course,  of  pure 
Scotch  and  English  blood,  although  they  had  re- 
sided in  Ireland  for  two  or  three  generations.  They 
were  quite  free  from  admixture  with  the  earlier 
Irish,  from  whom  they  were  cut  off  socially  by  bitter 
religious  antagonism  and  they  are  not  to  be  con- 
sidered as  "Irish"  in  any  sense. 

There  was  no  important  immigration  of  other 
elements  until  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury when  Irish  Catholic  and  German  immigrants 
appear  for  the  first  time  upon  the  scene. 

The  Nordic  blood  was  kept  pure  in  the  Colonies 



because  at  that  time  among  Protestant  peoples 
there  was  a  strong  race  feeling,  as  a  result  of  which 
half-breeds  between  the  white  man  and  any  native 
type  were  regarded  as  natives  and  not  as  white 

There  was  plenty  of  mixture  with  the  Negroes  as 
the  light  color  of  many  Negroes  abundantly  testifies, 
but  these  mulattoes,  quadroons  or  octoroons  were 
then  and  are  now  universally  regarded  as  Negroes. 

There  was  also  abundant  cross  breeding  along 
the  frontiers  between  the  white  frontiersman  and 
the  Indian  squaw  but  the  half-breed  was  every- 
where regarded  as  a  member  of  the  inferior  race. 

In  the  Catholic  colonies,  however,  of  New  France 
and  New  Spain,  if  the  half-breed  were  a  good 
Catholic  he  was  regarded  as  a  Frenchman  or  a 
Spaniard,  as  the  case  might  be.  This  fact  alone 
gives  the  clew  to  many  of  our  Colonial  wars  where 
the  Indians,  other  than  the  Iroquois,  were  per- 
suaded to  join  the  French  against  the  Americans 
by  half-breeds  who  considered  themselves  French- 
men. The  Church  of  Rome  has  everywhere  used*^- 
its  influence  to  break  down  racial  distinctions.  It 
disregards  origins  and  only  requires  obedience  to 
the  mandates  of  the  universal  church.  In  that  lies 
the  secret  of  the  opposition  of  Rome  to  all  national 
movements.  It  maintains  the  imperial  as  con- 
trasted with  the  nationalistic  ideal  and  in  that  re- 
spect its  inheritance  is  direct  from  the  Empire. 


Race  consciousness  in  the  Colonies  and  in  the 
United  States,  down  to  and  including  the  Mexican 
War,  seems  to  have  been  very  strongly  developed 
among  native  Americans  and  it  still  remains  in  full 
vigor  to-day  in  the  South,  where  the  presence  of  a 
large  Negro  population  forces  this  question  upon  the 
daily  attention  of  the  whites. 

In  New  England,  however,  whether  through  the 
decline  of  Calvinism  or  the  growth  of  altruism, 
there  appeared  early  in  the  last  century  a  wave  of 
sentimentalism,  which  at  that  time  took  up  the 
cause  of  the  Negro  and  in  so  doing  apparently  de- 
stroyed, to  a  large  extent,  pride  and  consciousness 
of  race  in  the  North.  The  agitation  over  slavery 
was  inimical  to  the  Nordic  race,  because  it  thrust 
aside  all  national  opposition  to  the  intrusion  of 
hordes  of  immigrants  of  inferior  racial  value  and 
prevented  the  fixing  of  a  definite  American  type. 

The  Civil  War  was  fought  almost  entirely  by 
unalloyed  native  Americans.  The  Irish  immi- 
grants were,  at  the  middle  of  the  last  century, 
confined  to  a  few  States  and,  being  chiefly  do- 
mestic servants  or  day  laborers,  were  of  no  social 
importance.  They  gathered  in  the  large  cities 
and  by  voting  as  a  solid  block  for  their  own  collec- 
tive benefit  quickly  demoralized  the  governments 
of  the  municipalities  in  which  they  secured  ascen- 
dancy. The  German  immigrants  who  came  to 
America  about  the  same  time  were  chiefly  enthusi- 


asts  who  had  taken  part  in  the  German  Revolution 
of  '48.  In  spite  of  the  handicap  of  a  strange  lan- 
guage they  formed  a  more  docile  and  educated 
element  than  the  Irish  and  were  more  prone  to 
scatter  into  the  rural  districts.  Neither  the  Irish 
nor  the  Germans  played  an  important  part  in  the 
development  or  policies  of  the  nation  as  a  whole, 
although  in  the  Civil  War  they  each  contributed  a 
relatively  large  number  of  soldiers  to  the  Northern 
army.  These  Irish  and  German  elements  were  for 
the  most  part  of  the  Nordic  race  and  while  they 
did  not  in  the  least  strengthen  the  nation  either 
morally  or  intellectually  they  did  not  impair  its 

There  has  been  little  or  no  Indian  blood  taken 
into  the  veins  of  the  native  American,  except  in 
States  like  Oklahoma  and  in  some  isolated  families 
scattered  here  and  there  in  the  Northwest.  This 
particular  mixture  will  play  no  very  important  role 
in  future  combinations  of  race  on  this  continent, 
except  in  the  north  of  Canada. 

The  native  American  has  always  found  and  finds 
now  in  the  black  men  willing  followers  who  ask 
only  to  obey  and  to  further  the  ideals  and  wishes 
of  the  master  race,  without  trying  to  inject  into  the 
body  politic  their  own  views,  whether  racial,  re- 
ligious or  social.  Negroes  are  never  socialists  or 
labor  unionists  and  as  long  as  the  dominant  im- 
poses its  will  on  the  servient  race  and  as  long  as 


they  remain  in  the  same  relation  to  the  whites  as  in  / 
the  past,  the  Negroes  will  be  a  valuable  element  in  y^f 
the  community  but  once  raised  to  social  equality  ( 
their  influence  will  be  destructive  to  themselves  J 
and  to  the  whites.     If  the  purity  of  the  two  races 
is  to  be  maintained  they  cannot  continue  to  live 
side  by  side  and  this  is  a  problem  from  which  there 
can  be  no  escape. 

The  native  American  by  the  middle  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  was  rapidly  acquiring  distinct  char- 
acteristics. Derived  from  the  Saxon  and  Danish 
parts  of  the  British  Isles  and  being  almost  purely 
Nordic  he  was  by  reason  of  a  differential  selection 
due  to  a  new  environment  beginning  to  show 
physical  peculiarities  of  his  own  slightly  variant 
from  those  of  his  English  forefathers  and  corre- 
sponding rather  with  the  idealistic  Elizabethan  than 
with  the  materialistic  Hanoverian  Englishman. 
The  Civil  War,  however,  put  a  severe,  perhaps 
fatal,  check  to  the  development  and  expansion  of 
this  splendid  type  by  destroying  great  numbers  of 
the  best  breeding  stock  on  both  sides  and  by  break- 
ing up  the  home  ties  of  many  more.  If  the  war 
had  not  occurred  these  same  men  with  their  de- 
scendants would  have  populated  the  Western 
States  instead  of  the  racial  nondescripts  who  are 
now  flocking  there. 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  native 
stock  would  have  continued  to  maintain  a  high  rate 


of  increase  if  there  had  been  no  immigration  of 
foreign  laborers  in  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth 
century  and  that  the  actual  population  of  the  United 
States  would  be  fully  as  large  as  it  is  now  but 
would  have  been  almost  exclusively  native  Ameri- 
can and  Nordic. 

The  prosperity  that  followed  the  war  attracted 
hordes  of  newcomers  who  were  welcomed  by  the      >/ 
native  Americans  to  operate  factories,  build  rail- 
roads and  fill  up  the  waste  spaces — "developing 
the  country"  it  was  called. 

These  new  immigrants  were  no  longer  exclusively 
members  of  the  Nordic  race  as  were  the  earlier  ones 
who  came  of  their  own  impulse  to  improve  their 
social  conditions.  The  transportation  lines  adver- 
tised America  as  a  land  flowing  with  milk  and 
honey  and  the  European  governments  took  the 
opportunity  to  unload  upon  careless,  wealthy  and 
hospitable  America  the  sweepings  of  their  jails  antf 
asylums.  The  result  was  that  the  new  immigra- 
tion, while  it  still  included  many  strong  elements 
from  the  north  of  Europe,  contained  a  large  and 
increasing  number  of  the  weak,  the  broken  and  the 
mentally  crippled  of  all  races  drawn  from  the  low- 
est stratum  of  the  Mediterranean  basin  and  the 
Balkans,  together  with  hordes  of  the  wretched,  sub- 
merged populations  of  the  Polish  Ghettos.  Our 
jails,  insane  asylums  and  almshouses  are  filled  with 
this  human  flotsam  and  the  whole  tone  of  Amer- 



ican  life,  social,  moral  and  political  has  been 
lowered  and  vulgarized  by  them. 

With  a  pathetic  and  fatuous  belief  in  the  efficacy 
of  American  institutions  and  environment  to  re- 
verse or  obliterate  immemorial  hereditary  tenden- 
cies, these  newcomers  were  welcomed  and  given 
a  share  in  our  land  and  prosperity.  The  Ameri- 
can taxed  himself  to  sanitate  and  educate  these 
poor  helots  and  as  soon  as  they  could  speak 
English,  encouraged  them  to  enter  into  the  po- 
litical life,  first  of  municipalities  and  then  of  the 

The  native  Americans  are  splendid  raw  material, 
but  have  as  yet  only  an  imperfectly  developed 
national  consciousness.  They  lack  the  instinct 
of  self-preservation  in  a  racial  sense.  Unless  such 
an  instinct  develops  their  race  will  perish,  as  do  all 
organisms  which  disregard  this  primary  law  of 
nature.  Nature  had  granted  to  the  Americans 
of  a  century  ago  the  greatest  opportunity  in  re- 
corded history  to  produce  in  the  isolation  of  a  con- 
tinent a  powerful  and  racially  homogeneous  people 
and  had  provided  for  the  experiment  a  pure  race 
of  one  of  the  most  gifted  and  vigorous  stocks  on 
earth,  a  stock  free  from  the  diseases,  physical  and 
moral,  which  have  again  and  again  sapped  the 
vigor  of  the  older  lands.  Our  grandfathers  threw 
away  this  opportunity  in  the  blissful  ignorance  of 
national  childhood  and  inexperience. 


The  result  of  unlimited  immigration  is  showing 
plainly  in  the  rapid  decline  in  the  birth  rate  of 
native  Americans  because  the  poorer  classes  of 
Colonial  stock,  where  they  still  exist,  will  not  bring 
children  into  the  world  to  compete  in  the  labor  mar- 
ket with  the  Slovak,  the  Italian,  the  Syrian  and  the 
Jew.  The  native  American  is  too  proud  to  mix 
socially  with  them  and  is  gradually  withdrawing 
from  the  scene,  abandoning  to  these  aliens  the 
land  which  he  conquered  and  developed.  The 
man  of  the  old  stock  is  being  crowded  out  of  many 
country  districts  by  these  foreigners  just  as  he  is 
to-day  being  literally  driven  off  the  streets  of  New 
York  City  by  the  swarms  of  Polish  Jews.  These 
immigrants  adopt  the  language  of  the  native  Amer- 
ican, they  wear  his  clothes,  they  steal  his  name 
and  they  are  beginning  to  take  his  women,  but  they 
seldom  adopt  his  religion  or  understand  his  ideals 
and  while  he  is  being  elbowed  out  of  his  own  home 
the  American  looks  calmly  abroad  and  urges  on 
others  the  suicidal  ethics  which  are  exterminating 
his  own  race. 

When  the  test  of  actual  battle  comes,  it  will,  of 
course,  be  the  native  American  who  will  do  the 
fighting  and  suffer  the  losses.  With  him  will 
stand  the  immigrants  of  Nordic  blood,  but  there 
will  be  numbers  of  these  foreigners  in  the  large 
cities  who  will  prove  to  be  physically  unfit  for  mili- 
tary duty. 


As  to  what  the  future  mixture  will  be  it  is  evi- 
dent that  in  large  sections  of  the  country  the  na- 
tive American  will  entirely  disappear.  He  will  not 
intermarry  with  inferior  races  and  he  cannot  com- 
pete in  the  sweat  shop  and  in  the  street  trench  with 
the  newcomers.  Large  cities  from  the  days  of 
Rome,  Alexandria,  and  Byzantium  have  always 
been  gathering  points  of  diverse  races,  but  New 
York  is  becoming  a  cloaca  gentium  which  will  pro- 
duce many  amazing  racial  hybrids  and  some  ethnic 
horrors  that  will  be  beyond  the  powers  of  future 
anthropologists  to  unravel. 

One  thing  is  certain:  in  any  such  mixture,  the 
surviving  traits  will  be  determined  by  competition 
between  the  lowest  and  most  primitive  elements 
and  the  specialized  traits  of  Nordic  man;  his 
stature,  his  light  colored  eyes,  his  fair  skin  and 
light  colored  hair,  his  straight  nose  and  his  splendid 
fighting  and  moral  qualities,  will  have  little  part  in 
the  resultant  mixture. 

The  "survival  of  the  fittest"  means  the  survival 
of  the  type  best  adapted  to  existing  conditions  of 
environment,  which  to-day  are  the  tenement  and 
factory,  as  in  Colonial  times  they  were  the  clear- 
ing of  forests,  fighting  Indians,  farming  the  fields 
and  sailing  the  Seven  Seas.  From  the  point  of 
view  of  race  it  were  better  described  as  the  "sur- 
vival of  the  unfit." 

This  review  of  the  colonies  of  Europe  would  be 


discouraging  were  it  not  for  the  fact  that  thus  far 
little  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  suitability  of 
a  new  country  for  the  particular  colonists  who 
migrate  there.  The  process  of  sending  out  colonists 
is  as  old  as  mankind  itself  and  probably  in  the  last 
analysis  most  of  the  chief  races  of  the  world,  cer- 
tainly most  of  the  inhabitants  of  Europe,  represent 
the  descendants  of  successful  colonists. 

Success  in  colonization  depends  on  the  selection 
of  new  lands  and  climatic  conditions  in  harmony 
with  the  immemorial  requirements  of  the  incoming 
race.  The  adjustment  of  each  race  to  its  own  pecu- 
liar habitat  is  based  on  thousands  of  years  of  rigid 
selection  which  cannot  be  safely  ignored.  A  cer- 
tain isolation  and  freedom  from  competition  with 
other  races,  for  some  centuries  at  least,  is  also  im- 
portant, so  that  the  colonists  may  become  habitu- 
ated to  their  new  surroundings. 

The  Americans  have  not  been  on  the  continent 
long  enough  to  acquire  this  adjustment  and  con- 
sequently do  not  present  as  effective  a  resistance 
to  competition  with  immigrants  as  did,  let  us  say, 
the  Italians  when  overrun  by  northern  barbarians. 
As  soon  as  a  group  of  men  migrate  to  new  surround- 
ings, climatic,  social  or  industrial,  a  new  form  of 
selection  arises  and  those  not  fitted  to  the  new 
conditions  die  off  at  a  greater  rate  than  in  their 
original  home.  This  form  of  differential  selection 
plays   a  large   part  in  modern  industrial  centres 


and  in  large  cities,  where  unsanitary  conditions 
bear  more  heavily  on  the  children  of  Nordics  than 
on  those  of  Alpines  or  Mediterraneans. 



Before  considering  the  living  populations  of 
Europe  we  must  give  consideration  to  the  extinct 
peoples  that  preceded  them. 

The  science  of  anthropology  is  very  recent — in 
its  present  form  less  than  fifty  years  old — but  it  has 
already  revolutionized  our  knowledge  of  the  past 
and  extended  prehistory  so  that  it  is  now  measured 
not  by  thousands  but  by  tens  of  thousands  of 

The  history  of  man  prior  to  the  period  of  metals 
has  been  divided  into  ten  or  more  subdivisions, 
many  of  them  longer  than  the  time  covered  by 
written  records.  Man  has  struggled  up  through 
the  ages,  to  revert  again  and  again  into  sav- 
agery and  barbarism  but  apparently  retaining  each 
time  something  gained  by  the  travail  of  his  an- 

So  long  as  there  is  in  the  world  a  freely  breeding 
stock  or  race  that  has  in  it  an  inherent  capacity  for 
development  and  growth,  mankind  will  continue 
to  ascend  until,  possibly  through  the  selection  arid 
regulation  of  breeding  as  intelligently  applied  as 




in  the  case  of  domestic  animals,  it  will  control  its 
own  destiny  and  attain  moral  heights  as  yet  un- 

The  impulse  upward,  however,  is  supplied  by  a 
very  small  number  of  nations  and  by  a  very  small 
proportion  of  the  population  in  such  nations.  The 
section  of  any  community  that  produces  leaders  or 
genius  of  any  sort  is  only  a  minute  percentage. 
To  utilize  and  adapt  to  human  needs  the  forces  and 
the  raw  materials  of  nature,  to  invent  new  proc- 
esses, to  establish  new  principles,  and  to  elucidate 
and  unravel  the  laws  that  control  the  universe  call 
for  genius.  To  imitate  or  to  adopt  what  others 
have  invented  is  not  genius  but  mimicry. 

This  something  which  we  call  "genius"  is  not  a 
matter  of  family,  but  of  stock  or  strain,  and  is  in- 
herited in  precisely  the  same  manner  as  are  the 
purely  physical  characters.  It  may  be  latent 
through  several  generations  of  obscurity  and  then 
flare  up  when  the  opportunity  comes.  Of  this  we 
have  many  examples  in  America.  This  is  what 
education  or  opportunity  does  for  a  community;  it 
permits  in  these  rare  cases  fair  play  for  develop- 
ment, but  it  is  race,  always  race,  that  produces 
genius.  An  individual  of  inferior  type  or  race 
may  profit  greatly  by  good  environment.  On  the 
other  hand,  a  member  of  a  superior  race  in  bad 
surroundings  may,  and  very  often  does,  sink  to  an 
extremely  low  level.     While  emphasizing  the  im- 


portance  of  race,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that 
environment,  while  it  does  not  alter  the  potential 
capacity  of  the  stock,  can  perform  miracles  in  the 
development  of  the  individual. 

This  genius  producing  type  is  slow  breeding  and 
there  is  real  danger  of  its  loss  to  mankind.  Some 
idea  of  the  value  of  these  small  strains  can  be 
gained  from  the  recent  statistics  which  demonstrate 
that  Massachusetts  produces  more  than  fifty  times 
as  much  genius  per  hundred  thousand  whites  as  does 
Georgia,  Alabama  or  Mississippi,  although  appar- 
ently the  race,  religion  and  environment,  other  than 
climatic  conditions,  are  much  the  same,  except  for 
the  numbing  presence  in  the  South  of  a  large  sta- 
tionary Negro  population. 

The  more  thorough  the  study  of  European  pre- 
history becomes,  the  more  we  realize  how  many 
advances  of  culture  have  been  made  and  then  lost. 
Our  parents  were  accustomed  to  regard  the  over- 
throw of  ancient  -civilization  in  the  Dark  Ages  as 
the  greatest  catastrophe  of  mankind,  but  we  now 
know  that  the  classic  period  of  Greece  was  pre- 
ceded by  similar  dark  ages  caused  by  the  Dorian 
invasions,  that  had  overthrown  the  Homeric-Myce- 
naean culture,  which  in  its  turn  had  flourished 
after  the  destruction  of  its  parent,  the  brilliant 
Minoan  culture  of  Crete.  Still  earlier,  some  twelve 
thousand  years  ago,  the  Azilian  Period  of  poverty 
and  retrogression  succeeded  the  wonderful  achieve- 




ments  of  the  hunter-artists  of  the  Upper  Paleo- 

The  progress  of  civilization  becomes  evident  only 
when  immense  periods  are  studied  and  compared, 
but  the  lesson  is  always  the  same,  namely,  that 
race  is  everything.  Without  race  there  can  be 
nothing  except  the  slave  wearing  his  master's 
clothes,  stealing  his  master's  proud  name,  adopt- 
ing his  master's  tongue  and  living  in  the  crumbling 
ruins  of  his  master's  palace.  Everywhere  on  the 
sites  of  ancient  civilizations  the  Turk,  the  Kurd 
and  the  Bedouin  camp;  and  Americans  may  well 
pause  and  consider  the  fate  of  this  country  which 
they,  and  they  alone,  founded  and  nourished  with 
their  blood.  The  immigrant  ditch  diggers  and  the 
railroad  navvies  were  to  our  fathers  what  their 
slaves  were  to  the  Romans  and  the  same  transfer 
of  political  power  from  master  to  servant  is  taking 
place  to-day. 

Man's  place  of  origin  was  undoubtedly  Asia. 
Europe  is  only  a  peninsula  of  the  Eurasiatic  conti- 
nent and  although  the  extent  of  its  land  area 
during  the  Pleistocene  was  much  greater  than 
at  present,  it  is  certain  from  the  distribution  of 
the  various  species  of  man,  that  the  main  races 
evolved  in  Asia,  probably  north  of  the  great  Hima- 
layan range  long  before  the  centre  of  that  con- 
tinent was  reduced  to  a  series  of  deserts  by  pro- 
gressive desiccation. 


The  evidence  based  on  man's  relatively  large 
bulk,  on  the  lack  of  the  development  of  his  fore 
limbs  and  particularly  on  his  highly  specialized 
foot  structure  all  indicate  that  he  has  not  been 
arboreal  for  a  vast  period  of  time,  probably  not 
since  the  end  of  the  Miocene.  The  change  of 
habitat  from  the  trees  to  the  ground  may  have  been 
caused  by  a  profound  modification  of  climate, 
from  moist  to  dry  or  from  warm  to  cold,  which 
in  turn  may  have  affected  the  food  supply  and  com- 
pelled a  more  carnivorous  diet. 

Evidence  of  the  location  of  the  early  evolution 
of  man  in  Asia  and  in  the  geologically  recent  sub- 
merged area  toward  the  southeast  is  afforded  by 
the  fossil  deposits  in  the  Siwalik  hills  of  northern 
India;  where  the  remains  of  primates  have  been 
found  which  were  either  ancestral  or  closely  re- 
lated to  the  four  genera  of  living  anthropoids  and 
where  we  may  confidently  look  for  remains  of 
the  earliest  human  forms;  and  by  the  discovery  in 
Java,  which  in  Pliocene  times  was  connected  with 
the  mainland  over  what  is  now  the  South  China 
Sea,  of  the  earliest  known  form  of  erect  primate, 
the  Pithecanthropus.  This  apelike  man  is  prac- 
tically the  "missing  link,"  being  intermediate  be- 
tween man  and  the  anthropoids  and  is  generally 
believed  to  have  been  contemporary  with  the  Gtinz 
glaciation  of  some  500,000  years  ago,  the  first  of 
the  four  great  glacial  advances  in  Europe. 


One  or  two  species  of  anthropoid  apes  have 
been  discovered  in  the  Miocene  of  Europe  which 
may  possibly  have  been  remotely  related  to  the 
ancestors  of  man  but  when  the  archaeological  ex- 
ploration of  Asia  shall  be  as  complete  and  inten- 
sive as  that  of  Europe  it  is  probable  that  more 
forms  of  fossil  anthropoids  and  new  species  of  man 
will  be  found  there. 

Man  existed  in  Europe  during  the  second  and 
third  interglacial  periods,  if  not  earlier.  We  have 
his  artifacts  in  the  form  of  eoliths,  at  least  as  early 
as  the  second  interglacial  stage,  the  Mindel-Riss, 
of  some  300,000  years  ago.  A  single  jaw  found  near 
Heidelberg  is  referred  to  this  period  and  is  the 
earliest  skeletal  evidence  of  man  in  Europe.  From 
certain  remarkable  characters  in  this  jaw,  it  has  been 
assigned  to  a  new  species,  Homo  heidelbergensis. 

Then  follows  a  long  period  showing  only  scanty 
industrial  relics  and  no  known  skeletal  remains. 
Man  was  slowly  and  painfully  struggling  up  from  a 
culture  phase  where  chance  flints  served  his  tem- 
porary purpose.  This  period,  known  as  the  Eo- 
lithic,  was  succeeded  by  a  stage  of  human  develop- 
ment where  slight  chipping  and  retouching  of  flints 
for  his  increasing  needs  led,  after  vast  intervals  of 
time,  to  the  deliberate  manufacture  of  tools.  This 
Eolithic  Period  is  necessarily  extremely  hazy  and 
uncertain.  Whether  or  not  certain  chipped  or 
broken  flints,  called  eoliths  or  dawn  stones,  were 


actually  human  artifacts  or  were  the  products  of 
natural  forces  is,  however,  immaterial  for  man  must 
have  passed  through  such  an  eolithic  stage. 

The  further  back  we  go  toward  the  commence- 
ment of  this  Eolithic  culture,  the  more  unrecogniza- 
ble the  flints  necessarily  become  until  they  finally 
cannot  be  distinguished  from  natural  stone  frag- 
ments. At  the  beginning,  the  earliest  man  merely 
picked  up  a  convenient  stone,  used  it  once  and 
flung  it  away,  precisely  as  an  anthropoid  ape  would 
act  to-day  if  he  wanted  to  break  the  shell  of  a  tor- 
toise or  crack  an  ostrich  egg. 

Man  must  have  experienced  the  following  phases 
of  development  in  the  transition  from  the  prehu- 
man to  the  human  stage:  first,  the  utilization  of 
chance  stones  and  sticks;  second,  the  casual  adap- 
tation of  flints  by  a  minimum  amount  of  chipping; 
third,  the  deliberate  manufacture  of  the  simplest 
implements  from  flint  nodules;  and  fourth,  the  in- 
vention of  new  forms  of  weapons  and  tools  in  ever 
increasing  variety. 

Of  the  last  two  stages  we  have  an  extensive  and 
clear  record.  Of  the  second  stage  we  have  in  the 
eoliths  intermediate  forms  ranging  from  flints  that 
are  evidently  results  of  natural  causes  to  flints  that 
are  clearly  artifacts.  The  first  and  earliest  stage, 
of  course,  could  leave  behind  it  no  definite  record 
and  must  in  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge  rest 
on  hypothesis. 



With  the  deliberate  manufacture  of  implements 
from  flint  nodules,  we  enter  the  beginning  of  Paleo- 
lithic time  and  from  here  on  our  way  is  relatively 
clear.  The  successive  stages  of  the  Paleolithic  were 
of  great  length  but  are  each  characterized  by  some 
improvement  in  the  manufacture  of  tools.  Dur- 
ing long  ages  man  was  merely  a  tool  making  and 
tool  using  animal  and,  after  all  is  said,  that  is 
about  as  good  a  definition  as  we  can  find  to-day 
for  the  primate  we  call  human. 

The  Paleolithic  Period  or  Old  Stone  Age  lasted 
from  the  somewhat  indefinite  termination  of  the 
Eolithic,  some  150,000  years  ago,  to  the  Neo- 
lithic or  New  Stone  Age,  which  began  about  7000 
B.  C. 

The  Paleolithic  falls  naturally  into  three  great 
subdivisions.  The  Lower  Paleolithic  includes  the 
whole  of  the  last  interglacial  stage  with  the  sub- 
divisions of  the  Pre-Chellean,  Chellean  and  Acheu- 
lean;  the  Middle  Paleolithic  covers  the  whole  of 
the  last  glaciation  and   is  co-extensive   with   the 

Mousterian  Period  and  the  dominance  of  the  Nean- 



derthal  species  of  man.*  The  Upper  Paleolithic 
embraces  all  the  postglacial  stages  down  to  the 
Neolithic  and  includes  the  subdivisions  of  the 
Aurignacian,  Solutrean,  Magdalenian  and  Azilian. 
During  the  entire  Upper  Paleolithic,  except  the  short 
closing  phase,  the  Cro-Magnon  race  flourished. 

It  is  not  until  after  the  third  severe  period  of 
great  cold,  known  as  the  Riss  glaciation,  nor  until 
we  enter,  some  150,000  years  ago,  the  third  and 
last  interglacial  stage  of  temperate  climate,  known 
as  the  Riss-Wurm,  that  we  find  a  definite  and  as- 
cending series  of  culture.  The  Pre-Chellean,  Chel- 
lean  and  Acheulean  divisions  of  the  Lower  Paleo- 
lithic occupied  the  whole  of  this  warm  or  rather 
temperate  interglacial  phase,  which  lasted  nearly 
100,000  years. 

A  shattered  skull,  a  jaw  and  some  teeth  have 
been  discovered  recently  in  Sussex,  England.  These 
remains  were  attributed  to  the  same  individual, 
who  was  named  the  Piltdown  Man.  Owing  to  the 
extraordinary  thickness  of  the  skull  and  the  simian 
character  of  the  jaw,  a  new  genus,  Eoanthropus, 
the  "dawn  man,"  was  created  and  assigned  to 
Pre-Chellean  times.  Some  of  the  tentative  resto- 
rations of  the  fragmentary  bones  make  this  skull 
altogether  too  modern  and  too  capacious  for  a  Pre- 
Chellean  or  even  a  Chellean. 

*  The  Middle  Paleolithic  Period  is  suggested  here  for  the  first  time. 
— Editor's  Nots. 


Further  study  and  comparison  with  the  jaws 
of  other  primates  also  indicate  that  the  jaw 
belonged  to  a  chimpanzee  so  that  the  genus 
Eoanthropus  must  now  be  abandoned  and  the  Pilt- 
down  Man  must  be  included  in  the  genus  Homo 
as  at  present  constituted. 

In  any  event  the  Piltdown  Man  is  highly  aberrant 
and,  so  far  as  our  present  knowledge  goes,  does  not 
appear  to  be  related  to  any  other  species  of  man 
found  during  the  Lower  Paleolithic.  Future  dis- 
coveries of  the  Piltdown  type  and  for  that  matter 
of  Heidelberg  Man  may,  however,  raise  either  or 
both  of  them  to  generic  rank. 

In  later  Acheulean  times  a  new  human  species, 
very  likely  descended  from  the  early  Heidelberg 
Man  of  Eolithic  times,  appears  on  the  scene  and  is 
known  as  the  Neanderthal  race.  Many  fossil  re- 
mains of  this  type  have  been  found. 

The  Neanderthaloids  occupied  the  European 
stage  exclusively,  with  the  possible  exception  of 
the  Piltdown  Man,  from  the  first  appearance  of 
man  in  Europe  to  the  end  of  the  Middle  Paleo- 
lithic. The  Neanderthals  nourished  throughout 
the  entire  duration  of  the  last  glacial  advance 
known  as  the  Wiirm  glaciation.  This  period, 
known  as  the  Mousterian,  began  about  50,000 
years  ago  and  lasted  some  25,000  years. 

The  Neanderthal  species  disappears  suddenly 
and  completely  with  the  advent  of  postglacial  times, 


when,  about  25,000  years  ago,  it  was  apparently 
supplanted  or  exterminated  by  a  new  and  far 
higher  race,  the  famous  Cro-Magnons. 

There  may  well  have  been  during  Mousterian 
times  races  of  man  in  Europe  other  than  the  Ne- 
anderthaloids,  but  of  them  we  have  no  record. 
Among  the  numerous  remains  of  Neanderthals, 
however,  we  do  find  traces  of  distinct  types  show- 
ing that  this  race  in  Europe  was  undergoing  evo- 
lution and  was  developing  marked  variations  in 

Neanderthal  Man  was  an  almost  purely  meat 
eating  hunter,  living  in  caves  or  rather  in  their  en- 
trances. He  was  dolichocephalic  and  not  unlike 
existing  Australoids,  although  not  necessarily  of 
black  skin  and  was,  of  course,  in  no  sense  a  Negro. 

The  skull  was  characterized  by  heavy  super- 
orbital  ridges,  a  low  and  receding  forehead,  protrud- 
ing and  chinless  under  jaw  and  the  posture  was  im- 
perfectly erect.  This  race  was  widely  spread  and 
rather  numerous.  Some  of  its  blood  may  have 
trickled  down  to  the  present  time  and  occasionally 
one  sees  a  skull  apparently  of  the  Neanderthal 
type.  The  best  skull  of  this  type  ever  seen  by  the 
writer  belonged  to  a  very  intellectual  professor  in 
London,  who  was  quite  unconscious  of  his  value  as 
a  museum  specimen.  In  the  old  black  breed  of 
Scotland  the  overhanging  brows  and  deep-set  eyes 
are  suggestive  of  this  race. 


Along  with  other  ancient  and  primitive  racial 
remnants,  ferocious  gorilla-like  living  specimens 
of  Paleolithic  man  are  found  not  infrequently  on 
the  west  coast  of  Ireland  and  are  easily  recog- 
nized by  the  great  upper  lip,  bridgeless  nose,  bee- 
tling brow  with  low  growing  hair  and  wild  and 
savage  aspect.  The  proportions  of  the  skull  which 
give  rise  to  this  large  upper  lip,  the  low  forehead 
and  the  superorbital  ridges  are  certainly  Neander- 
thal characters.  The  other  traits  of  this  Irish  type 
are  common  to  many  primitive  races.  This  is  the 
Irishman  of  caricature  and  the  type  was  very  fre- 
quent in  America  when  the  first  Irish  immigrants 
came  in  1846  and  the  following  years.  It  seems, 
however,  to  have  almost  disappeared  in  this  coun- 
try. If,  as  it  is  claimed,  the  Neanderthals  have 
left  no  trace  of  their  blood  in  living  populations, 
these  Firbolgs  are  derived  from  some  very  ancient 
and  primitive  race  as  yet  undescribed. 

In  the  Upper  Paleolithic,  which  began  after  the 
close  of  the  fourth  and  last  glaciation,  about  25,000 
years  ago,  the  Neanderthal  race  was  succeeded  by 
men  of  very  modern  aspect,  known  as  Cro-Mag- 
nons.  The  date  of  the  beginning  of  the  Upper 
Paleolithic  is  the  first  we  can  fix  with  accuracy  and 
its  correctness  can  be  relied  on  within  narrow  limits. 
The  Cro-Magnon  race  first  appears  in  the  Aurigna- 
cian  subdivision  of  the  Upper  Paleolithic.  Like  the 
Neanderthals,  they  were  dolichocephalic  but  with 


a  cranial  capacity  superior  to  the  average  in  exist- 
ing European  populations  and  a  stature  of  very  re- 
markable size. 

It  is  quite  astonishing  to  find  that  the  predomi-  4 
nant  race  in  Europe  25,000  years  ago,  or  more, 
was  not  only  much  taller,  but  had  an  absolute 
cranial  capacity  in  excess  of  the  average  of  the 
present  population.  The  low  cranial  average  of 
existing  populations  in  Europe  can  be  best  ex- 
plained by  the  presence  of  large  numbers  of  indi- 
viduals of  inferior  mentality.  These  defectives 
have  been  carefully  preserved  by  modern  charity, 
whereas  in  the  savage  state  of  society  the  back- 
ward members  were  allowed  to  perish  and  the  race 
was  carried  on  by  the  vigorous  and  not  by  the 

The  high  brain  capacity  of  the  Cro-Magnons  is 
paralleled  by  that  of  the  ancient  Greeks,  who  in  a 
single  century  .gave  to  the  world  out  of  their  small 
population  much  more  genius  than  all  the  other 
races  of  mankind  have  since  succeeded  in  produc- 
ing in  a  similar  length  of  time.  Attica  between 
530  and  430  B.  C.  had  an  average  population  of 
about  90,000  freemen,  and  yet  from  this  number 
were  born  no  less  than  fourteen  geniuses  of  the 
very  highest  rank.  This  would  indicate  a  general 
intellectual  status  as  much  above  that  of  the 
Anglo-Saxons  as  the  latter  are  above  the  Negroes. 
The  existence  at  these  early  dates  of  a  very  high 


cranial  capacity  and  its  later  decline  shows  that 
there  is  no  upward  tendency  inherent  in  mankind 
of  sufficient  strength  to  overcome  obstacles  placed 
in  its  way  by  stupid  social  customs. 

All  historians  are  familiar  with  the  phenomenon 
of  a  rise  and  decline  in  civilization  such  as  has  oc- 
curred time  and  again  in  the  history  of  the  world 
but  we  have  here  in  the  disappearance  of  the  Cro- 
Magnon  race  the  earliest  example  of  the  replace- 
ment of  a  very  superior  race  by  an  inferior  one. 
There  is  great  danger  of  a  similar  replacement  of  a 
higher  by  a  lower  type  here  in  America  unless  the 
native  American  uses  his  superior  intelligence  to 
protect  himself  and  his  children  from  competition 
with  intrusive  peoples  drained  from  the  lowest 
races  of  eastern  Europe  and  western  Asia. 

While  the  skull  of  the  Cro-Magnon  was  long,  the 
cheek  bones  were  very  broad  and  this  combina- 
tion of  broad  face  with  long  skull  constitutes  a 
peculiar  disharmonic  type  which  occurs  to-day  only 
among  the  very  highly  specialized  Esquimaux  and 
one  or  two  other  unimportant  groups. 

Skulls  of  this  particular  type,  however,  are  found 
in  small  numbers  among  existing  populations  in 
central  France,  precisely  in  the  district  where  the 
fossil  remains  of  this  race  were  first  discovered. 
These  isolated  Frenchmen  probably  represent  the 
last  lingering  remnant  of  this  splendid  race  of  hunt- 
ing savages. 


The  Cro-Magnon  culture  is  found  around  the 
basin  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  this  fact,  together 
with  the  conspicuous  absence  in  eastern  Europe  of 
its  earliest  phases,  the  lower  Aurignacian,  indicates 
that  it  entered  Europe  by  way  of  north  Africa, 
as  its  successors,  the  Mediterranean  race,  probably 
did  in  Neolithic  times.  There  is  little  doubt 
that  the  Cro-Magnons  originally  developed  in  Asia 
and  were  in  their  highest  stage  of  physical  devel- 
opment at  the  time  of  their  first  appearance  in 
Europe.  Whatever  change  took  place  in  their 
stature  during  their  residence  there  seems  to  have 
been  in  the  nature  of  a  decline  rather  than  of  a 
further  development. 

There  is  nothing  whatever  of  the  Negroid  in  the 
Cro-Magnons  and  they  are  not  in  any  way  related 
to  the  Neanderthals,  who  represent  a  distinct  and, 
save  for  the  suggestions  made  above,  an  extinct 
species  of  man. 

The  Cro-Magnon  race  persisted  through  the  en- 
tire Upper  Paleolithic,  during  the  periods  known 
as  the  Aurignacian,  Solutrean  and  Magdalenian, 
from  25,000  to  10,000  B.  C.  While  it  is  possible 
that  the  blood  of  this  race  enters  somewhat  into 
the  composition  of  the  peoples  of  western  Europe, 
its  influence  cannot  be  great  and  the  Cro-Mag- 
nons— the  Nordics  of  their  day — disappear  from 
view  with  the  advent  of  the  warmer  climate  of 
recent  times. 


It  has  been  suggested  that,  following  the  fading 
ice  edge  north  and  eastward  through  Asia  into 
North  America,  they  became  the  ancestors  of  the 
Esquimaux  but  certain  anatomical  objections  are 
fatal  to  this  interesting  theory.  No  one,  however, 
who  is  familiar  with  the  culture  of  the  Esquimaux 
and  especially  with  their  wonderful  skill  in  bone 
and  ivory  carving,  can  fail  to  be  struck  with  the 
similarity  of  their  technique  to  that  of  the  Cro- 

To  the  Cro-Magnon  race  the  world  owes  the  birth 
of  art.  Caverns  and  shelters  are  constantly  un- 
earthed in  France  and  Spain,  where  the  walls  and 
ceilings  are  covered  with  polychrome  paintings  or 
with  incised  bas-reliefs  of  animals  of  the  chase.  A 
few  clay  models,  sometimes  of  the  human  form, 
are  also  found,  together  with  abundant  remains  of 
their  chipped  but  unpolished  stone  weapons  and 
tools.  Certain  facts  stand  out  clearly,  namely, 
that  they  were  purely  hunters  and  clothed  them- 
selves in  furs  and  skins.  They  knew  nothing  of 
agriculture  or  of  domestic  animals,  even  the  dog 
being  probably  as  yet  untamed  and  the  horse  re- 
garded merely  as  an  object  of  chase. 

The  question  of  their  knowledge  of  the  principle 
of  the  bow  and  arrow  during  the  Aurignacian  and 
Solutrean  is  an  open  one  but  there  are  definite  in- 
dications of  the  use  of  the  arrow,  or  at  least  the 
barbed  dart,  in  early  Magdalenian  times  and  this 


weapon  was  well  known  in  the  succeeding  Azilian 

The  presence  toward  the  end  of  this  last  period 
of  quantities  of  very  small  flints  called  micro- 
liths  has  given  rise  to  much  controversy.  It  is 
possible  that  some  of  these  microliths  represent  the 
tips  of  small  poisoned  arrows  such  as  are  now  in 
very  general  use  among  primitive  hunting  tribes 
the  world  over.  Certain  grooves  in  some  of  the 
flint  weapons  of  the  Upper  Paleolithic  may  also 
have  been  used  for  the  reception  of  poison.  It  is 
highly  probable  that  the  immediate  predecessors  of 
the  Azilians,  the  Cro-Magnons,  perhaps  the  great- 
est hunters  that  ever  lived,  not  only  used  poisoned 
darts  but  were  adepts  in  trapping  game  by  means 
of  pitfalls  and  snares,  precisely  as  do  some  of  the 
hunting  tribes  of  Africa  to-day.  Barbed  arrow- 
heads of  flint  or  bone,  such  as  were  commonly  used 
by  the  North  American  Indians,  have  not  been 
found  in  Paleolithic  deposits. 

In  the  Solutrean  Period  the  Cro-Magnons  shared 
Europe  with  a  new  race  known  as  the  Briinn- 
Pfedmost,  found  in  central  Europe.  This  race 
is  characterized  by  a  long  face  as  well  as  a  long 
skull,  and  was,  therefore,  harmonic.  This  Briinn- 
Pfedmost  race  appears  to  have  been  well  settled 
in  the  Danubian  and  Hungarian  plains  and  this 
location  indicates  an  eastern  rather  than  a  southern 


Good  anatomists  have  seen  in  this  race  the  last 
lingering  traces  of  the  Neanderthaloids  but  it  is 
more  probable  that  we  have  here  the  first  advance 
wave  of  the  primitive  forerunners  of  one  of  the 
modern  European  dolichocephalic  races. 

This  new  race  was  not  artistic,  but  had  great 
skill  in  fashioning  weapons  and  possibly  is  associ- 
ated with  the  peculiarities  of  Solutrean  culture  and 
the  decline  of  art  which  characterizes  that  period. 
The  artistic  impulse  of  the  Cro-Magnons  which 
flourished  so  vigorously  during  the  Aurignacian 
seems  to  be  quite  suspended  during  this  Solutrean 
Period,  but  reappears  in  the  succeeding  Magdale- 
nian  times.  This  Magdalenian  art  is  clearly  the 
direct  descendant  of  Aurignacian  models  and  in 
this  closing  age  of  the  Cro-Magnons  all  forms  of 
Paleolithic  art,  carving,  engraving,  painting  and 
the  manufacture  of  weapons,  reach  their  highest 
and  final  culmination. 

Nine  or  ten  thousand  years  may  be  assigned  to 
the  Aurignacian  and  Solutrean  Periods  and  we 
may  with  considerable  certainty  give  the  minimum 
date  of  16,000  B.  C.  as  the  beginning  of  Magda- 
lenian time.  Its  entire  duration  can  be  safely  set 
down  at  6,000  years,  thus  bringing  the  final  termi- 
nation of  the  Magdalenian  to  10,000  B.  C.  All 
these  dates  are  extremely  conservative  and  the 
error,  if  any,  is  in  assigning  too  late  and  not  too 
early  a  period  to  the  end  of  Magdalenian  times. 


At  the  close  of  the  Magdalenian  we  enter  upon 
the  last  period  of  Paleolithic  times,  the  Azilian, 
which  lasted  from  about  10,000  to  7,000  B.  C,  when 
the  Upper  Paleolithic,  the  age  of  chipped  flints, 
definitely  and  finally  ends  in  Europe.  This  period 
takes  its  name  from  the  Mas  d'Azil,  or  "House  of 
Refuge,"  a  huge  cavern  in  the  eastern  Pyrenees 
where  the  local  Protestants  took  shelter  during  the 
persecutions.  The  extensive  deposits  in  this  cave 
are  typical  of  the  Azilian  epoch  and  here  certain 
marked  pebbles  may  be  the  earliest  known  traces 
of  symbolic  writing,  but  true  writing  was  probably 
not  developed  until  the  late  Neolithic. 

With  the  advent  of  this  Azilian  Period  art  en- 
tirely disappears  and  the  splendid  physical  type  of 
the  Cro-Magnons  is  succeeded  by  what  appear  to 
have  been  degraded  savages,  who  had  lost  the 
force  and  vigor  necessary  for  the  strenuous  chase 
of  large  game  and  had  turned  to  the  easier  life  of 

In  the  Azilian  the  bow  and  arrow  are  in  common 
use  in  Spain  and  it  is  well  within  the  possibilities 
that  the  introduction  and  development  of  this  new 
weapon  from  the  South  may  have  played  its  part 
in  the  destruction  of  the  Cro-Magnons;  otherwise 
it  is  hard  to  account  for  the  disappearance  of  this 
race  of  large  stature  and  great  brain  power. 

The  Azilian,  also  called  the  Tardenoisian  in  the 
north  of  France,  was  evidently  a  period  of  racial 


disturbance  and  at  its  close  the  beginnings  of  the 
existing  races  are  found. 

From  the  first  appearance  of  man  in  Europe 
and  for  many  tens  of  thousands  of  years  down  to 
some  ten  or  twelve  thousand  years  ago  all  known 
human  remains  are  of  dolichocephalic  type. 

In  the  Azilian  Period  appears  the  first  round 
skull  race.  It  comes  clearly  from  the  East.  Later 
we  shall  find  that  this  invasion  of  the  forerun- 
ners of  the  existing  Alpine  race  came  from  south- 
western Asia  by  way  of  the  Iranian  plateau, 
Asia  Minor,  the  Balkans  and  the  valley  of  the 
Danube,  and  spread  over  nearly  all  of  Europe. 
The  earlier  round  skull  invasions  may  as  well  have 
been  infiltrations  as  armed  conquests  since  ap- 
parently from  that  day  to  this  the  round  skulls 
have  occupied  the  poorer  mountain  districts  and 
have  seldom  ventured  down  to  the  rich  and  fertile 

This  new  brachycephalic  race  is  known  as  the 
Furfooz  or  Grenelle  race,  so  called  from  the  locali- 
ties in  Belgium  and  France  where  it  was  first  dis- 
covered. Members  of  this  round  skull  race  have 
also  been  found  at  Of  net  in  Bavaria  where  they 
occur  in  association  with  a  dolichocephalic  race, 
our  first  historic  evidence  of  the  mixture  of  con- 
trasted races.  The  descendants  of  this  Furfooz- 
Grenelle  race  and  of  the  succeeding  waves  of 
invaders   of  the   same  brachycephalic   type   now 


occupy  central  Europe  as  Alpines  and  form  the 
predominant  peasant  type  in  central  and  eastern 

In  this  same  Azilian  Period  there  appear,  com- 
ing this  time  from  the  South,  the  first  forerunners 
of  the  Mediterranean  race.  The  descendants  of 
this  earliest  wave  of  Mediterraneans  and  their  later 
reinforcements  occupy  all  the  coast  and  islands  of 
the  Mediterranean  and  are  spread  widely  over 
western  Europe.  They  can  everywhere  be  identi- 
fied by  their  short  stature,  slight  build,  long  skull 
and  brunet  hair  and  eyes. 

While  during  this  Azilian-Tardenoisian  Period 
these  ancestors  of  two  of  the  existing  European 
races  are  appearing  in  central  and  southern  Europe, 
a  new  culture  phase,  also  distinctly  Pre-Neolithic, 
was  developing  along  the  shores  of  the  Baltic.  It 
is  known  as  Maglemose  from  its  type  locality  in 
Denmark.  It  is  believed  to  be  the  work  of  the 
first  wave  of  the  Nordic  race  which  had  followed 
the  retreating  glaciers  northward  over  the  old  land 
connections  between  Denmark  and  Sweden  to  oc- 
cupy the  Scandinavian  Peninsula.  In  the  remains 
of  this  culture  we  find  definite  evidence  of  the  do- 
mesticated dog. 

With  the  appearance  of  the  Mediterranean  race 
the  Azilian-Tardenoisian  draws  to  its  close  and  with 
it  the  entire  Paleolithic  Period.  It  is  safe  to  assign 
for  the  end  of  the  Paleolithic  and  the  beginning  of 


the  Neolithic  or  Polished  Stone  Age,  the  date  of 
7,000  or  8,000  B.  C. 

The  races  of  the  Paleolithic  Period,  so  far  as  we 
can  judge  from  their  remains,  appear  successively 
on  the  scene  with  all  their  characters  fully  devel- 
oped. The  evolution  of  all  these  subspecies  and 
races  took  place  somewhere  in  Asia  or  eastern 
Europe.  None  of  these  races  appear  to  be  an- 
cestral one  to  another,  although  the  scanty  re- 
mains of  the  Heidelberg  Man  would  indicate  that 
he  may  have  given  rise  to  the  later  Neanderthals. 
Other  than  this  possible  affinity,  the  various  races 
of  Paleolithic  times  are  not  related  one  to  another. 



About  7,000  B.  C.  we  enter  an  entirely  new  period 
in  the  history  of  man,  the  Neolithic  or  New  Stone 
Age,  when  the  flint  implements  were  polished  and 
not  merely  chipped.  Early  as  is  this  date  in  Euro- 
pean culture,  we  are  not  far  from  the  beginnings 
of  an  elaborate  civilization  in  parts  of  Asia  and 
Egypt.  The  earliest  organized  governments,  so  far 
as  our  present  knowledge  goes,  were  Egypt  and 
Sumer.  Chinese  civilization  at  the  other  end  of 
Asia  is  later,  but  mystery  still  shrouds  its  origin  and 
its  connection,  if  any,  with  the  Mesopotamian 
city-states.  The  solution  probably  lies  in  the  cen- 
tral region  of  the  Syr  Darya  and  future  excavations 
in  those  regions  may  uncover  very  early  cultures. 
Balkh,  the  ancient  Bactra,  the  mother  of  cities,  is 
located  where  the  trade  routes  between  China, 
India  and  Mesopotamia  converged  and  it  is  in  this 
neighborhood  that  careful  and  thorough  excava- 
tions will  probably  find  their  greatest  reward. 

However,  we  are  not  dealing  with  Asia  but  with 
Europe  only  and  our  knowledge  is  confined  to  the 
fact  that  the  various  cultural  advances  at  the  end 
of  the  Paleolithic  and  the  beginning  of  the  Neo- 
lithic correspond  with  the  arrival  of  new  races. 



The  transition  from  the  Paleolithic  to  the  Neo- 
lithic was  formerly  considered  as  revolutionary, 
an  abrupt  change  of  both  race  and  culture,  but 
a  period  more  or  less  transitory,  known  as  the 
Campignian,  now  appears  to  bridge  over  this  gap. 
This  is  only  what  should  be  expected,  since  in 
human  archaeology  as  in  geology  the  more  de- 
tailed our  knowledge  becomes  the  more  gradu- 
ally we  find  one  period  or  horizon  merges  into 
its  successor. 

For  a  long  time  after  the  opening  of  the  Neo- 
lithic the  old-fashioned  chipped  weapons  and  im- 
plements remain  the  predominant  type  and  the 
polished  flints  so  characteristic  of  the  Neolithic 
appear  at  first  only  sporadically,  then  increase  in 
number  until  finally  .they  entirely  replace  the 
rougher  designs  of  the  preceding  Old  Stone  Age. 

So  in  their  turn  these  Neolithic  polished  stone 
implements,  which  ultimately  became  both  varied 
and  effective  as  weapons  and  tools,  continued 
in  use  long  after  metallurgy  developed.  In  the 
Bronze  Period  metal  armor  and  weapons  were 
for  ages  of  the  greatest  value.  So  they  were  nec- 
essarily in  the  possession  of  the  military  and  ruling 
classes  only,  while  the  unfortunate  serf  or  com- 
mon soldier  who  followed  his  master  to  war  did 
the  best  he  could  with  leather  shield  and  stone 
weapons.  In  the  ring  that  clustered  around 
Harold  for  the  last  stand  on  Senlac  Hill  many 


of  the  English  thanes  died  with  their  Saxon  king, 
armed  solely  with  the  stone  battle-axes  of  their 

In  Italy  also  there  was  a  long  period  known  to 
the  Italian  archaeologists  as  the  Eneolithic  Period 
when  good  flint  tools  existed  side  by  side  with  very 
poor  copper  and  bronze  implements;  so  that,  while 
the  Neolithic  lasted  in  western  Europe  four  or  five 
thousand  years,  it  is,  at  its  commencement,  with- 
out clear  definition  from  the  preceding  Paleolithic 
and  at  its  end  it  merges  gradually  into  the  suc- 
ceeding ages  of  metals. 

After  the  opening  Campignian  phase  there  fol- 
lowed a  long  period  typical  of  the  Neolithic,  known 
as  the  Robenhausian  or  Age  of  the  Swiss  Lake 
Dwellers,  which  reached  its  height  after  5000 
B.  C.  The  lake  dwellings  seem  to  have  been  the 
work  chiefly  of  the  round  skull  Alpine  races  and 
are  found  in  numbers  throughout  the  region  of  the 
Alps  and  their  foothills  and  along  the  valley  of  the 

These  Robenhausian  pile  built  villages  were  the 
earliest  known  form  of  fixed  habitation  in  Europe 
and  the  culture  found  in  association  with  them 
was  a  great  advance  over  that  of  the  preceding 
Paleolithic.  This  type  of  permanent  habitation 
flourished  through  the  entire  Upper  Neolithic  and 
the  succeeding  Bronze  Age.  Pile  villages  end  in 
Switzerland  with  the  first  appearance  of  iron  but 


elsewhere,  as  on  the  upper  Danube,  they  still  ex- 
isted in  the  days  of  Herodotus. 

Pottery  is  found  together  with  domesticated  ani- 
mals and  agriculture,  which  appear  during  the  Ro- 
benhausian  for  the  first  time.  The  chase,  supple- 
mented by  trapping  and  fishing,  was  still  common 
but  it  probably  was  more  for  clothing  than  for  food. 
A  permanent  site  is  not  alone  the  basis  of  an  agri- 
cultural community,  but  it  also  involves  at  least  a 
partial  abandonment  of  the  chase,  because  only 
nomads  can  follow  the  game  in  its  seasonal  migra- 
tions and  hunted  animals  soon  leave  the  neighbor- 
hood of  settlements. 

The  Terramara  Period  of  northern  Italy  was  a 
later  phase  of  culture  contemporaneous  with  the 
Upper  Robenhausian  and  was  typical  of  the  Bronze 
Age.  During  the  Terramara  Period  fortified  and 
moated  stations  in  swamps  or  close  to  the  banks  of 
rivers  became  the  favorite  resorts  instead  of  pile 
villages  built  in  lakes.  The  first  traces  of  copper 
are  found  during  this  period.  The  earliest  human 
remains  in  the  Terramara  deposits  are  long  skulled, 
but  round  skulls  soon  appear  in  association  with 
bronze  implements.  This  indicates  an  original 
population  of  Mediterranean  affinities  overwhelmed 
later  by  Alpines. 

Neolithic  culture  also  flourished  in  the  north  of 
Europe  and  particular^  in  Scandinavia  now  free 
from  ice.     The  coasts  of  the  Baltic  were  appar- 


ently  occupied  for  the  first  time  at  the  very  begin- 
ning of  this  period,  as  no  trace  of  Paleolithic  indus- 
try has  been  found  there,  other  than  the  Maglemose, 
which  represents  only  the  very  latest  phase  of  the 
Old  Stone  Age.  The  kitchen  middens,  or  refuse 
heaps,  of  Sweden  and  more  particularly  of  Denmark 
date  from  the  early  Neolithic  and  thus  are  some- 
what earlier  than  the  lake  dwellers.  Rough  pot- 
tery occurs  in  them  for  the  first  time,  but  no  traces 
of  agriculture  have  been  found  and,  as  said,  the  dog 
seems  to  have  been  the  only  domesticated  animal. 

From  these  two  centres,  the  Alps  and  the  North, 
an  elaborate  and  variegated  Neolithic  culture  spread 
through  western  Europe  and  an  autochthonous  de- 
velopment took  place,  comparatively  little  influ- 
enced by  trade  intercourse  with' Asia  after  the  first 
immigrations  of  the  new  races. 

We  may  assume  that  the  distribution  of  races  in 
Europe  during  the  Neolithic  was  roughly  as  follows. 

The  Mediterranean  basin  and  western  Europe, 
including  Spain,  Italy,  Gaul,  Britain  and  parts  of 
western  Germany,  were  populated  by  Mediterra- 
nean long  heads.  In  Britain  the  Paleolithic  popu- 
lation must  have  been  very  small  and  the  Neo- 
lithic Mediterraneans  were  the  first  effectively  to 
open  up  the  country.  Even  they  kept  to  the  open 
moorlands  and  avoided  the  heavily  wooded  and 
swampy  valleys  which  to-day  are  the  main  centres 
of  population.     Before  metal  and  especially  iron 


tools  were  in  use  forests  were  an  almost  complete 
barrier  to  the  expansion  of  an  agricultural  popula- 

The  Alps  and  the  territories  immediately  adja- 
cent, with  Central  Gaul  and  much  of  the  Balkans, 
were  inhabited  by  Alpine  types.  These  Alpines 
extended  northward  until  they  came  in  touch  in 
eastern  Germany  and  Poland  with  the  southern- 
most Nordics,  but  as  the  Carpathians  at  a  much 
later  date,  namely,  from  the  fourth  to  the  eighth 
century  A.  D.,  were  the  centre  of  radiation  of  the 
Alpine  Slavs,  it  is  very  possible  that  during  the 
Neolithic  the  early  Nordics  lay  farther  north  and 

North  of  the  Alpines  and  occupying  the  shores 
of  the  Baltic  and  Scandinavia,  together  with  east- 
ern Germany,  Poland  and  Russia,  were  located  the 
Nordics.     At  the  very  base  of  the  Neolithic  and 
perhaps  still  earlier,  this  race  occupied  Scandinavia, 
and  Sweden  became  the  nursery  of  what  has  been 
generally  called  the  Teutonic   subdivision  of  the 
Nordic  race.     It  was  in  that  country  that  the  pe-  / 
culiar  characters  of  stature  and  blondness  became  (    >J 
most  accentuated  and  it  is  there  that  we  find  them  ( 
to-day  in  their  greatest  purity. 

During  the  Neolithic  the  remnants  of  early 
Paleolithic  man  must  have  been  numerous,  but 
later  they  were  either  exterminated  or  absorbed  by 
the  existing  European  races. 


During  all  this  Neolithic  Period  Mesopotamia 
and  Egypt  were  thousands  of  years  in  advance  of 
Europe,  but  only  a  small  amount  of  culture  from 
these  sources  seems  to  have  trickled  westward  up 
the  valley  of  the  Danube,  then  and  long  afterward 
the  main  route  of  intercourse  between  western 
Asia  and  the  heart  of  Europe.  Some  trade  also 
passed  from  the  Black  Sea  up  the  Russian  rivers 
to  the  Baltic  coasts.  Along  these  latter  routes  there 
came  from  the  north  to  the  Mediterranean  world 
the  amber  of  the  Baltic,  a  fossil  resin  greatly  prized 
by  early  man  for  its  magic  electrical  qualities. 

Gold  was  probably  the  first  metal  to  attract  the  *¥ 
attention  of  primitive  man,  but  could  only  be  used 
for  purposes  of  ornamentation.  Copper,  which  is 
often  found  in  a  pure  state,  was  also  one  of  the 
earliest  metals  known  and  probably  came  first  either 
from  the  mines  of  Cyprus  or  of  the  Sinai  Peninsula. 
These  latter  mines  are  known  to  have  been  worked 
before  3400  B.  C.  by  systematic  mining  operations 
and  much  earlier  "the  metal  must  have  been  ob- 
tained by  primitive  methods  from  surface  ore."  It 
is,  therefore,  probable  that  copper  was  known  and 
used,  at  first  for  ornament  and  later  for  imple- 
ments, in  Egypt  before  4000  B.  C.  and  possibly 
even  earlier  in  the  Mesopotamian  regions. 

We  now  reach  the  confines  of  recorded  history 
and  the  first  absolutely  fixed  date,  4241  B.  C,  is 
established  for  lower  Egypt  by  the  oldest  known 


calendar.  The  earliest  date  as  yet  for  Mesopotamia 
is  somewhat  later,  but  these  two  countries  supply 
the  basis  of  the  chronology  of  the  ancient  world 
until  a  few  centuries  before  Christ. 

With  the  use  of  copper  the  Neolithic  fades  to 
its  end  and  the  Bronze  Age  commences  soon  there- 
after. This  next  step  in  advance  was  made  appar- 
ently before  3000  B.C.  when  some  unknown  genius 
discovered  that  an  amalgam  of  nine  parts  of  copper 
to  one  part  of  tin  would  produce  the  metal  we  now 
call  bronze,  which  has  a  texture  and  hardness  suit- 
able for  weapons  and  tools.  The  discovery  revolu- 
tionized the  world.  The  new  knowledge  was  a  long 
time  spreading  and  weapons  of  this  material  were 
of  fabulous  value,  especially  in  countries  where 
there  were  no  native  mines  and  where  spears  and 
swords  could  only  be  obtained  through  trade  or 
conquest.  The  esteem  in  which  these  bronze 
weapons,  and  still  more  the  later  weapons  of  iron, 
were  held,  is  indicated  by  the  innumerable  legends 
and  myths  concerning  magic  swords  and  armor, 
the  possession  of  which  made  the  owner  well-nigh 
invulnerable  and  invincible. 

The  necessity  of  obtaining  tin  for  this  amalgam 
led  to  the  early  voyages  of  the  Phoenicians,  who 
from  the  cities  of  Tyre  and  Sidon  and  their  daugh- 
ter Carthage  traversed  the  entire  length  of  the 
Mediterranean,  founded  colonies  in  Spain  to  work 
the  Spanish  tin  mines,  passed  the  Pillars  of  Her- 


cules  and  finally  voyaged  through  the  stormy 
Atlantic  to  the  Cassiterides,  the  Tin  Isles  of  Ultima 
Thule.  There,  on  the  coasts  of  Cornwall,  they 
traded  with  the  native  British  of  kindred  Mediter- 
ranean race  for  the  precious  tin.  These  dangerous 
and  costly  voyages  become  explicable  only  if  the 
value  of  this  metal  for  the  composition  of  bronze 
be  taken  into  consideration. 

After  these  bronze  weapons  were  elaborated  in 
Egypt  the  knowledge  of  their  manufacture  and 
use  was  extended  through  conquest  into  Palestine, 
and  northward  into  Asia  Minor. 

The  effect  of  the  possession  of  these  new  weapons 
on  the  Alpine  populations  of  western  Asia  was 
magical  and  resulted  in  an  intensive  and  final  ex- 
pansion of  round  skulls  into  Europe.  This  inva- 
sion came  through  Asia  Minor,  the  Balkans  and  the 
valley  of  the  Danube,  poured  into  Italy  from  the 
north,  introduced  bronze  among  the  earlier  Alpine 
lake  dwellers  of  Switzerland  and  among  the  Medi- 
terraneans of  the  Terramara  stations  of  the  valley 
of  the  Po  and  at  a  later  date  reached  as  far  west 
as  Britain  and  as  far  north  as  Holland  and  Nor- 
way, where  its  traces  are  still  to  be  found  among 
the  living  population. 

The  simultaneous  appearance  of  bronze  about 
3000  or  2800  B.  C.  in  the  south  as  well  as  in  the 
north  of  Italy  may  possibly  be  attributed  to  a 
lateral  wave  of  this  same  invasion  which,  passing 


through  Egypt,  where  it  left  behind  the  so-called 
Gizeh  round  skulls,  reached  Tunis  and  Sicily.  In 
southern  Italy  bronze  may  have  been  introduced 
from  Crete.  With  the  first  knowledge  of  metals  be- 
gins the  Eneolithic  Period  of  the  Italians. 

The  close  resemblance  in  design  and  technique 
among  the  implements  of  the  Bronze  Age  in  widely 
separated  localities  is  so  great  that  we  can  infer 
a  relatively  simultaneous  introduction. 

With  the  introduction  of  bronze  the  custom  of 
incineration  of  the  dead  also  appears  and  replaces 
the  typical  Neolithic  custom  of  inhumation. 

The  introduction  of  bronze  into  England  and 
into  Scandinavia  may  be  safely  dated  about  one 
thousand  years  later,  after  1800  B.  C.  The  fact 
that  the  Alpines  only  barely  reached  Ireland  in- 
dicates that  at  this  time  that  island  was  severed 
from  England  and  that  the  land  connection  be- 
tween England  and  France  had  been  broken.  The 
computation  of  the  foregoing  dates,  of  course,  is 
somewhat  hypothetical,  but  the  fixed  fact  remains 
that  this  last  expansion  of  the  Alpines  brought 
the  knowledge  of  bronze  to  western  and  northern 
Europe  and  to  the  Mediterranean  and  Nordic  peo- 
ples living  there. 

The  effect  of  the  introduction  of  bronze  in  the 
areas  occupied  chiefly  by  the  Mediterranean  race 
along  the  Atlantic  coast  and  in  Britain,  as  well  as 
in  north  Africa  from  Tunis  to  Morocco,  is  seen 
in  the  construction  and  in  the  wide  distribution  of 


the  megalithic  funeral  monuments,  which  appear 
to  have  been  erected,  not  by  Alpines  but  by  the 
dolichocephs.  The  occurrence  of  bronze  tools  and 
weapons  in  the  interments  shows  clearly  that  the 
megaliths  of  the  south  of  France  date  from  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Bronze  Age.  The  absence  of  bronze 
from  the  dolmens  of  Brittany  may  indicate  an  ear- 
lier age.  It  is,  however,  more  likely  that  the  open- 
ing Bronze  Age  in  the  South  was  contemporary 
with  the  late  Neolithic  in  the  North.  The  construc- 
tion and  use  of  these  monuments  continued  at  least 
until  the  very  earliest  trace  of  iron  appears  and  in 
fact  mound  burials  among  the  Vikings  were  com- 
mon until  the  introduction  of  Christianity. 

Although  there  is  evidence  of  very  early  use  of 
iron  in  Egypt  the  knowledge  of  this  metal  as  well 
as  of  bronze  in  Europe  centres  around  the  area  oc- 
cupied by  the  Alpines  in  the  eastern  Alps  and  its 
earliest  phase  is  known  as  the  Hallstatt  culture, 
from  a  little  town  in  the  Tyrol  where  it  was  first 
discovered.  This  Hallstatt  iron  culture  appeared 
about  1500  B.  C.  The  Alpine  Hittites  in  northeast 
Asia  Minor  were  probably  the  first  to  mine  and 
smelt  iron  and  they  introduced  it  to  the  Alpines  of 
eastern  Europe,  but  it  was  the  Nordics  who  bene-y 
fited  by  its  use.  Bronze  weapons  and  the  later  iron 
ones  proved  in  the  hands  of  these  Northern  bar- 
barians to  be  of  terrible  effectiveness.  With  these 
metal  swords  in  their  grasp,  the  Nordics  conquered 
the  Alpines  of  central  Europe  and  then  suddenly 


entered  the  ancient  world  as  raiders  and  destroyers 
of  cities.  The  classic  civilizations  of  the  northern 
coasts  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea  fell,  one  after  an- 
other, before  the  "Furor  Normanorum,"  just  as 
two  thousand  years  later  the  provinces  of  Rome 
were  devastated  by  the  last  great  flood  of  the  Nor- 
dics from  beyond  the  Alps. 

The  first  Nordics  to  appear  in  European  history  .y 
are  tribes  speaking  Aryan  tongues  in  the  form  of 
the  various  Celtic  and  related  dialects  in  the  West, 
of  Umbrian  in  Italy  and  of  Thracian  in  the  Bal- 
kans. These  barbarians,  pouring  down  from  the 
North,  swept  with  them  large  numbers  of  Alpines 
whom  they  had  already  thoroughly  Nordicized. 
The  process  of  conquering  and  assimilating  the  Al- 
pines must  have  gone  on  for  long  centuries  before 
our  first  historic  records  and  the  work  was  so 
thoroughly  done  that  the  very  existence  of  this 
Alpine  race  as  a  separate  subspecies  of  man  was 
actually  forgotten  for  many  centuries  by  them- 
selves and  by  the  world  at  large  until  it  was  re- 
vealed in  our  own  day  by  the  science  of  skull  mea- 

The  Hallstatt  iron  culture  did  not  extend  into 
western  Europe  and  the  smelting  and  extensive 
use  of  this  metal  in  southern  Britain  and  north- 
western Europe  are  of  much  later  date  and  occur  in 
what  is  called  the  La  Tene  Period,  usually  assigned 
to  the  fifth  and  fourth  century  B.  C. 


Iron  weapons  were,  however,  known  sporadically 
in  England  much  earlier,  perhaps  as  far  back  as 
800  B.  C,  but  were  very  rare  and  were  probably 
importations  from  the  Continent. 

"Hallstatt  relics  have  only  been  found  in  the 
northeast  or  centre  of  France  and  it  appears  that 
the  Bronze  Age  continued  in  the  remainder  of  that 
country  until  about  700  B.  C." 

The  spread  of  this  La  Tene  culture  is  associated 
with  the  Nordic  Cymry,  who  constituted  the  last 
wave  of  Celtic-speaking  invaders  into  western  Eu- 
rope, while  the  earlier  Nordic  Gauls  and  Goidels 
had  arrived  in  Gaul  and  Britain  equipped  with 
bronze  only. 

In  Roman  times,  following  the  La  Tene  Period, 
the  main  races  of  Europe  occupied  the  relative 
positions  which  they  had  held  during  the  whole 
Neolithic  Period  and  which  they  hold  to-day,  with 
the  exception  that  the  Nordic  subspecies  was  less 
extensively  represented  in  western  Europe  than 
when,  a  few  hundred  years  later,  the  so-called  Teu- 
tonic tribes  overran  these  countries;  but  on  the 
other  hand,  the  Nordics  occupied  large  areas  in 
eastern  Germany,  Hungary,  Poland  and  Russia 
now  mainly  occupied  by  the  Slavs  of  Alpine  race. 

Many  countries  in  central  Europe  were  in  Roman 
times  inhabited  by  fair  haired,  blue  eyed  barbarians, 
where  now  the  population  is  preponderantly  brunet  J 
and  becoming  yearly  more  so. 















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The  Alpine  race  is  clearly  of  Eastern  and  Asiatic 
origin.  It  forms  the  westernmost  extension  of  a 
widespread  subspecies  which,  outside  of  Europe, 
occupies  Asia  Minor,  Iran,  the  Pamirs  and  the 
Hindu  Kush.  In  fact  the  western  Himalayas  were 
probably  its  original  centre  of  evolution  and  radia- 
tion and  among  its  Asiatic  members  is  a  distinct 
subdivision,  the  Armenoids. 

The  Alpine  race  is  distinguished  by  a  round  face 
and  correspondingly  round  skull  which  in  the  true 
Armenians  has  a  peculiar  sugarloaf  shape,  a  char- 
acter which  can  be  easily  recognized.  The  Alpines 
must  not  be  confounded  with  the  slit-eyed  Mongols 
who  centre  around  Thibet  and  the  steppes  of  north 
Asia.  The  fact  that  both  these  races  are  round 
skulled  does  not  involve  identity  of  origin  any  more 
than  the  long  skulls  of  the  Nordics  and  of  the  Medi- 
terraneans require  that  they  be  both  considered  of 
the  same  subspecies,  although  good  anthropologists 
have  been  misled  by  this  parallelism.  The  Al- 
pines are  of  stocky  build  and  moderately  short 
stature,  except  sometimes  where  they  have  been 
crossed  with  Nordic  elements.     This  race  is  also 



characterized  by  dark  hair,  except  where  there  has 
been  a  strong  Nordic  admixture  as  in  south  Ger- 
many and  Switzerland.  In  Europe  at  the  present 
time  the  eye,  also,  is  usually  dark  but  sometimes 
grayish.  The  ancestral  Proto-Alpines  from  the 
highlands  of  western  Asia  must,  of  course,  have  had 
brunet  eyes  and  very  dark,  probably  black,  hair. 
Whether  we  are  justified  in  considering  gray  eyes 
as  peculiar  to  populations  of  mixed  Alpine  and 
Nordic  blood  is  difficult  to  determine,  but  one 
thing  is  certain,  the  combination  of  blue  eyes  and 
flaxen  hair  is  never  Alpine. 

The  European  Alpines  retain  very  little  evidence 
of  their  Asiatic  origin  except  the  skull  shape  and 
have  been  in  contact  with  the  Nordic  race  so  long 
that  in  central  and  western  Europe  they  are 
everywhere  saturated  with  the  blood  of  that  race. 
Many  populations  now  considered  good  Germans, 
such  as  the  majority  of  the  Wurtembergers,  Ba- 
varians, Austrians,  Swiss  and  Tyrolese  are  merely 
Nordicized  Alpines. 

While  the  Swiss  are  to-day  neither  tall  nor  long 
headed,  their  country  was  thoroughly  conquered 
early  in  the  Christian  era  by  the  Nordic  Alemanni 
who  entered  from  the  Rhine  Valley.  The  exodus 
of  soldiers  from  the  forest  cantons  throughout  the 
Middle  Ages  to  fight  as  mercenaries  in  France  and 
Italy  gradually  drained  off  this  Nordic  element 
until  the  chief  evidence  of  its  former  existence  lies 


to-day  in  the  large  amount  of  blondness  among  the 
Swiss.  With  the  loss  of  this  type  the  nation  has 
ceased  to  be  a  military  community. 

The  first  appearance  in  Europe  of  the  Alpines 
dates  from  the  Azilian  Period  when  it  is  represented 
by  the  Furfooz-Grenelle  race.  There  were  later 
several  invasions  of  this  race  which  entered  Europe 
from  the  Asia  Minor  plateaux,  by  way  of  the  Bal- 
kans and  the  valley  of  the  Danube,  during  Neolithic 
times  and,  also,  at  the  beginning  of  the  Bronze 
Age.  It  appears  also  to  have  passed  north  of  the 
Black  Sea,  as  some  slight  traces  have  been  dis- 
covered there  of  round  skulls  which  long  antedate 
the  existing  population  but  the  Russian  brachy- 
cephaly  of  to-day  is  of  much  later  origin  and  is  due 
mainly  to  the  eastward  spread  of  Alpines  from  the 
regions  of  the  Carpathians  since  the  first  centuries 
of  our  era. 

This  race  in  its  final  expansion  far  to  the  north- 
west ultimately  reached  Norway,  Denmark  and 
Holland  and  planted  among  the  dolichocephalic 
natives  small  colonies  of  round  skulls,  which  still 
exist.  These  colonies  are  found  along  the  coast 
and  while  of  small  extent  are  clearly  marked.  On 
the  southwestern  seaboard  of  Norway  these  round 
heads  are  dark  and  relatively  short. 

When  this  invasion  reached  the  extreme  north- 
west of  Europe  its  energy  was  spent  and  the 
invaders  were  soon  forced  back  into  central  Eu- 


rope  by  the  Nordics.  The  Alpines  at  this  time  of 
maximum  extension  about  1800  B.  C.  crossed 
into  Britain  and  a  few  reached  Ireland  and  intro- 
duced bronze  into  both  these  islands.  As  the 
metal  appears  about  the  same  time  in  Sweden  it 
is  safe  to  assume  that  it  was  introduced  by  this 

The  men  of  the  Round  Barrows  in  England 
were  Alpines,  but  their  numbers  were  so  scanty 
that  they  have  left  behind  them  in  the  skulls  of 
the  living  population  but  little  demonstrable  evi- 
dence of  their  former  presence.  If  we  are  ever  able 
accurately  to  analyze  the  various  strains  that  en- 
ter in  more  or  less  minute  quantities  into  the  blood 
of  the  British  nation,  we  shall  find  many  traces  of 
these  Round  Barrow  men  as  well  as  other  interest- 
ing and  ancient  remnants  especially  in  the  western 
isles  and  peninsulas. 

In  the  study  of  European  populations  the  great 
and  fundamental  fact  about  the  British  Isles  is 
the  almost  total  absence  there  to-day  of  true  Alpine 
round  skulls.  It  is  the  only  important  state  in 
Europe  in  which  the  round  skulls  play  no  part  and 
the  only  nation  of  any  rank  composed  solely  of 
Nordic  and  Mediterranean  races  in  approximately 
equal  numbers.  To  this  fact  are  undoubtedly  due 
many  of  the  individualities  and  much  of  the  great- 
ness of  the  English  people. 

The  cephalic  index  in    England  is  rather  low, 


about  78,  but  there  is  a  type  of  tall  men,  with 
a  tendency  to  roundheadedness  allied  to  a  very 
marked  intellectual  capacity,  known  as  the  "Beaker 
Maker"  type.  They  are  probably  descended  from 
the  men  of  the  Round  Barrows,  who  while  brachy- 
cephalic  were  tall  and  presumably  dark  and 
entered  England  on  the  east  and  northeast.  The 
Beaker  Makers  appear  at  the  very  end  of  the 
Neolithic  and,  at  least  in  the  case  of  the  last  of 
them  to  arrive,  are  identified  with  the  Bronze 

Before  this  tall,  round  headed  type  reached  Brit- 
ain, they  had  absorbed  many  Nordic  elements 
and  they  have  nothing  except  the  skull  shape  in 
common  with  the  Alpines  living  closest,  those  of 
Belgium  and  France.  However,  they  do  suggest 
strongly  the  Dinaric  race  of  the  Tyrol  and  Dalma- 
tian coast  of  the  Adriatic.  In  addition  to  the 
Beaker  Makers  remains  of  short,  thick-set  brachy- 
cephs  have  also  been  found  in  small  numbers. 
These  last  appear  to  have  been  true  Alpines. 

The  invasion  of  central  Europe  by  Alpines, 
which  occurred  in  the  Neolithic,  following  in  the 
wake  of  the  Azilian  forerunners  of  the  same  type — 
the  Furfooz-Grenelle  race — represented  a  very 
great  advance  in  culture.  They  brought  with 
them  from  Asia  the  art  of  domesticating  animals 
and  the  first  knowledge  of  the  cereals  and  of  pot- 
tery and  were  an  agricultural  race  in  sharp  con- 


trast   to   the  flesh   eating  hunters   who  preceded 

The  Neolithic  populations  of  the  lake  dwellings 
in  Switzerland  and  the  extreme  north  of  Italy,  which 
flourished  about  5000  B.  C,  all  belonged  to  this 
Alpine  race.     A  comparison  of  the  scanty  physical 
remains  of  these  lake  dwellers  with  the  inhabitants 
of  the  existing  villages  on  the  lake  shores  demon- 
strates that  the  skull  shape  has  changed  little  or  / 
not  at  all  during  the  last  seven  thousand  years  ) 
and  affords  us  another  proof  of  the  persistency  of  ' 
physical  characters. 

This  Alpine  race  in  Europe  is  now  so  thoroughly 
acclimated  that  it  is  no  longer  Asiatic  in  any__re- 
^pect  and  has  nothing  in  common  with  the  Mon- 
gols except  its  round  skulls.  Such  Mongolian  ele- 
ments~alTexist  to-day  in  scattered  groups  through- 
out eastern  Europe  are  remnants  of  the  later 
invasions  of  Tatar  hordes  which,  beginning  with 
Attila  in  the  fifth  century,  ravaged  eastern  Europe 
for  hundreds  of  years. 

In  western  and  central  Europe  the  present  dis- 
tribution of  the  Alpine  race  is  a  substantial  reces- 
sion from  its  earlier  extent  and  it  has  been  every- 
where conquered  and  subordinated  by  Celtic-  and 
Teutonic-speaking  Nordics.  Beginning  with  the 
first  appearance  of  the  Celtic-speaking  Nordics  in 
western  Europe,  the  Alpine  race  has  been  obliged 
to  give  ground  but  has  mingled  its  blood  every- 


where  with  the  conquerors  and  now  after  centuries 
of  obscurity  it  appears  to  be  increasing  again  at  the 
expense  of  the  .master  race. 

The  Alpines  reached  Spain,  as  they  reached 
Britain,  in  small  numbers  and  with  spent  force 
but  they  still  persist  along  the  Cantabrian  Alps  as 
well  as  among  the  French  Basques  on  the  northern 
side  of  the  Pyrenees. 

The  Anaryan  Basque  or  Euskarian  language 
may  be  a  derivative  of  the  original  speech  of  these 
Alpines,  as  its  affinities  point  eastward  and  toward 
Asia  rather  than  southward  and  toward  the  littoral 
of  Africa  and  the  Hamitic  speech  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean Berbers.  Basque  was  probably  related  to 
the  extinct  Aquitanian.  The  Ligurian  language, 
also  seemingly  Anaryan,  if  ever  closely  deciphered 
may  throw  some  light  on  the  subject.  There  are 
dim  traces  all  along  the  north  African  coast  of  a 
round  skull  invasion  about  3000  B.  C.  through 
Syria,  Egypt,  Tripoli  and  Tunis  and  from  there 
through  Sicily  to  southern  Italy. 

The  Alpine  race  forms  to-day,  as  in  Caesar's 
time,  the  great  bulk  of  the  population  of  central 
France  with  a  Nordic  aristocracy  resting  upon  it. 
They  occupy  as  the  lower  classes  the  uplands  of 
Belgium,  where,  known  as  Walloons,  they  speak  an 
archaic  French  dialect  closely  related  to  the  an- 
cient langue  d'oil.  They  form  a  majority  of  the 
upland  population  of  Alsace,  Lorraine,  Baden,  Wiir- 


temberg,  Bavaria,  Tyrol,  Switzerland  and  northern 
Italy;  in  short,  of  the  entire  central  massif  of  Eu- 
rope. In  Bavaria  and  the  Tyrol  the  Alpines  are 
so  thoroughly  Nordicized  that  their  true  racial 
affinities  are  betrayed  by  their  round  skulls  alone. 

When  we  reach  Austria  we  come  in  contact  with 
the  Slavic-speaking  nations  which  form  a  subdi- 
vision of  the  Alpine  race  appearing  relatively  late 
in  history  and  radiating  from  the  Carpathian 
Mountains.  In  western  and  central  Europe  in 
relation  to  the  Nordic  race  the  Alpine  is  every- 
where the  ancient,  underlying  and  submerged  type. 
The  fertile  lands,  river  valleys  and  cities  are  here  in 
the  hands  of  the  Nordics  but  in  eastern  Germany 
and  Poland  we  find  conditions  reversed.  That  is 
an  old  Nordic  broodland  with  a  Nordic  substratum 
underlying  the  bulk  of  the  peasantry,  which  now 
consists  of  round  skulled  Alpine  Slavs.  On  top  of 
these  again  we  have  an  aristocratic  upper  class  of 
comparatively  recent  introduction  and  of  Saxon 
origin  in  eastern  Germany.  In  Austria  this  upper 
class  is  Swabian  and  Bavarian. 

The  introduction  of  Slavs  into  eastern  Germany 
is  believed  to  have  been  by  infiltration  and  not 
by  conquest.  In  the  fourth  century  these  Wends 
were  called  Venethi,  Antes  and  Sclaveni,  and  were 
described  as  strong  in  numbers  but  despised  in  war. 
Through  the  neglect  of  the  Teutons  they  had  been 
allowed  to  range  far  and  wide  from  their  homes 


near  the  northeastern  Carpathians  and  to  occupy 
the  lands  formerly  belonging  to  the  Nordic  nations, 
who  had  abandoned  their  country  and  flocked  into 
the  Roman  Empire.  Goth,  Burgund,  Lombard 
and  Vandal  were  replaced  by  the  lowly  Wend  and 
Sorb,  whose  descendants  to-day  form  the  privates 
in  the  east  German  regiments,  while  the  officers  are 
everywhere  recruited  from  the  Nordic  upper  class. 
The  mediaeval  relation  of  these  Slavic  tribes  to  the 
dominant  Teuton  is  well  expressed  in  the  mean- 
ing— slave — which  has  been  attached  to  their  name 
in  western  languages. 

The  occupation  of  eastern  Germany  and  Poland 
by  the  Slavs  probably  occurred  from  400  A.  D.  to 
700  A.  D.  but  these  Alpine  elements  were  rein- 
forced from  the  east  and  south  from  time  to  time 
during  the  succeeding  centuries.  Beginning  early 
in  the  tenth  century,  the  Saxons  under  their  Em- 
perors, especially  Henry  the  Fowler,  turned  their 
attention  eastward  and  during  the  next  two  cen- 
turies they  reconquered  and  thoroughly  Germanized 
all  this  section  of  Europe. 

A  similar  series  of  changes  in  racial  predominance 
took  place  in  Russia  where  in  addition  to  a  nobil- 
ity largely  Nordic  a  section  of  the  population  is  of 
ancient  Nordic  type,  although  the  bulk  of  the  peas- 
antry consists  of  Alpine  Slavs. 

The  Alpines  in  eastern  Europe  are  represented 
by   various   branches   of   the    " Slavic"    nations. 


Their  area  of  distribution  was  split  into  two  sections 
by  the  occupation  of  the  great  Dacian  plain  first 
by  the  Avars  about  600  A.  D.  and  later  by  the 
Hungarians  about  900  A.  D.  These  Avars  and 
Magyars  came  from  somewhere  in  eastern  Russia 
beyond  the  sphere  of  Aryan  speech  and  their 
invasions  separated  the  northern  Slavs,  known  as 
Wends,  Czechs,  Slovaks,  and  Poles,  from  the 
southern  Slavs,  known  as  Serbs  and  Croats.  These 
southern  Slavs  entered  the  Balkan  Peninsula  in  the 
sixth  century  from  the  northeast  and  to-day  form 
the  great  mass  of  the  population  there. 

The  centre  of  radiation  of  all  these  Slavic-speak- 
ing Alpines  was  located  in  the  Carpathians,  espe- 
cially the  Ruthenian  districts  of  Galicia  and  east- 
ward to  the  neighborhood  of  the  Pripet  swamps 
and  the  head- waters  of  the  Dnieper  in  Polesia, 
where  the  Slavic  dialects  are  believed  to  have 
developed  and  whence  they  spread  throughout 
Russia  about  the  eighth  century.  These  early 
Slavs  were  probably  the  Sarmatians  of  the  Greek 
and  Roman  writers.  Their  name  "Venethi"  seems 
to  have  been  a  later  designation.  The  original 
Proto-Slavic  language  being  Aryan  must  have  been 
at  some  distant  date  imposed  by  Nordics  upon  the 
Alpines,  but  its  development  into  the  present  Slavic 
tongues  was  chiefly  the  work  of  Alpines. 

In  other  words,  the  expansion  of  the  Alpines  of 
the  Slavic-speaking  group  seems  to  have  occurred 


after  the  Fourth  Century  and  they  have  spread 
in  the  East  over  areas  which  were  originally  Nor- 
dic, very  much  as  the  Teutons  had  previously 
overrun  and  submerged  the  earlier  Alpines  in  the 
West.  The  Mongol,  Tatar  and  Turk  who  invaded 
Europe  much  later  reinforced  the  brachy cephalic 
element  in  these  countries.  To  some  extent  the 
round  skulled  Alpines  in  Russia  have  been  rein- 
forced by  way  of  the  Caucasus  and  the  route 
north  of  the  Black  Sea  by  their  kindred  in  western 
Asia.  The  greater  part  of  the  purely  Asiatic  types 
has  been  thoroughly  absorbed  and  Europeanized 
except  in  certain  localities  in  Russia  more  espe- 
cially in  the  east  and  south,  where  Mongoloid  tribes 
such  as  the  Mordvins,  Bashkirs  and  Kalmucks 
have  maintained  their  type  either  in  isolated 
and  relatively  large  groups  or  side  by  side  with 
their  Slavic  neighbors.  In  both  cases  the  isola- 
tion is  maintained  through  religious  and  social 

The  Avars  preceded  the  Magyars  in  Hungary, 
but  they  have  merged  with  the  latter  without 
leaving  traces  that  can  be  identified.  Certain 
Mongoloid  characters  found  in  Bulgaria  are  be- 
lieved, however,  to  be  of  Avar  origin. 

The  original  physical  type  of  the  Magyars  and 
the  European  Turks  has  now  practically  vanished 
as  a  result  of  prolonged  intermarriage  with  the 
original  inhabitants  of  Hungary  and  the  Balkans. 


These  tribes  have  left  little  behind  but  their  lan- 
guage and,  in  the  case  of  the  Turks,  their  religion. 
The  brachycephalic  Hungarians  to-day  resemble 
the  Austrian  Germans  much  more  than  they  do  the 
Slavic-speaking  populations  adjoining  them  on  the 
north  and  south  or  the  Rumanians  on  the  east. 

Driven  onward  by  the  Avars,  the  Bulgars  ap- 
peared south  of  the  Danube  about  the  end  of  the 
seventh  century,  coming  originally  from  eastern 
Russia  where  the  remnants  of  their  kindred  still 
persist  along  the  Volga.  To-day  they  conform 
physically  in  the  western  half  of  the  country  to 
the  Alpine  Serbs  and  in  the  eastern  half  to  the 
Mediterranean  race,  as  do  also  the  Rumanians  of 
the  Black  Sea  coast. 

Little  or  nothing  remains  of  the  ancestral  Bul- 
gars except  their  name.  Language,  religion  and 
nearly,  but  not  quite  all,  of  the  physical  type  have 

The  early  members  of  the  Nordic  race  in  order 
to  reach  the  Mediterranean  world  had  to  pass 
through  the  Alpine  populations  and  must  have 
absorbed  a  certain  amount  of  Alpine  blood.  There- 
fore the  Umbrians  in  Italy  and  the  Gauls  of  west- 
ern Europe,  while  predominantly  Nordic,  were 
more  mixed  especially  in  the  lower  classes  with 
Alpine  blood  than  were  the  Belgae  or  Cymry  or 
their  successors,  the  Goths,  Vandals,  Burgundians, 
Alemanni,  Saxons,  Franks,  Lombards,  Danes  and 


Northmen,  all  of  whom  appear  in  history  as  Nor- 
dics of  the  so-called  Teutonic  group. 

In  some  portions  of  their  range  notably  Savoy 
and  central  France  the  Alpine  race  is  much  less 
affected  by  Nordic  influence  than  elsewhere  but  on 
the  contrary  it  shows  signs  of  a  very  ancient  ad- 
mixture with  Mediterranean  and  even  earlier  ele- 
ments. Brachy cephalic  Alpine  populations  in  com- 
parative purity  still  exist  in  the  interior  of  Brittany 
as  in  Auvergne,  although  nearly  surrounded  by 
Nordic  populations. 

While  the  Alpines  were  everywhere  overwhelmed 
and  driven  to  the  fastnesses  of  the  mountains,  the 
warlike  and  restless  nature  of  the  Nordics  has  en- 
abled the  more  stable  Alpine  population  to  reas- 
sert itself  slowly,  and  Europe  is  probably  much  less 
Nordic  to-day  than  it  was  fifteen  hundred  years 

The  early  Alpines  made  very  large  contribu- 
tions to  the  civilization  of  the  world  and  were  the 
medium  through  which  many  advances  in  culture 
were  introduced  from  Asia  into  Europe.  This 
race  at  the  time  of  its  first  appearance  in  the  west 
brought  to  the  nomad  hunters  a  knowledge  of  agri- 
culture and  of  primitive  pottery  and  of  domestica- 
tion of  animals  and  thus  made  possible  a  great 
increase  in  population  and  the  establishment  of 
permanent  settlements.  Still  later  its  final  expan- 
sion was  the  means  through  which  the  knowledge 


of  metals  reached  the  Mediterranean  and  Nordic 
populations  of  the  west  and  north.  Upon  the  ap- 
pearance on  the  scene  of  the  Nordics  the  Alpine 
race  temporarily  lost  its  identity  and  sank  to  the 
subordinate  and  obscure  position  which  it  still 
largely  occupies. 

In  western  Asia  members  of  this  race  seemingly 
are  entitled  to  the  honor  of  the  earliest  Mesopo- 
tamian  civilization  of  which  we  have  knowledge, 
namely,  that  of  Sumer  and  its  northerly  neighbor 
Accad  in  Mesopotamia.  It  is  also  the  race  of  early 
Elam  and  Media.  In  fact,  the  basis  of  Mesopo- 
tamian  civilization  belongs  to  this  race.  Later 
Babylonia  and  Assyria  were  Arabic  and  Semitic 
while  Persia  was  Nordic  and  Aryan. 

In  classic,  mediaeval  and  modern  times  the  Al- 
pines have  played  an  unimportant  part  in  Euro- 
pean culture  and  in  western  Europe  they  have 
been  so  thoroughly  Nordicized  that  they  exist 
rather  as  an  element  in  Nordic  race  development 
than  as  an  independent  type.  There  are,  however, 
many  indications  in  current  history  which  point  to 
an  impending  development  of  civilization  in  the 
Slavic  branches  of  this  race  and  the  world  must 
be  prepared  to  face  changes  in  the  Russias  which 
will,  for  good  or  for  evil,  bring  them  more  closely 
into  touch  with  western  Europe. 


The  Mediterranean  subspecies  formerly  called 
the  Iberian  is  a  relatively  small,  light  boned,  long 
skulled  race,  of  brunet  coloring,  becoming  even 
swarthy  in  certain  portions  of  its  range.  Through- 
out Neolithic  times  and  possibly  still  earlier  it 
seems  to  have  occupied,  as  it  does  to-day,  all  the 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean  including  the  coast 
of  Africa  from  Morocco  on  the  west  to  Egypt  on 
the  east.  The  Mediterraneans  are  the  western 
members  of  a  subspecies  of  man  which  forms  a 
substantial  part  of  the  population  of  Persia,  Afghan- 
istan, Baluchistan  and  Hindustan  with  perhaps  a 
southward  extension  into  Ceylon. 

The  Aryanized  Afghan  and  Hindu  of  northern 
India  speak  languages  derived  from  Old  Sanskrit 
and  are  distantly  related  to  the  Mediterranean  race. 
Aside  from  a  common  dolichocephaly  these  peoples 
are  entirely  distinct  from  the  Dra vidians  of  south 
India  whose  speech  is  agglutinative  and  who  show 
strong  evidence  of  profound  mixture  with  the  an- 
cient Negrito  substratum  of  southern  Asia. 

Everywhere  throughout  the  Asiatic  portion  of 

its  range  the  Mediterranean  race  overlies  an  even 



more  ancient  Negroid  race.  These  Negroids  still 
have  representatives  among  the  Pre-Dra vidians  of 
India,  the  Veddahs  of  Ceylon,  the  Sakai  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula  and  the  natives  of  the  Andaman 

This  Mediterranean  subspecies  at  the  close  of 
the  Paleolithic  spread  from  the  basin  of  the  Inland 
Sea  northward  by  way  of  Spain  throughout  west- 
ernmost Europe  including  the  British  Isles  and, 
before  the  final  expansion  of  the  Alpines,  was  widely 
distributed  up  to  and,  possibly,  touching  the  domain 
of  the  Nordic  dolichocephs.  The  Mediterraneans 
did  not  cross  the  Alps  from  the  south  but  spread 
around  the  mountains.  In  attaining  to  Britain 
from  Spain  by  way  of  Central  France  it  is  probable 
that  they  swept  with  them  Paleolithic  remnants 
from  the  ancient  centre  of  population  in  the  Au- 
vergne  district. 

In  all  this  vast  range  from  the  British  Isles  to 
Hindustan,  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  there  is 
absolute  identity  of  race.  Certain  portions,  how- 
ever, of  the  populations  of  the  countries  through- 
out this  long  stretch  do  show  in  their  physique 
clear  indications  of  descent  from  a  Neolithic  race 
of  a  common  original  type,  which  we  may  call 
Pro  to- Mediterranean. 

Quite  apart  from  inevitable  admixture  with  late 
Nordic  and  early  Paleolithic  elements,  the  bru- 
net    type   of   Englishman   has   had    perhaps    ten 


thousand  years  of  independent  evolution  during 
which  he  has  undergone  selection  due  to  the  cli- 
matic and  physical  conditions  of  his  northern  habi- 
tat. The  result  is  that  he  has  specialized  far  away 
from  the  Proto-Mediterranean  race  which  contrib- 
uted his  blood  originally  to  Britain  while  it  was, 
probably,  still  part  of  continental  Europe. 

At  the  other  end  of  their  range  in  India  this 
race,  the  Mediterraneans,  have  been  crossed  with 
Dravidians  and  with  Pre-Dravidian  Negroids. 
They  have  also  had  imposed  upon  them  other 
ethnic  elements  which  came  over  through  the  Af- 
ghan passes  from  the  northwest.  The  resultant 
racial  mixture  in  India  has  had  its  own  line  of 
specialization.  Residence  in  the  fertile  but  un- 
healthy river  bottoms,  the  direct  rays  of  a  tropic 
sun  and  competition  with  the  immemorial  autoch- 
thones have  unsparingly  weeded  generation  after 
generation  until  the  existing  Hindu  has  little  in 
common  with  the  ancestral  Proto-Mediterranean. 

It  is  to  the  Mediterranean  race  in  the  British 
Isles  that  the  English,  Scotch  and  Americans 
owe  whatever  brunet  characters  they  possess.  In 
western  Europe,  wherever  it  exists,  it  appears  to 
underlie  the  Alpine  race  and,  in  fact,  wherever  this 
race  is  in  contact  with  either  the  Alpines  or  the 
Nordics  it  would  seem  to  represent  the  more  ancient 
stratum  of  the  population. 

So  far  as  we  know  this  Mediterranean  type  never 


existed  in  Scandinavia  and  all  brunet  elements 
found  there  can  be  attributed  to  introductions  in 
the  Bronze  Age  or  in  historic  times.  Nor  did  the 
Mediterranean  race  ever  enter  or  cross  the  high 
Alps  as  did  the  Nordics  at  a  much  later  date  on 
their  way  to  the  Mediterranean  basin  from  the 
Baltic  coasts. 

The  Mediterranean  race  with  its  Asiatic  exten- 
sions is  bordered  everywhere  on  the  north  of  its 
enormous  range  from  Spain  to  India  by  round 
skulls  but  there  does  not  seem  to  be  as  much  evi- 
dence of  mixture  between  these  two  subspecies  of 
man  as  there  is  between  the  Alpines  and  the  Nor- 

Along  its  southern  boundary  the  Mediterraneans 
are  in  contact  with  either  the  long  skulled  Negroes 
of  Africa  or  the  ancient  Negrito  population  of 
southern  Asia.  In  Africa  this  race  has  drifted 
southward  over  the  Sahara  and  up  the  Nile  Valley 
and  has  modified  the  blood  of  the  Negroes  in  both 
the  Senegambian  and  equatorial  regions. 

Beyond  these  mixtures  of  blood,  there  is  abso- 
lutely no  relationship  between  the  Mediterranean 
race  and  the  Negroes.  The  fact  that  the  Mediter- 
ranean race  is  long  skulled  as  well  as  the  Negro 
does  not  indicate  relationship  as  has  been  suggested. 
An  overemphasis  of  the  importance  of  the  skull 
shape  as  a  somatological  character  can  easily 
mislead  and   characters  other  than  skull  propor- 


tions  must  be  carefully  considered  in  determining 

From  a  zoological  point  of  view  Africa  north  of 
the  Sahara  is  now  and  has  been  since  early  Terti- 
ary times  a  part  of  Europe.  This  is  true  both  of 
animals  and  of  the  races  of  man.  The  Berbers  of 
north  Africa  to-day  are  racially  identical  with  the 
Spaniards  and  south  Italians  while  the  ancient 
Egyptians  and  their  modern  descendants,  the  fel- 
laheen, are  merely  well  marked  varieties  of  this 
Mediterranean  race. 

The  Egyptians  fade  off  toward  the  west  into 
the  so-called  Hamitic  peoples  (to  use  an  obsolete 
name)  of  Libya,  and  toward  the  south  the  infusion 
of  Negro  blood  becomes  increasingly  great  until 
we  finally  reach  the  pure  Negro.  On  the  east  in 
Arabia  we  find  an  ancient  and  highly  specialized 
subdivision  of  the  Mediterranean  race,  which  has 
from  time  out  of  mind  crossed  the  Red  Sea  and 
infused  its  blood  into  the  Negroes  of  east  Africa. 

To-day  the  Mediterranean  race  forms  in  Europe 
a  substantial  part  of  the  population  of  the  British 
Isles,  the  great  bulk  of  the  population  of  the  Ibe- 
rian Peninsula,  nearly  one-third  of  the  population 
of  France,  Liguria,  Italy  south  of  the  Apennines 
and  all  the  Mediterranean  coasts  and  islands,  in 
some  of  which  like  Sardinia  it  exists  in  great  pur- 
ity. It  forms  the  substratum  of  the  population  of 
Greece  and  of  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Balkan  Pen- 


insula.  Everywhere  in  the  interior  of  the  Balkan 
Peninsula,  except  in  eastern  Bulgaria  and  parts  of 
Rumania,  it  has  been  replaced  by  the  South  Slavs 
and  by  the  Albanians,  the  latter  a  mixture  of  the 
ancient  Illyrians  and  the  Slavs. 

In  the  British  Isles  the  Mediterranean  race  rep- 
resents the  Pre-Nordic  population  and  exists  in 
considerable  numbers  in  Wales  and  in  certain  por- 
tions of  England,  notably  in  the  Fen  districts  to 
the  northeast  of  London.  In  Scotland  it  is  far  less 
marked,  but  has  left  its  brunetness  as  an  indication 
of  its  former  prevalence  and  this  dark  hair  and  eye 
color  is  very  often  associated  with  tall  stature. 

This  is  the  race  that  gave  the  world  the  great 
civilizations  of  Egypt,  of  Crete,  of  Phoenicia  in- 
cluding Carthage,  of  Etruria,  of  Mycenaean  Greece, 
of  Assyria  and  much  of  Babylonia.  It  gave  us, 
when  mixed  and  invigorated  with  Nordic  elements, 
which  probably  predominated  in  the  upper  and 
ruling  classes  and  imposed  their  guidance  upon  the 
masses,  the  most  splendid  of  all  civilizations,  that 
of  ancient  Hellas,  and  the  most'enduring  of  political 
organizations,  the  Roman  state. 

To  what  extent  the  Mediterranean  race  entered 
into  the  blood  and  civilization  of  Rome,  it  is  now 
difficult  to  say,  but  the  traditions  of  the  Eternal 
City,  its  love  of  organization,  of  law  and  military 
efficiency,  as  well  as  the  Roman  ideals  of  family 
life,  of  loyalty  and  truth,  point  clearly  to  a  north- 


era  rather  than  to  a  Mediterranean  origin,  although 
there  must  have  been  some  Alpine  strains  mixed  in 
with  the  Nordic  element. 

The  struggles  in  early  Rome  between  Latin  and 
Etruscan  and  the  endless  quarrels  between  patri- 
cian and  plebeian  may  have  arisen  from  this  ex- 
istence in  Rome,  side  by  side,  of  two  distinct  and 
clashing  races,  probably  Nordic  and  Mediterranean 
respectively.  The  Roman  busts  that  have  come 
down  to  us  often  show  features  of  a  very  Anglo- 
Saxon  cast  but  with  a  somewhat  round  head.  The 
Romans  were  short  in  stature  in  comparison  with 
the  nations  north  of  the  Alps  and  in  the  recently 
discovered  battlefield  of  the  Teutoburgian  Forest 
where  Varus  and  his  legions  perished  in  the  reign 
of  Augustus  the  skeletons  of  the  Romans,  identified 
by  their  armor,  were  notably  smaller  and  slighter 
than  were  those  of  the  German  victors.  The  indi- 
cations on  the  whole  point  to  a  Nordic  aristocracy 
in  Rome  with  some  Alpine  elements.  The  Plebs, 
on  the  other  hand,  was  largely  Mediterranean  and 
Oriental  and  finally  in  the  last  days  of  the  Republic 
ceased  to  contain  any  purely  Roman  blood. 

The  northern  qualities  of  Rome  are  in  sharp 
contrast  to  the  less  European  traits  of  the  classic 
Greeks,  whose  volatile  and  analytical  spirit,  lack 
of  cohesion,  political  incapacity  and  ready  resort  to 
treason  all  point  clearly  to  southern  and  eastern 


While  very  ancient,  located  for  probably  ten 
thousand  years  in  western  and  southern  Europe,  and 
even  longer  on  the  south  shore  of  the  Mediterranean, 
nevertheless  this  subspecies  cannot  be  called  purely 
European.  Its  occupation  of  the  north  coast  of 
Africa  and  the  west  coast  of  Europe  can  be  traced 
everywhere  by  its  beautifully  polished  stone 
weapons  and  tools.  The  megalithic  monuments 
also,  which  are  found  in  association  with  this  race, 
may  mark  its  line  of  advance  in  western  Europe, 
although  they  extend  beyond  the  range  of  the 
Mediterraneans  into  the  domain  of  the  Scandina- 
vian Nordics.  These  huge  stone  structures  were 
chiefly  sepulchral  memorials  and  are  very  sugges- 
tive of  the  Egyptian  funeral  monuments.  They 
date  back  to  the  first  knowledge  of  the  manufac- 
ture and  use  of  bronze  tools  by  the  Mediterranean 
race.  They  occur  in  great  numbers,  size  and  vari- 
ety along  the  north  coast  of  Africa  and  up  the 
Atlantic  seaboard  through  Spain,  Brittany  and 
England  to  Scandinavia. 

It  is  admitted  that  the  various  groups  of  the 
Mediterranean  race  did  not  speak  in  the  first  in- 
stance any  form  of  Aryan  tongue  and  we  know 
that  these  languages  were  introduced  into  the  Medi- 
terranean world  by  invaders  from  the  north. 

In  Spain  the  language  of  the  Nordic  invaders 
was  Celtic  and  is  believed  to  have  nearly  died  out 
by  Roman  times.     Its  remnants  and  the  ancient 


speech  of  the  natives  were  in  turn  superseded, 
along  with  the  Phoenician  spoken  in  some  of  the 
southern  coast  towns,  by  the  Latin  of  the  con- 
quering Roman.  Latin  mixed  with  some  small 
elements  of  Gothic  construction  and  Arabic  voca- 
bulary forms  to-day  the  basis  of  modern  Portu- 
guese, Castilian  and  Catalan. 

The  native  Mediterranean  race  of  the  Iberian 
Peninsula  quickly  absorbed  the  blood  of  these 
Celtic-speaking  Nordic  Gauls,  just  as  it  later 
diluted  beyond  recognition  the  vigorous  physical 
characters  of  the  Nordic  Vandals,  Suevi  and  Visi- 
goths. A  certain  amount  of  Nordic  blood  still 
persists  to-day  in  northern  Spain,  especially  in 
Galicia  and  along  the  Pyrenees,  as  well  as  gen- 
erally among  the  upper  classes.  According  to 
classic  writers  there  were  light  and  dark  types  in 
Spain  in  Roman  times.  The  Romans  left  no  evi- 
dence of  their  domination  except  in  their  language 
and  religion;  while  the  earlier  Phoenicians  on  the 
coasts  and  the  later  swarms  of  Moors  and  Arabs 
all  over  the  peninsula,  but  chiefly  in  the  south, 
were  closely  related  by  race  to  the  native  Ibe- 

That  portion  of  the  Mediterranean  race  which 
inhabits  southern  France  occupies  most  of  the 
territory  of  ancient  Languedoc  and  Provence  and 
it  was  these  Provencals  who  developed  and  pre- 
served during  the  Middle  Ages  the  romantic  civiliza- 


tion  of  the  Albigensians,  a  survival  of  classic  cul- 
ture which  was  drowned  in  blood  by  a  crusade  from 
the  north  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

In  northern  Italy  only  the  coast  of  Liguria  is 
occupied  by  the  Mediterranean  race.  In  the  val- 
ley of  the  Po  the  Mediterraneans  predominated 
during  the  early  Neolithic  but  with  the  intro- 
duction of  bronze  the  Alpines  appear  and  round 
skulls  to  this  day  prevail  north  of  the  Apennines. 
About  1 100  B.  C.  the  Nordic  Umbrians  and  Oscans 
swept  over  the  Alps  from  the  northeast,  conquered 
northern  Italy  and  introduced  their  Aryan  speech, 
which  gradually  spread  southward.  The  Umbrian 
state  was  afterward  overwhelmed  by  the  Tyrrhen- 
ians or  Etruscans,  who  were  of  Mediterranean 
race  and  who,  by  800  B.  C.  had  extended  their 
empire  northward  to  the  Alps  and  temporarily 
checked  the  advance  of  the  Nordics.  In  the  sixth 
century  B.  C.  new  swarms  of  Nordics,  coming  this 
time  from  Gaul  and  speaking  Celtic  dialects,  seized 
the  valley  of  the  Po  and  in  382  B.  C.  these  Gauls, 
heavily  reinforced  from  the  north  and  under  the 
leadership  of  Brennus,  stormed  Rome  and  com- 
pletely destroyed  the  Etruscan  power.  From  that 
time  onward  the  valley  of  the  Po  became  known  as 
Cisalpine  Gaul.  Mixed  with  other  Nordic  elements, 
chiefly  Gothic  and  Lombard,  this  population  per- 
sists to  this  day,  and  is  the  backbone  of  modern 


A  continuation  of  this  movement  of  these  Gauls, 
or  Galatians  as  the  Greek  world  called  them,  start- 
ing from  northern  Italy  occurred  a  century  later 
when  these  Nordics  suddenly  appeared  before  Del- 
phi in  Greece  in  279  B.  C.  and  then  crossed  into 
Asia  Minor  and  founded  the  state  called  Galatia, 
which  endured  until  Christian  times. 

South  Italy  until  its  conquest  by  Rome  was 
Magna  Graecia  and  the  population  to-day  retains 
many  Pelasgian  Greek  elements.  It  is  among  these 
classic  remnants  that  artists  search  for  the  hand- 
somest specimens  of  the  Mediterranean  race.  In 
Sicily  also  the  race  is  purely  Mediterranean  in  spite 
of  the  admixture  of  types  coming  from  the  neigh- 
boring coasts  of  Tunis.  These  intrusive  elements, 
however,  were  all  of  kindred  race.  Traces  of  Al- 
pines in  these  regions  and  on  the  adjoining  African 
coast  are  very  scarce  and  wherever  found  may  be 
referred  to  the  final  wave  of  round  skull  invasion 
which  introduced  bronze  into  Europe. 

In  Greece  the  Mediterranean  Pelasgians  speaking 
a  Non-Aryan  tongue  were  conquered  by  the  Nordic 
Achaeans,  who  entered  from  the  northeast  accord- 
ing to  tradition  prior  to  1250  B.  C.  probably  be- 
tween 1400  and  1300  B.  C.  Doubtless  there  were 
still  earlier  waves  of  these  same  Nordic  invaders 
as  far  back  as  1700  B.  C.,  which  was  a  period  of 
general  unrest  and  migration  throughout  the  a* 
cient  world. 


The  Nordic  Achaeans  and  Mediterranean  Pelas- 
gians  as  yet  unmixed  stand  out  in  clear  contrast  in 
the  Homeric  account  of  the  ten  year  siege  of  Troy, 
which  is  generally  assigned  to  the  date  of  11 94  to 
1184B.  C. 

The  same  invasion  that  brought  the  Achaeans 
into  Greece  brought  a  related  Nordic  people  to 
the  coast  of  Asia  Minor,  known  as  Phrygians.  Of 
this  race  were  the  Trojan  leaders. 

Both  the  Trojans  and  the  Greeks  were  com- 
manded by  huge  blond  princes,  the  heroes  of  Ho- 
mer— in  fact,  even  the  Gods  were  fair  haired — 
while  the  bulk  of  the  armies  on  both  sides  was  com- 
posed of  little  brunet  Pelasgians,  imperfectly  armed 
and  remorselessly  butchered  by  the  leaders  on 
either  side.  The  only  common  soldiers  mentioned 
by  Homer  as  of  the  same  race  as  the  heroes  were 
the  Myrmidons  of  Achilles. 

About  the  time  that  the  Achaeans  and  the  Pe- 
lasgians began  to  amalgamate,  new  hordes  of  Nor- 
dic barbarians  collectively  called  Hellenes  entered 
from  the  northern  mountains  and  destroyed  this 
old  Homeric-Mycenaean  civilization.  This  Dorian 
invasion  took  place  a  little  before  1100  B.  C.  and 
brought  in  the  three  main  Nordic  strains  of  Greece, 
the  Dorian,  the  ^Eolian  and  the  Ionian  groups, 
which  lemain  more  or  less  distinct  and  separate 
throughout  Greek  history.     Among  these  Nordics 


the  Dorians  may  have  included  some  Alpine  ele- 
ments. It  is  more  than  probable  that  this  invasion 
or  swarming  of  Nordics  into  Greece  was  part  of 
the  same  general  racial  upheaval  that  brought 
the  Umbrians  and  Oscans  into  Italy. 

Long  years  of  intense  and  bitter  conflict  follow 
between  the  old  population  and  the  newcomers 
and  when  the  turmoil  of  this  revolution  settled 
down  classic  Greece  appears.  What  was  left  of 
the  Achaeans  retired  to  the  northern  Peloponnesus 
and  the  survivors  of  the  early  Pelasgian  popula- 
tion remained  in  Messenia  serving  as  helots  their 
Spartan  masters.  The  Greek  colonies  in  Asia 
Minor  were  founded  largely  by  refugees  fleeing 
from  these  Dorian  invaders. 

The  Pelasgian  strain  seems  to  have  persisted 
best  in  Attica  and  the  Ionian  states.  The  Dorian 
Spartans  appear  to  have  retained  more  of  the  char- 
acter of  the  northern  barbarians  than  the  Ionian 
Greeks  but  the  splendid  civilization  of  Hellas  was 
due  to  a  fusion  of  the  two  elements,  the  Achaean 
and  Hellene  of  Nordic  and  the  Pelasgian  of  Medi- 
terranean race. 

The  contrast  between  Dorian  Sparta  and  Ionian 
Athens,  between  the  military  efficiency,  thorough 
organization  and  sacrifice  of  the  citizen  for  the 
welfare  of  the  state,  which  constituted  the  basis 
of  Lacedaemonian  power,  and  the  Attic  brilliancy, 
instability  and  extreme  development  of  individual- 


ism,  is  strikingly  like  the  contrast  between  Prussia 
with  its  Spartan-like  culture  and  France  with  its 
Athenian  versatility. 

To  this  mixture  of  races  in  classic  Greece  the 
Mediterranean  Pelasgians  contributed  their  My- 
cenaean culture  and  the  Nordic  Achaeans  and  Hel- 
lenes contributed  their  Aryan  language,  fighting 
efficiency  and  the  European  aspect  of  Greek  life. 

The  first  result  of  a  crossing  of  two  such  con- 
trasted subspecies  as  the  Nordic  and  Mediterra- 
nean races  has  repeatedly  been  a  new  outburst  of 
civilization.  This  occurs  as  soon  as  the  older  race 
has  imparted  to  the  conquerors  its  culture  and  be- 
fore the  victors  have  allowed  their  blood  to  be  at- 
tenuated by  mixture.  This  process  seems  to  have 
happened  several  times  in  Greece. 

Later,  in  338  B.  C,  when  the  original  Nordic 
blood  had  been  hopelessly  diluted  by  mixture  with 
the  ancient  Mediterranean  elements,  Hellas  fell 
an  easy  prey  to  Macedon.  The  troops  of  Philip 
and  Alexander  were  Nordic  and  represented  the 
uncultured  but  unmixed  ancestral  type  of  the 
Achaeans  and  Hellenes.  Their  unimpaired  righting 
strength  was  irresistible  as  soon  as  it  was  organ- 
ized into  the  Macedonian  phalanx,  whether  directed 
against  their  degenerate  brother  Greeks  or  against 
the  Persians,  whose  original  Nordic  elements  had 
also  by  this  time  practically  disappeared.  When 
in  its  turn  the  pure  Macedonian  blood  was  im- 


paired  by  intermixture  with  Asiatics,  they,  too, 
vanished  and  even  the  royal  Macedonian  dynas- 
ties in  Asia  and  Egypt  soon  ceased  to  be  Nordic 
or  Greek  except  in  language  and  customs. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  Greek  states 
in  which  the  Nordic  element  most  predominated 
outlived  the  other  states.  Athens  fell  before  Sparta 
and  Thebes  outlived  them  both.  Macedon  in 
classic  times  was  considered  quite  the  most  bar- 
barous state  in  Hellas  and  was  scarcely  recognized 
as  forming  part  of  Greece,  but  it  was  through  the 
military  power  of  its  armies  and  the  genius  of  Alex- 
ander that  the  Levant  and  western  Asia  became 
Hellenized.  Alexander  with  his  Nordic  features, 
aquiline  nose,  fair  skin,  gently  curling  light  hair 
and  mixed  eyes,  the  left  blue  and  the  right  very 
black,  typifies  this  Nordic  conquest  of  the  Near 

It  is  scarcely  possible  to-day  to  find  in  purity  the 
physical  traits  of  the  ancient  race  in  the  Greek- 
speaking  lands  and  islands  and  it  is  chiefly  among 
the  pure  Nordics  of  Anglo-Norman  type  that  there 
occur  those  smooth  and  regular  classic  features, 
especially  the  brow  and  nose  lines,  that  were  the 
delight  of  the  sculptors  of  Hellas. 

To  what  extent  any  of  the  blood  of  the  ancient 
Hellenes  flows  in  the  veins  of  the  Greeks  of  to-day 
is  difficult  to  determine  but  it  should  be  found, 
if  anywhere,  in  Crete  and  in  the  ^Egean  Islands. 


The  modern  Greek  is  trying  to  purify  his  language 
back  to  classic  Ionian  and  to  appropriate  the 
traditions  of  the  mighty  Past,  but  to  do  this  some- 
thing more  is  needed  than  the  naming  of  children 
after  Agamemnon  and  Hecuba.  Even  in  Roman 
times,  the  ancient  Greek  of  the  classic  period  was 
little  more  than  a  tradition  and  the  term  Graeculus 
given  to  the  contemporary  Hellenes  was  one  of 

Concerning  the  physical  type  of  classic  in  con- 
trast to  Homeric  Greece,  we  know  that  the  Greeks 
were  predominantly  long  headed  and  of  relatively 
short  stature  in  comparison  with  the  northern  bar- 
barians. The  modern  Greeks  are  also  relatively 
short  in  stature,  but  are  moderately  round  headed. 
As  to  color  these  modern  Greeks  are  substantially  all 
dark  as  to  eye  and  hair,  with  a  somewhat  swarthy 

Among  Albanians  and  such  Greeks  as  show  blond 
traits  light  eyes  are  more  than  ten  times  as  numer- 
ous as  light  hair.  The  Albanians  are  members  of 
the  tall,  round  headed  Dinaric  race  and  have  distant 
relationship  with  the  Nordics.  They  may  possibly 
represent  an  ancient  cross  between  Nordics  and  Al- 
pines and  they  constitute  to-day  a  marked  subdivi- 
sion of  the  latter.  They  resemble  the  Round  Bar- 
row brachycephs  who  entered  Britain  just  before 
or  at  the  opening  of  the  Bronze  Age  and  who  are 
still  scantily  represented  among  the  living  English 


and  Welsh.  This  type  called  the  Beaker  Maker  or 
Borreby  type  is  characterized  by  a  moderately 
round  head  and  great  stature,  strength  and  con- 
siderable intellectual  force.  The  Albanian  or  Di- 
naric  type  was  not,  so  far  as  we  know,  represented 
in  ancient  Greece  although  some  modern  archaeolo- 
gists have  suggested  that  the  Spartans  were  of 
this  type.  We  have  as  yet  no  evidence  of  the  color, 
size  and  skull  shape  of  the  Spartans,  but  we  do 
know  that  their  Dorian  ancestors  claimed  to  have 
come  from  or  through  the  mountains  of  northern 
Epirus  (Albania).  The  Dorian  dialects  are  also 
said  to  be  more  closely  related  to  modern  Albanian 
— which  is  derived  from  the  ancient  Illyrian — than 
are  the  Ionian  dialects.  The  Spartan  character,  if 
that  be  any  test  of  race,  was  heavy,  slow  and 
steady,  and  would  indicate  northern  rather  than 
Mediterranean  antecedents. 

Concerning  modern  Europe  north  of  the  Alps, 
culture  came  from  the  south  and  not  from  the  east 
and  to  the  Mediterranean  subspecies  is  due  the 
foundation  of  our  civilization.  The  ancient  Medi- 
terranean world  was  for  the  most  part  of  this  race; 
the  long-sustained  civilization  of  Egypt,  which  en- 
dured for  thousands  of  years  in  almost  uninter- 
rupted sequence;  the  brilliant  Minoan  Empire  of 
Crete,  which  flourished  between  3000  and  1200 
B.  C.  and  was  the  ancestor  of  the  Mycenaean  cul- 
tures of  Greece,  Cyprus,  Italy  and  Sardinia;  the 


mysterious  Empire  of  Etruria,  the  predecessor  and 
teacher  of  Rome;  the  Hellenic  states  and  colonies 
throughout  the  Mediterranean  and  Black  Seas;  the 
maritime  and  mercantile  power  of  Phoenicia  and 
its  mighty  colony,  imperial  Carthage;  all  were  the 
creation  of  this  race.  The  sea  empire  of  Crete, 
when  its  royal  palace  at  Cnossos  was  burned  by  the 
'sea  peoples'  of  the  north,  passed  to  Tyre,  Sidon 
and  Carthage  and  from  them  to  the  Greeks.  The 
early  development  of  the  art  of  navigation  is 
to  be  attributed  to  this  race  and  from  them  the 
North  centuries  later  learned  its  maritime  archi- 

Even  though  the  Mediterranean  race  has  no 
claim  to  the  invention  of  the  synthetic  languages 
and  though  it  played  a  relatively  small  part  in  the 
development  of  the  civilization  of  the  Middle 
Ages  or  of  modern  times,  nevertheless  to  it  belongs 
the  chief  credit  of  the  classic  civilization  of  Europe 
in  the  sciences,  art,  poetry,  literature  and  philoso- 
phy, as  well  as  the  major  part  of  the  civilization  of 
Greece  and  a  very  large  share  in  the  Empire  of 

In  the  Eastern  Empire  the  Mediterraneans  were 
the  predominant  factor  under  the  guise  of  Byzan- 
tine Greeks.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  our  histories 
have  been  written  under  the  influence  of  Roman 
orthodoxy  and  because  in  the  eyes  of  the  Frank- 
ish  Crusaders  the  Byzantine  Greeks  were  heretics, 


they  have  been  regarded  by  us  as  degenerate  cow- 

But  throughout  the  Middle  Ages  Byzantium 
represented  in  unbroken  sequence  the  Empire  of 
Rome  in  the  East  and  as  the  capital  of  that  Em- 
pire it  held  Mohammedan  Asia  in  check  for  nearly 
a  thousand  years.  When  at  last  in  1453  the  im- 
perial city  deserted  by  western  Christendom  was 
stormed  by  the  Ottoman  Turks  and  Constantine, 
last  of  Roman  Emperors,  fell  sword  in  hand  there 
was  enacted  one  of  the  greatest  tragedies  of  all 

With  the  fall  of  Constantinople  the  Empire  of 
Rome  passes  finally  from  the  scene  of  history  and 
the  development  of  civilization  is  transferred  from 
Mediterranean  lands  and  from  the  Mediterranean 
race  to  the  North  Sea  and  to  the  Nordic  race. 



We  have  shown  that  the  Mediterranean  race 
entered  Europe  from  the  south  and  forms  part  of 
a  great  group  of  peoples  extending  into  southern 
Asia,  that  the  Alpine  race  came  from  the  east 
through  Asia  Minor  and  the  valley  of  the  Danube 
and  that  its  present  European  distribution  is  merely 
the  westernmost  point  of  an  ethnic  pyramid,  the 
base  of  which  rests  solidly  on  the  round  skulled 
peoples  of  the  great  plateaux  of  central  Asia. 
Both  of  these  races  are,  therefore,  western  exten- 
sions of  Asiatic  subspecies  and  neither  of  them  can 
be  considered  as  exclusively  European. 

With  the  remaining  race,  the  Nordic,  however, 
the  case  is  different.  This  is  a  purely  European 
type,  in  the  sense  that  it  has  developed  its  physical 
characters  and  its  civilization  within  the  confines 
of  that  continent.  It  is,  therefore,  the  Homo  euro- 
pceus,  the  white  man  par  excellence.  It  is  every- 
where characterized  by  certain  unique  specializa- 
tions, namely,  wavy  brown  or  blond  hair  and  blue, 
gray  or  light  brown  eyes,  fair  skin,  high,  narrow 

and  straight  nose,  which  are  associated  with  great 



stature  and  a  long  skull,  as  well  as  with  abundant 
head  and  body  hair. 

A  composite  picture  of  this  Nordic  race  and  re- 
markable examples  of  its  best  contemporary  types 
can  be  found  in  the  English  illustrated  weeklies, 
which  are  publishing  during  this  great  war  the  lists 
and  portraits  of  their  officers  who  have  fallen  in 
battle.  No  nation,  not  even  England  although 
richly  endowed  with  a  Nordic  gentry,  can  stand 
the  loss  of  so  much  good  blood.  Here  is  the  evi- 
dence, if  such  be  needed,  of  the  actual  Passing  of  the 
Great  Race. 

Abundance  of  hair  is  an  ancient  and  gener- 
alized character  which  the  Nordics  share  with  the 
Alpines  of  both  Europe  and  Asia,  but  the  light  col- 
ored eyes  and  light  colored  hair  are  characters  of 
relatively  recent  specialization  and  consequently 
highly  unstable. 

The  pure  Nordic  race  is  at  present  clustered 
around  the  shores  of  the  Baltic  and  North  Seas 
from  which  it  has  spread  west  and  south  and 
east  fading  off  gradually  into  the  two  preceding 

The  centre  of  its  greatest  purity  is  now  in  Swe- 
den and  there  is  no  doubt  that  at  first  the  Scan- 
dinavian Peninsula  and  later,  also,  the  immediately 
adjoining  shores  of  the  Baltic  were  the  centres  of 
radiation  of  the  Teutonic  or  Scandinavian  branch 
of  this  race. 


The  population  of  Scandinavia  has  been  composed 
of  this  Nordic  subspecies  from  the  commencement 
of  Neolithic  times  and  Sweden  to-day  represents 
one  of  the  few  countries  which  has  never  been  over- 
whelmed by  foreign  conquest  and  in  which  there 
has  been  but  a  single  racial  type  from  the  begin- 
ning. This  nation  is  unique  in  its  unity  of  race, 
language,  religion  and  social  ideals. 

Southern  Scandinavia  only  became  fit  for  hu- 
man habitation  on  the  retreat  of  the  glaciers  about 
twelve  thousand  years  ago  and  apparently  was  im- 
mediately occupied  by  the  Nordic  race.  This  is  one 
of  the  few  geological  dates  which  is  absolute  and 
not  relative.  It  rests  on  a  most  interesting  series 
of  computations  made  by  Baron  DeGeer,  based  on 
an  actual  count  of  the  laminated  deposits  of  clay 
laid  down  annually  by  the  retreating  glaciers,  each 
layer  representing  the  summer  deposit  of  the  sub- 
glacial  stream. 

The  Nordics  first  appear  at  the  close  of  the 
Paleolithic  along  the  coasts  of  the  Baltic.  The 
earliest  industry  discovered  in  this  region,  named 
the  Maglemose  and  found  in  Denmark  and  else- 
where around  the  Baltic,  is  probably  the  culture 
of  the  Proto-Teutonic  branch  of  the  Nordic  race. 
No  human  remains  in  connection  therewith  have 
been  found. 

The  vigor  and  power  of  the  Nordic  race  as  a 
whole  is  such  that  it  could  not  have  been  evolved 


in  so  restricted  an  area  as  southern  Sweden  al- 
though its  Teutonic  or  Scandinavian  section  did 
develop  there  in  comparative  isolation.  The  Nor- 
dics must  have  had  a  larger  field  for  their  specializa- 
tion and  a  longer  period  for  their  evolution  than  is 
afforded  by  the  limited  time  which  has  elapsed  since 
Sweden  became  habitable.  For  the  development 
of  so  marked  a  type  there  is  required  a  continental 
area  isolated  and  protected  for  long  ages  from  the 
intrusion  of  other  races.  The  climatic  conditions 
must  have  been  such  as  to  impose  a  rigid  elimi- 
nation of  defectives  through  the  agency  of  hard 
winters  and  the  necessity  of  industry  and  foresight 
in  providing  the  year's  food,  clothing  and  shelter 
during  the  short  summer.  Such  demands  on  en- 
ergy if  long  continued  would  produce  a  strong, 
virile  and  self-contained  race  which  would  inevi- 
tably overwhelm  in  battle  nations  whose  weaker 
elements  had  not  been  purged  by  the  conditions  of 
an  equally  severe  environment. 

An  area  conforming  to  these  requirements  is 
offered  by  the  forests  and  plains  of  eastern  Ger- 
many, Poland  and  Russia.  It  was  here  that  the 
Proto-Nordic  type  evolved  and  here  their  remnants 
are  found.  They  were  protected  from  Asia  on  the 
east  by  the  then  almost  continuous  water  connec- 
tions across  eastern  Russia  between  the  White  Sea 
and  the  old  Caspian-Aral  Sea. 

During  the  last  glacial  advance  (known  as  the 


Wiirm)  which,  like  the  preceding  glaciations,  is  be- 
lieved to  have  been  a  period  of  land  depression, 
the  White  Sea  extended  far  to  the  south  of  its 
present  limits,  while  the  enlarged  Caspian  Sea, 
then  and  long  afterward  connected  with  the  Sea 
of  Aral,  extended  northward  to  the  great  bend  of 
the  Volga.  The  intermediate  area  was  studded 
with  large  lakes  and  morasses.  Thus  an  almost 
complete  water  barrier  of  shallow  sea  located  just 
west  of  the  low  Ural  Mountains,  separated  Europe 
from  Asia  during  the  Wiirm  glaciation  and  the 
following  period  of  glacial  retreat.  The  broken 
connection  was  restored  just  before  the  dawn  of 
history  by  a  slight  elevation  of  the  land  and  the 
shrinking  of  the  Caspian-Aral  Sea  through  the  in- 
creasing desiccation  which  has  left  its  present  sur- 
face below  sea  level. 

An  important  element  in  the  maintenance  of 
the  isolation  of  this  Nordic  cradle  on  the  south  is 
the  fact  that  from  earliest  times  down  to  this  day 
the  pressure  of  population  has  been  unchangeably 
from  the  bleak  and  sterile  north,  southward  and 
eastward,  into  the  sunny  but  enervating  lands  of 
France,  Italy,  Greece,  Persia  and  India. 

In  these  forests  and  steppes  of  the  north,  the 
Nordic  race  gradually  evolved  in  isolation  and  at 
an  early  date  spread  north  over  the  Scandinavian 
Peninsula  together  with  much  of  the  land  now  sub- 
merged under  the  Baltic  and  North  Seas. 


Nordic  strains  form  everywhere  a  substratum 
of  population  throughout  Russia  and  underlie  the 
round  skulled  Slavs  who  first  appear  a  little  over  a 
thousand  years  ago  as  coming  not  from  the  direc- 
tion of  Asia  but  from  south  Poland.  Burial  mounds 
called  kurgans  are  widely  scattered  throughout 
Russia  from  the  Carpathians  to  the  Urals  and  con- 
tain numerous  remains  of  a  dolichocephalic  race, — 
in  fact,  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  skulls  are 
of  this  type.  Round  skulls  first  become  numer- 
ous in  ancient  Russian  graveyards  about  900  A.  D. 
and  soon  increase  to  such  an  extent  that  in  the 
Slavic  period  from  the  ninth  to  the  thirteenth  cen- 
turies one-half  of  the  skulls  were  brachycephalic, 
while  in  modern  cemeteries  the  proportion  of  round 
skulls  is  still  greater.  The  ancient  Nordic  element, 
however,  still  forms  a  very  considerable  portion  of 
the  population  of  northern  Russia  and  contributes 
the  blondness  and  the  red-headedness  so  charac- 
teristic of  the  Russian  of  to-day.  As  we  leave 
the  Baltic  coasts  the  Nordic  characters  fade  out 
both  toward  the  south  and  east.  The  blond  ele- 
ment in  the  nobility  of  Russia  is  of  later  Scandi- 
navian and  Teutonic  origin. 

When  the  seas  which  separated  Russia  from  Asia 
dried,  when  the  isolation  and  exacting  climate  of 
the  north  had  done  their  work  and  produced  the 
vigorous  Nordic  type,  and  when  in  the  fulness  of 
time  bronze  for  their  weapons  reached  them  these 


men  burst  upon  the  southern  races,  conquering 
east,  south  and  west.  They  brought  with  them 
from  the  north  the  hardihood  and  vigor  acquired 
under  the  rigorous  selection  of  a  long  winter  season 
and  vanquished  in  battle  the  inhabitants  of  older 
and  feebler  civilizations,  but  only  to  succumbiJn 
their  turn  to  the  softening  influences  of  a  life  of 
ease  and  plenty  in  their  new  homes. 

The  earliest  recorded  appearance  of  Aryan- 
speaking  Nordics  is  our  first  dim  vision  of  the 
Sacae  introducing  Sanskrit  into  India,  the  Cimme- 
rians pouring  through  the  passes  of  the  Caucasus 
from  the  grasslands  of  South  Russia  to  invade  the 
Empire  of  the  Medes  and  the  Achaeans  and 
Phrygians  conquering  Greece  and  the  ^Egean  coast 
of  Asia  Minor.  About  1100  B.  C.  Nordics  enter 
Italy  as  Umbrians  and  Oscans  and  soon  after  other 
Nordics  cross  the  Rhine  into  Gaul.  The  latter 
were  the  western  vanguard  of  the  Celtic-speaking 
tribes  which  had  long  occupied  those  districts  in 
Germany  which  lay  south  and  west  of  the  Teu- 
tonic Nordics.  These  Teutons  at  this  early  date 
were  confined  probably  to  Scandinavia  and  the 
immediate  shores  of  the  Baltic  and  were  just  be- 
ginning to  press  southward. 

This  first  Celtic  wave  of  Nordics  seems  to  have 
swept  westward  along  the  sandy  plains  of  northern 
Europe,  and  entered  France  through  the  Low  Coun- 
tries.   From  this  point  as  Goidels  they  spread  north 


into  Britain,  reaching  there  about  800  B.  C.  As 
Gauls  they  conquered  all  France  and  pushed  on 
southward  and  westward  into  Spain  and  over  the 
Maritime  Alps  into  northern  Italy,  where  they  en- 
countered the  kindred  Nordic  Umbrians,  who  at  an 
earlier  date  had  crossed  the  Alps  from  the  north- 
east. Other  Celtic-speaking  Nordics  apparently  mi- 
grated up  the  Rhine  and  down  the  Danube  and 
by  the  time  the  Romans  came  on  the  scene  the 
Alpines  of  central  Europe  had  been  thoroughly 
Celticized.  These  tribes  pushed  eastward  into 
southern  Russia  and  reached  the  Crimea  as  early 
as  the  fourth  century  B.  C.  Mixed  with  the  na- 
tives, they  were  called  by  the  Greeks  the  Celto- 
Scyths.  This  swarming  out  of  what  is  now  called 
Germany  of  the  first  Nordics  was  during  the  clos- 
ing phases  of  the  Bronze  Period  and  was  contem- 
porary with  and  probably  caused  by  the  first  great 
expansion  of  the  Teutons  from  Scandinavia  by  way 
both  of  Denmark  and  the  Baltic  coasts. 

These  invaders  were  succeeded  by  a  second  wave 
of  Celtic-speaking  peoples,  the  Cymry  or  Brythons, 
who  drove  their  Goidelic  predecessors  still  farther 
westward  and  exterminated  and  absorbed  them 
over  large  areas.  These  Cymric  invasions  occurred 
about  300-100  B.  C.  and  were  probably  the  result 
of  the  growing  development  of  the  Teutons  and 
their  final  expulsion  of  the  Celtic-speaking  tribes 
from  Germany.     These  Cymry  occupied  northern 


France  under  the  name  of  Belgae  and  invaded  Eng- 
land as  Bry  thons  in  several  waves,  the  last  being  the 
true  Belgae.  The  conquests  of  these  Cymric  tribes 
in  both  Gaul  and  Britain  were  only  checked  by  the 
legions  of  Rome. 

These  migrations  are  exceedingly  hard  to  trace  J 
because  of  the  confusion  caused  by  the  fact  that 
Celtic  speech  is  now  found  on  the  lips  of  popu- 
lations in  nowise  related  to  the  Nordics  who  first 
introduced  it.  But  one  fact  stands  out  clearly,  all 
the  original  Celtic-speaking  tribes  were  Nordic. 

What  were  the  special  physical  characters  of 
these  tribes  in  which  they  differed  from  their  Teu- 
tonic successors  is  now  impossible  to  say,  beyond 
the  possible  suggestion  that  in  the  British  Isles  the 
Scottish  and  Irish  populations  in  which  red  hair 
and  gray  or  green  eyes  are  abundant  have  rather 
more  of  this  Celtic  strain  in  them  than  have  the 
flaxen  haired  Teutons,  whose  china-blue  eyes  are 
clearly  not  Celtic. 

When  the  peoples  called  Gauls  or  Celts  by  the 
Romans  and  Galatians  by  the  Greeks  first  appear 
in  history  they  are  described  in  exactly  the  same 
terms  as  were  later  the  Teutons.  They  were  all 
gigantic  barbarians  with  fair  and  very  often  red 
hair,  then  more  frequent  than  to-day,  with  gray  or 
fiercely  blue  eyes  and  were  thus  clearly  members 
of  the  Nordic  subspecies. 

The  first  Celtic-speaking  nations  with  whom  the 


Romans  came  in  contact  were  Gaulish  and  had 
probably  incorporated  much  Alpine  blood  by  the 
time  they  crossed  the  mountains  into  the  domain 
of  classic  history.  The  Nordic  element  had  be- 
come still  weaker  by  absorption  from  the  con- 
quered populations  when  at  a  later  date  the  Ro- 
mans broke  through  the  ring  of  Celtic  nations  and 
came  into  contact  with  the  Nordic  Cymry  and 

After  these  early  expansions  of  Gauls  and  Cymry 
the  Teutons  appear  upon  the  scene.  Of  the  pure 
Teutons  within  the  ken  of  history,  it  is  not  neces- 
sary to  mention  more  than  the  most  important  of 
the  long  series  of  conquering  tribes. 

The  greatest  of  them  all  were  perhaps  the 
Goths,  who  came  originally  from  the  south  of 
Sweden  and  were  long  located  on  the  opposite 
German  coast  at  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula.  From 
here  they  crossed  Poland  to  the  Crimea  where  they 
were  known  in  the  first  century.  Three  hundred 
years  later  they  were  driven  westward  by  the  Huns 
and  forced  into  the  Dacian  plain  and  over  the 
Danube  into  the  Roman  Empire.  There  they  split 
up;  the  Ostrogoths  after  a  period  of  subjection  to 
the  Huns  on  the  Danube,  ravaged  the  European 
provinces  of  the  Eastern  Empire,  conquered  Italy 
and  founded  there  a  great  but  shortlived  nation. 
The  Visigoths  occupied  much  of  Gaul  and  then 
entered  Spain  driving  the  Nordic  Vandals  before 


them  into  Africa.  The  Teutons  and  Cimbri, 
destroyed  by  Marius  in  southern  Gaul  about  100 
B.  C.j  the  Gepidae,  the  Alans,  the  Suevi,  the  Van- 
dals, the  Alemanni  of  the  upper  Rhine,  the  Mar- 
comanni,  the  Saxons,  the  Batavians,  the  Frisians, 
the  Angles,  the  Jutes,  the  Lombards  and  the 
Heruli  of  Italy,  the  Burgundians  of  the  east  of 
France,  the  Franks  of  the  lower  Rhine,  the  Danes, 
and,  latest  of  all,  the  Norse  Vikings  emerge  from 
the  northern  forests  and  seas  one  after  another  and 
sweep  through  history.  Less  well  known  but  of 
great  importance  are  the  Varangians,  who  coming 
from  Sweden  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries,  con- 
quered the  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Finland  and  much 
of  White  Russia  and  left  there  a  dynasty  and  aris- 
tocracy of  Nordic  blood.  In  the  tenth  and  eleventh 
centuries  they  were  the  rulers  of  Russia. 

The  traditions  of  Goths,  Vandals,  Lombards  and 
Burgundians  all  point  to  Sweden  as  their  earliest 
homeland  and  probably  all  the  pure  Teutonic 
tribes  came  originally  from  Scandinavia  and  were 
closely  related. 

When  these  Teutonic  tribes  poured  down  from 
the  Baltic  coasts,  their  Celtic-speaking  Nordic 
predecessors  were  already  much  mixed  with  the 
underlying  populations,  Mediterranean  in  the  west 
and  Alpine  in  the  south.  These  "Celts"  were  not 
recognized  by  the  Teutons  as  kin  in  any  sense 
and  were  all  called,  Welsh,  or  foreigners.     From  this 


Romans  came  in  contact  were  Gaulish  and  had 
probably  incorporated  much  Alpine  blood  by  the 
time  they  crossed  the  mountains  into  the  domain 
of  classic  history.  The  Nordic  element  had  be- 
come still  weaker  by  absorption  from  the  con- 
quered populations  when  at  a  later  date  the  Ro- 
mans broke  through  the  ring  of  Celtic  nations  and 
came  into  contact  with  the  Nordic  Cymry  and 

After  these  early  expansions  of  Gauls  and  Cymry 
the  Teutons  appear  upon  the  scene.  Of  the  pure 
Teutons  within  the  ken  of  history,  it  is  not  neces- 
sary to  mention  more  than  the  most  important  of 
the  long  series  of  conquering  tribes. 

The  greatest  of  them  all  were  perhaps  the 
Goths,  who  came  originally  from  the  south  of 
Sweden  and  were  long  located  on  the  opposite 
German  coast  at  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula.  From 
here  they  crossed  Poland  to  the  Crimea  where  they 
were  known  in  the  first  century.  Three  hundred 
years  later  they  were  driven  westward  by  the  Huns 
and  forced  into  the  Dacian  plain  and  over  the 
Danube  into  the  Roman  Empire.  There  they  split 
up;  the  Ostrogoths  after  a  period  of  subjection  to 
the  Huns  on  the  Danube,  ravaged  the  European 
provinces  of  the  Eastern  Empire,  conquered  Italy 
and  founded  there  a  great  but  shortlived  nation. 
The  Visigoths  occupied  much  of  Gaul  and  then 
entered  Spain  driving  the  Nordic  Vandals  before 


them  into  Africa.  The  Teutons  and  Cimbri, 
destroyed  by  Marius  in  southern  Gaul  about  100 
B.  C,  the  Gepidae,  the  Alans,  the  Suevi,  the  Van- 
dals, the  Alemanni  of  the  upper  Rhine,  the  Mar- 
comanni,  the  Saxons,  the  Batavians,  the  Frisians, 
the  Angles,  the  Jutes,  the  Lombards  and  the 
Heruli  of  Italy,  the  Burgundians  of  the  east  of 
France,  the  Franks  of  the  lower  Rhine,  the  Danes, 
and,  latest  of  all,  the  Norse  Vikings  emerge  from 
the  northern  forests  and  seas  one  after  another  and 
sweep  through  history.  Less  well  known  but  of 
great  importance  are  the  Varangians,  who  coming 
from  Sweden  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries,  con- 
quered the  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Finland  and  much 
of  White  Russia  and  left  there  a  dynasty  and  aris- 
tocracy of  Nordic  blood.  In  the  tenth  and  eleventh 
centuries  they  were  the  rulers  of  Russia. 

The  traditions  of  Goths,  Vandals,  Lombards  and 
Burgundians  all  point  to  Sweden  as  their  earliest 
homeland  and  probably  all  the  pure  Teutonic 
tribes  came  originally  from  Scandinavia  and  were 
closely  related. 

When  these  Teutonic  tribes  poured  down  from 
the  Baltic  coasts,  their  Celtic-speaking  Nordic 
predecessors  were  already  much  mixed  with  the 
underlying  populations,  Mediterranean  in  the  west 
and  Alpine  in  the  south.  These  "Celts"  were  not 
recognized  by  the  Teutons  as  kin  in  any  sense 
and  were  all  called,  Welsh,  or  foreigners.     From  this 


word  are  derived  the  names  "Wales,"  "Corn- 
wales"  or  "Cornwall,"  "Valais,"  "Walloons,"  and 
"Vlach"  or  "Wallachian." 



No  proper  understanding  is  possible  of  the 
meaning  of  the  history  of  Christendom  or  full  ap- 
preciation of  the  place  in  it  of  the  Teutonic  Nor- 
dics without  a  brief  review  of  the  events  in  Eu- 
rope of  the  last  two  thousand  years. 

When  Rome  fell  and  changed  trade  conditions 
necessitated  the  transfer  of  power  from  its  historic 
capital  in  Italy  to  a  strategic  situation  on  the  Bos- 
porus, western  Europe  was  definitely  and  finally 
abandoned  to  its  Teutonic  invaders.  These  same 
barbarians  swept  up  again  and  again  to  the  Pro- 
pontis,  only  to  recoil  before  the  organized  strength 
of  the  Byzantine  Empire  and  the  walls  of  Mikkle- 
gard.  The  final  line  of  cleavage  between  the  west- 
ern and  eastern  Empires  corresponded  closely  to 
the  boundaries  of  Latin  and  Greek  speech  and  dif- 
ferences of  language  no  doubt  were  the  chief  cause 
of  the  political  and  later  of  the  religious  divergence 
between  them. 

Until  the  coming  of  the  Alpine  Slavs  the  East- 
ern Empire  still  held  in  Europe  the  Balkan  Penin- 
sula and  much  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean.     The 

Western  Empire,  however,  collapsed  utterly  under 



the  impact  of  hordes  of  Nordic  Teutons  at  a 
much  earlier  date.  In  the  fourth  and  fifth  centu- 
ries of  our  era  north  Africa,  once  the  empire  of 
Carthage,  had  become  the  seat  of  the  kingdom  of 
Nordic  Vandals.  Spain  fell  under  the  control  of 
the  Visigoths  and  Lusitania,  now  Portugal,  under 
that  of  the  Suevi.  Gaul  was  Visigothic  in  the 
south  and  Burgundian  in  the  east,  while  the 
Frankish  kingdom  dominated  the  north  until  it 
finally  absorbed  and  incorporated  all  the  territories 
of  ancient  Gaul  and  made  it  the  land  of  the  Franks. 
Strictly  speaking,  the  northern  half  of  France  and 
the  adjoining  districts,  the  country  of  Langued'oil, 
is  the  true  land  of  the  Franks  while  the  southern 
Languedoc  was  never  Frankish  except  by  conquest, 
and  was  never  as  thoroughly  Nordicized  as  the 
north.  Whatever  Nordic  elements  are  still  to  be 
found  there  are  Gothic  and  Burgundian  but  not 

Italy  fell  under  the  control  first  of  the  Ostro- 
goths and  then  of  the  Lombards.  The  purely 
Nordic  Saxons  with  kindred  tribes  conquered  the 
British  Isles  and  meanwhile  the  Norse  and  Danish 
Scandinavians  contributed  a  large  element  to  all 
the  coast  populations  as  far  south  as  Spain  and 
the  Swedes  organized  in  the  eastern  Baltic  what 
is  now  Russia. 

Thus  when  Rome  passed  all  Europe  had  be- 
come superficially  Teutonic.    At  first  these  Teutons 


were  isolated  and  independent  tribes  bearing  some 
shadowy  relation  to  the  one  organized  state  they 
knew,  the  Empire  of  Rome.  Then  came  the  Mo- 
hammedan invasion,  which  reached  western  Eu- 
rope from  Africa  and  destroyed  the  Visigothic 
kingdom.  The  Moslems  swept  on  unchecked 
until  their  light  horsemen  dashed  themselves  to 
pieces  against  the  heavy  armed  cavalry  of  Charles 
Martel  and  his  Franks  at  Tours  in  732  A.  D. 

The  destruction  of  the  Vandal  kingdom  by  the 
armies  of  the  Byzantine  Empire,  the  conquest  of 
Spain  by  the  Moors  and  finally  the  overthrow  of 
the  Lombards  by  the  Franks  were  all  greatly  facil- 
itated by  the  fact  that  these  barbarians,  Vandals, 
Goths,  Suevi  and  Lombards,  with  the  sole  excep- 
tion of  the  Franks,  were  originally  Christians 
of  the  Arian  or  Unitarian  confession  and  as 
such  were  regarded  as  heretics  by  their  orthodox 
Christian  subjects.  The  Franks  alone  were  con- 
verted from  heathenism  directly  to  the  Trini- 
tarian faith  to  which  the  old  populations  of  the 
Roman  Empire  adhered.  From  this  orthodoxy 
of  the  Franks  arose  the  close  relation  between 
France,  "the  eldest  daughter  of  the  church,"  and 
the  papacy,  a  connection  which  lasted  for  more 
than  a  thousand  years — in  fact  nearly  to  our  own 

With  the  Goths  eliminated  western  Christen- 
dom became  Frankish.     In  the  year  800  A.  D. 


Charlemagne  was  crowned  at  Rome  and  re-estab- 
lished the  Roman  Empire  in  the  west,  which  in- 
cluded all  Christendom  outside  of  the  Byzantine 
Empire.  In  some  form  or  shape  this  Roman 
Empire  endured  until  the  beginning  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  and  during  all  that  time  it  formed 
the  basis  of  the  political  concept  of  European 

This  same  concept  lies  to-day  at  the  root  of  the 
imperial  idea.  Kaiser,  Tsar  and  Emperor  each 
takes  his  name  and  in  some  way  undertakes  to 
trace  his  title  from  Caesar  and  the  Empire.  Charle- 
magne and  his  successors  claimed  and  often  exer- 
cised overlordship  as  to  all  the  other  continental 
Christian  nations  and  when  the  Crusades  began 
it  was  the  German  Emperor  who  led  the  Frankish 
hosts  against  the  Saracens.  Charlemagne  was  a 
German  Emperor,  his  capital  was  at  Aachen  within 
the  present  limits  of  the  German  Empire  and  the 
language  of  his  court  was  German.  For  several 
centuries  after  the  conquest  of  Gaul  by  the  Franks 
their  Teutonic  tongue  held  its  own  against  the 
Latin  speech  of  the  Romanized  Gauls. 

The  history  of  all  Christian  Europe  is  in  some 
degree  interwoven  with  this  Holy  Roman  Em- 
pire. Though  the  Empire  was  neither  holy  nor 
Roman  but  altogether  secular  and  Teutonic,  it 
was,  nevertheless,  the  heart  of  Europe  for  ages. 
Holland  and  Flanders,  Lorraine  and  Alsace,  Bur- 


gundy  and  Luxemburg,  Lombardy  and  the  Veneto, 
Switzerland  and  Austria,  Bohemia  and  Styria  are 
states  which  were  originally  component  parts  of 
the  Empire  although  many  of  them  have  since 
been  torn  away  by  rival  nations  or  have  become  in- 
dependent, while  much  of  northern  Italy  remained 
under  the  sway  of  Austria  within  the  memory  of 
living  men. 

The  Empire  wasted  its  strength  in  imperial  am- 
bitions and  foreign  conquests  instead  of  consoli- 
dating, organizing  and  unifying  its  own  territories 
and  the  fact  that  the  imperial  crown  was  elective 
for  many  generations  before  it  became  hereditary 
in  the  House  of  Hapsburg  checked  the  unification 
of  Germany  during  the  Middle  Ages. 

A  strong  hereditary  monarchy,  such  as  arose  in 
England  and  in  France,  would  have  anticipated 
the  Germany  of  to-day  by  a  thousand  years  and 
made  it  the  predominant  state  in  Christendom, 
but  disruptive  elements  in  the  persons  of  great 
territorial  dukes  were  successful  throughout  its 
history  in  preventing  an  effective  concentration  of 
power  in  the  hands  of  the  Emperor. 

That  the  German  Emperor  was  regarded,  though 
vaguely,  as  the  overlord  of  all  Christian  monarchs 
was  clearly  indicated  when  Henry  VIII  of  England 
and  Francis  I  of  France  appeared  as  candidates 
for  the  imperial  crown  against  Charles  of  Spain, 
afteiward  the  Emperor  Charles  V. 


Europe  was  the  Holy  Roman  Empire  and  the 
Holy  Roman  Empire  was  Europe  predominantly 
until  the  Thirty  Years'  War.  This  war  was  per- 
haps the  greatest  catastrophe  of  all  the  ghastly 
crimes  committed  in  the  name  of  religion.  It  de- 
stroyed an  entire  generation,  taking  each  year  for 
thirty  years  the  finest  manhood  of  the  nations. 

Two-thirds  of  the  population  of  Germany  was 
destroyed,  in  some  states  such  as  Bohemia  three- 
fourths  of  the  inhabitants  were  killed  or  exiled, 
while  out  of  500,000  inhabitants  in  Wurtemberg 
there  were  only  48,000  left  at  the  end  of  the  war. 
Terrible  as  this  loss  was,  the  destruction  did  not 
fall  equally  on  the  various  races  and  classes  in 
the  community.  It  bore,  of  course,  most  heavily 
upon  the  big  blond  fighting  man  and  at  the  end 
of  the  war  the  German  states  contained  a  greatly 
lessened  proportion  of  Nordic  blood.  In  fact, 
from  that  time  on  the  purely  Teutonic  race  in 
Germany  has  been  largely  replaced  by  the  Al- 
pine types  in  the  south  and  by  the  Wendish  and 
the  Polish  types  in  the  east.  This  change  of  race 
in  Germany  has  gone  so  far  that  it  has  been  com- 
puted that  out  of  the  70,000,000  inhabitants  of 
the  German  Empire,  only  9,000,000  are  purely 
Teutonic  in  coloration,  stature  and  skull  charac- 
ters. The  rarity  of  pure  Teutonic  and  Nordic 
types  among  the  German  immigrants  to  America  in 
contrast  to  its  almost  universal  prevalence  among 


those  from  Scandinavia  is  traceable  to  the  same 

In  addition,  the  Thirty  Years'  War  virtually 
destroyed  the  land  owning  yeomanry  and  lesser 
gentry  formerly  found  in  mediaeval  Germany  as 
numerously  as  in  France  or  in  England.  The  re- 
ligious wars  of  France,  while  not  as  devasting  to 
the  nation  as  a  whole  as  was  the  Thirty  Years'  War 
in  Germany,  nevertheless  greatly  weakened  the 
French  cavalier  type,  the  "petite  noblesse  de  pro- 
vince." In  Germany  this  class  had  flourished  and 
throughout  the  Middle  Ages  contributed  great 
numbers  of  knights,  poets,  thinkers,  artists  and 
artisans  who  gave  charm  and  variety  to  the  society 
of  central  Europe.  But,  as  said,  this  section  of 
the  population  was  practically  exterminated  in  the 
Thirty  Years'  War  and  this  class  of  gentlemen 
practically  vanishes  from  German  history  from 
that  time  on. 

When  the  Thirty  Years'  War  was  over  there  re- 
mained in  Germany  nothing  except  the  brutalized 
peasantry,  largely  of  Alpine  derivation  in  the 
south  and  east,  and  the  high  nobility  which  turned 
from  the  toils  of  endless  warfare  to  mimic  on  a 
small  scale  the  court  of  Versailles.  After  this  long 
struggle  the  boundaries  in  central  Europe  between 
the  Protestant  North  and  the  Catholic  South  fol- 
low in  a  marked  degree  the  frontier  between  the 
northern  plain  inhabited  chiefly  by  Nordics  and 


the  more  mountainous  countries  in  the  south  popu- 
lated almost  entirely  by  Alpines. 

It  has  taken  Germany  two  centuries  to  recover 
her  vigor,  her  wealth  and  her  aspirations  to  a  place 
in  the  sun. 

During  these  years  Germany  was  a  political  non- 
entity, a  mere  congeries  of  petty  states  bickering 
and  fighting  with  each  other,  claiming  and  own- 
ing only  the  Empire  of  the  Air  as  Napoleon  hap- 
pily phrased  it.  Meantime  France  and  England 
founded  their  colonial  empires  beyond  the  seas. 

When  in  the  last  generation  Germany  became 
unified  and  organized,  she  found  herself  not  only 
too  late  to  share  in  these  colonial  enterprises,  but 
also  lacking  in  much  of  the  racial  element  and  still 
more  lacking  in  the  very  classes  which  were  her 
greatest  strength  and  glory  before  the  Thirty  Years' 
War.  To-day  the  ghastly  rarity  in  the  German 
armies  of  chivalry  and  generosity  toward  women 
and  of  knightly  protection  and  courtesy  toward  the 
prisoners  or  wounded  can  be  largely  attributed  to 
this  annihilation  of  the  gentle  classes.  The  Ger- 
mans of  to-day,  whether  they  live  on  the  farms 
or  in  the  cities,  are  for  the  most  part  descendants 
of  the  peasants  who  survived,  not  of  the  brilliant 
knights  and  sturdy  foot  soldiers  who  fell  in  that 
mighty  conflict.  Knowledge  of  this  great  past 
when  Europe  was  Teutonic  and  memories  of  the 
shadowy  grandeur  of  the  Hohenstaufen  Emperors, 


who,  generation  after  generation,  led  Teutonic 
armies  over  the  Alps  to  assert  their  title  to  Italian 
provinces,  have  played  no  small  part  in  modern 
German  consciousness. 

These  traditions  and  the  knowledge  that  their 
own  religious  dissensions  swept  them  from  the 
leadership  of  the  European  world  lie  at  the  base 
of  the  German  imperial  ideal  of  to-day  and  it  is 
for  this  ideal  that  the  German  armies  are  dying, 
just  as  did  their  ancestors  for  a  thousand  years 
under  their  Fredericks,  Henrys,  Conrads  and  Ottos. 

But  the  Empire  of  Rome  and  the  Empire  of 
Charlemagne  are  no  more  and  the  Teutonic  type 
is  divided  almost  equally  between  the  contending 
forces  in  this  world  war.  With  the  United  States 
in  the  field  the  balance  of  pure  Nordic  blood  will 
be  heavily  against  the  Central  Powers,  which  pride 
themselves  on  being  "the  Teutonic  powers." 

Germany  is  too  late  and  is  limited  to  a  destiny 
fixed  and  ordained  for  her  on  the  fatal  day  in  16 18 
when  the  Hapsburg  Ferdinand  forced  the  Prot- 
estants of  Bohemia  into  revolt. 

Although  as  a  result  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War  the 
German  Empire  is  far  less  Nordic  than  in  the  Mid- 
dle Ages,  the  north  and  northwest  of  Germany  are 
still  Teutonic  throughout  and  in  the  east  and  south 
the  Alpines  have  been  thoroughly  Germanized  with 
an  aristocracy  and  upper  class  very  largely  of  pure 
Teutonic  blood. 


The  men  of  Nordic  blood  to-day  form  practi- 
cally all  the  population  of  Scandinavian  countries, 
as  also  a  majority  of  the  population  of  the  British 
Isles  and  are  almost  pure  in  type  in  Scotland  and 
eastern  and  northern  England.  The  Nordic  realm 
includes  nearly  all  the  northern  third  of  France 
with  extensions  into  the  fertile  southwest;  all  the 
rich  lowlands  of  Flanders;  all  Holland;  the  north- 
ern half  of  Germany  with  extensions  up  the  Rhine 
and  down  the  Danube;  and  the  north  of  Poland 
and  of  Russia.  Recent  calculations  indicate  that 
there  are  about  90,000,000  of  purely  Nordic  phys- 
ical type  in  Europe  out  of  a  total  population  of 

Throughout  southern  Europe  a  Nordic  nobility 
of  Teutonic  type  everywhere  forms  the  old  aristo- 
cratic and  military  classes  or  what  now  remains 
of  them.  These  aristocrats,  by  as  much  as  their 
blood  is  pure,  are  taller  and  blonder  than  the  native 
populations,  whether  these  be  Alpine  in  central 
Europe  or  Mediterranean  in  Spain  or  in  the  south 
of  France  and  Italy. 

The  countries  speaking  Low   German  dialects 



are  almost  purely  Nordic  but  the  populations  of 
High  German  speech  are  very  largely  Teutonized 
Alpines  and  occupy  lands  once  Celtic-speaking. 
The  main  distinction  between  the  two  dialects  is 
the  presence  of  a  large  number  of  Celtic  elements 
in  High  German. 

In  northern  Italy  there  is  a  large  amount  of  Nor- 
dic blood.  In  Lombardy,  Venice  and  elsewhere 
throughout  the  country  the  aristocracy  is  blonder 
and  taller  than  the  peasantry,  but  the  Nordic  ele- 
ment in  Italy  has  declined  noticeably  since  the 
Middle  Ages.  From  Roman  times  onward  for  a 
thousand  years  the  Teutons  swarmed  into  north- 
ern Italy,  through  the  Alps  and  chiefly  by  way  of 
the  Brenner  Pass.  With  the  stoppage  of  these 
Nordic  reinforcements  this  strain  seems  to  have 
grown  less  all  through  Italy.* 

In  the  Balkan  Peninsula  there  is  little  to  show 
for  the  floods  of  Nordic  blood  that  have  poured  in 
for  the  last  3,500  years,  beginning  with  the  Achae- 
ans  of  Homer,  who  first  appeared  en  masse  about 
1400  B.  C.  and  were  followed  successively  by  the 
Dorians,  Cimmerians  and  Gauls,  down  to  the 
Goths  and  the  Varangians  of  Byzantine  times. 

*  Procopius  tells  a  significant  story  which  illustrates  the  contrast  in 
racial  character  between  the  natives  and  the  barbarians.  He  relates 
that,  at  the  surrender  of  Ravenna  in  540  A.  D.  by  the  Goths  to  the  army 
of  the  Byzantines,  "when  the  Gothic  women  saw  how  swarthy,  small 
men  of  mean  aspect  had  conquered  their  tall,  robust,  fair-skinned  barba- 
rians, they  were  furious  and  spat  in  their  husbands'  faces  and  cursed 
them  for  cowards." 


The  tall  stature  of  the  population  along  the 
Ulyrian  Alps  from  the  Tyrol  to  Albania  on  the 
south  is  undoubtedly  of  Nordic  origin  and  dates 
from  some  of  these  early  invasions,  but  these  II- 
lyrians  have  been  so  crossed  with  Slavs  that  all 
other  blond  elements  have  been  lost  and  the  ex- 
isting population  is  essentially  of  brachycephalic 
Alpine  type.  They  are  known  as  the  Dinaric  race. 
What  few  remnants  of  blondness  occur  in  this  dis- 
trict, more  particularly  in  Albania,  as  well  as  the 
so-called  Frankish  elements  in  Bosnia,  may  proba- 
bly be  attributed  to  later  infiltrations. 

The  Tyrolese  seem  to  be  largely  Nordic  except  in 
respect  to  their  round  skull. 

In  Russia  and  in  Poland  the  Nordic  stature, 
blondness  and  long  skull  grow  less  and  less  pro- 
nounced as  one  proceeds  south  and  east  from  the 
Gulf  of  Finland. 

It  would  appear  that  in  all  those  parts  of  Eu- 
rope outside  of  its  natural  habitat,  the  Nordic 
blood  is  on  the  wane  from  England  to  Italy  and 
that  the  ancient,  acclimated  and  primitive  popula- 
tions of  Alpine  and  Mediterranean  race  are  subtly 
reasserting  their  long  lost  political  power  through 
a  high  breeding  rate  and  democratic  institutions. 

In  western  Europe  the  first  wave  of  the  Nordic 
tribes  appeared  about  three  thousand  years  ago  and 
was  followed  by  other  invasions  with  the  Nordic 
element  becoming  stronger  until  after  the  fall  of 


Rome  whole  tribes  moved  into  its  provinces,  Teu- 
tonizing  them  more  or  less  for  varying  lengths  of 

These  incoming  Nordics  intermarried  with  the 
native  populations  and  were  gradually  bred  out 
and  the  resurgence  of  the  old  native  stock,  chiefly 
Alpine,  has  proceeded  steadily  since  the  Frankish 
Charlemagne  destroyed  the  Lombard  kingdom  and 
is  proceeding  with  unabated  vigor  to-day.  This 
process  was  greatly  accelerated  in  western  Europe 
by  the  Crusades,  which  were  extremely  destructive 
to  the  Nordic  feudal  lords,  especially  the  Frankish 
and  Norman  nobility  and  was  continued  by  the 
wars  of  the  Reformation  and  by  those  of  the  Revo- 
lution. The  world  war  now  in  full  swing  with  its 
toll  of  millions  will  leave  Europe  much  poorer  in 
Nordic  blood.  One  of  its  most  certain  results  will 
be  the  partial  destruction  of  the  aristocratic  classes 
everywhere  in  northern  Europe.  In  England  the 
nobility  has  already  suffered  in  battle  more  than  in 
any  century  since  the  Wars  of  the  Roses.  This  will 
tend  to  realize  the  standardization  of  type  so  dear 
to  democratic  ideals.  If  equality  cannot_be_ob-  ^ 
tained  by  lengthening  and  uplifting  the  stunted,  of 
body  and  of  mind,  it  can  be  at  least  realized  by  the 
destruction  of  the  exalted  of  stature  and  of  soul. 
The  bed  of  Procrustes  operates  with  the  same 
fatal  exactness  when  it  shortens  the  long  as  when  it 
stretches  the  undersized. 


The  first  Nordics  in  Spain  were  the  Gauls  who 
crossed  the  western  Pyrenees  about  the  end  of  the 
sixth  century  before  our  era  and  introduced  Aryan 
speech  into  the  Iberian  Peninsula.  They  quickly 
mixed  with  Mediterranean  natives  and  the  com- 
posite Spaniards  were  called  Celtiberians  by  the 

In  Portugal  and  Spain  there  are  in  the  physical 
structure  of  the  population  few  traces  of  these 
early  Celtic-speaking  Nordic  invaders  but  the 
Suevi,  who  a  thousand  years  later  occupied  parts 
of  Portugal,  and  the  Vandals  and  Visigoths,  who 
conquered  and  held  Spain  for  300  years,  have  left 
some  small  evidence  of  their  blood.  In  the  prov- 
inces of  northern  Spain  a  considerable  percentage 
of  light  colored  eyes  reveals  these  Nordic  elements 
in  the  population. 

Deep  seated  Castilian  traditions  associate  aris- 
tocracy with  blondness  and  the  sangre  azul,  or  blue 
blood  of  Spain,  probably  refers  to  the  blue  eye 
of  the  Goth,  whose  traditional  claim  to  lordship 
is  also  shown  in  the  Spanish  name  for  gentleman, 
"hidalgo,"  said  to  mean  "the  son  of  the  Goth." 
The  fact  that  the  blood  shows  as  "blue  "  through  the 
fair  Nordic  skin  is  also  to  be  taken  into  account. 

As  long  as  this  Gothic  nobility  controlled  the 
Spanish  states  during  the  endless  crusades  against 
the  Moors,  Spain  belonged  to  the  Nordic  king- 
doms, but  when  their  blood  became  impaired  by 


losses  in  wars  waged  outside  of  Spain  and  in  the 
conquest  of  the  Americas,  the  sceptre  fell  from  this 
noble  race  into  the  hands  of  the  native  Iberian, 
who  had  not  the  physical  vigor  or  the  intellectual 
strength  to  maintain  the  world  empire  built  up  by 
the  stronger  race.  For  200  years  the  Spanish  infan- 
try had  no  equal  in  Europe  but  this  distinction 
disappeared  with  the  opening  decades  of  the  seven- 
teenth century. 

The  splendid  conquistadores  of  the  New  World 
were  of  Nordic  type,  but  their  pure  stock  did  not 
long  survive  their  new  surroundings  and  to-day 
they  have  vanished  utterly,  leaving  behind  them 
only  their  language  and  their  religion.  After  con- 
sidering well  these  facts  we  shall  not  have  to  search 
further  for  the  causes  of  the  collapse  of  Spain. 

Gaul  at  the  time  of  Caesar's  conquest  was  under 
the  rule  of  the  Nordic  race,  which  furnished  the 
bulk  of  the  population  of  the  north  as  well  as  the 
military  classes  elsewhere  and,  while  the  Romans 
killed  off  an  undue  proportion  of  this  fighting  ele- 
ment, the  power  and  vigor  of  the  French  nation 
have  been  based  on  this  blood  and  its  later  rein- 
forcements. In  fact,  in  the  Europe  of  to-day  the 
amount  of  Nordic  blood  in  each  nation  is  a  very 
fair  measure  of  its  strength  in  war  and  standing  in 
civilization.  The  proportion  of  men  of  pure  type 
of  each  constituent  race  to  the  mixed  type  is  also 
a  powerful  factor. 


When,  about  iooo  B.  C,  the  first  Nordics  crossed 
the  lower  Rhine  they  found  the  Mediterranean 
race  in  France  everywhere  overwhelmed  by  an 
Alpine  population  except  in  the  south.  Long  be- 
fore the  time  of  Caesar  the  Celtic  language  of  these 
invaders  had  been  imposed  upon  the  entire  pop- 
ulation and  the  country  had  been  saturated  with 
Nordic  blood,  except  in  Aquitaine  which  seems  to 
have  retained  until  at  least  that  date  its  Anaryan 
Iberian  speech.  These  earliest  Nordics  in  the 
west  were  known  to  the  ancient  world  as  Gauls. 
These  Gauls,  or  "Celts,"  as  they  were  called  by 
Caesar,  occupied  in  his  day  the  centre  of  France. 
The  actual  racial  complexion  of  this  part  of  France 
was  overwhelmingly  Alpine  then  and  is  so  now, 
but  this  population  had  been  Celticized  thoroughly 
by  the  Gauls,  just  as  it  was  Latinized  as  com- 
pletely at  a  later  date  by  the  Romans. 

The  northern  third  of  France,  that  is  above 
Paris,  was  inhabited  in  Caesar's  time  by  the  Belgae, 
a  Nordic  people  of  the  Cymric  division  of  Celtic 
speech.  They  were  largely  of  Teutonic  blood  and 
in  fact  should  be  regarded  as  the  immediate  fore- 
runners of  the  Germans.  They  probably  represent 
the  early  Teutons  who  had  crossed  from  Sweden 
and  adopted  the  Celtic  speech  of  their  Nordic 
kindred  whom  they  found  on  the  mainland.  These 
Belgae  had  followed  the  earlier  Goidels  across  Ger- 
many into  Britain  and  Gaul  and  were  rapidly  dis- 


placing  their  Nordic  predecessors,  who  by  this 
time  were  much  weakened  by  mixture  with  the 
autochthones,  when  Rome  appeared  upon  the 
scene  and  set  a  limit  to  their  conquests  by  the  Pax 

The  Belgae  of  the  north  of  France  and  the  Low 
Countries  were  the  bravest  of  the  peoples  of  Gaul, 
according  to  Caesar's  oft-quoted  remark,  but  the 
claim  of  the  modern  Belgians  to  descent  from  this 
race  is  without  basis  and  rests  solely  on  the  fact 
that  the  present  kingdom  of  Belgium,  which  only 
became  independent  and  assumed  its  proud  name 
in  183 1,  occupies  a  small  and  relatively  unimpor- 
tant corner  of  the  land  of  the  Belgae.  The  Flem- 
ings of  Belgium  are  Nordic  Franks  speaking  a 
Low  German  tongue  and  the  Walloons  are  Al- 
pines whose  language  is  an  archaic  French. 

The  Belgae  and  the  Goidelic  remnants  of  Nordic 
blood  in  the  centre  of  Gaul  taken  together  prob- 
ably constituted  only  a  small  minority  in  blood  of 
the  population,  but  were  everywhere  the  military 
and  ruling  classes.  These  Nordic  elements  were 
later  reinforced  by  powerful  Teutonic  tribes, 
namely,  Vandals,  Visigoths,  Alans,  Saxons,  Bur- 
gundians  and,  most  important  of  all,  the  Franks  of 
the  lower  Rhine,  who  founded  modern  France  and 
made  it  for  long  centuries  "la  grande  nation"  of 

The  Frankish  dynasties  long  after  Charlemagne 


were  of  purely  Teutonic  blood  and  the  aristocratic 
land  owning  and  military  classes  down  to  the  great 
Revolution  were  very  largely  of  this  type,  which 
by  the  time  of  the  creation  of  the  Frankish  king- 
dom had  incorporated  all  the  other  Nordic  elements 
of  old  Roman  Gaul,  both  Gaulish  and  Belgic. 

The  last  invasion  of  Teutonic-speaking  barba- 
rians was  that  of  the  Danish  Northmen,  who  were, 
of  course,  of  unmixed  Nordic  blood  and  who  con- 
quered and  settled  Normandy  in  911  A.  D.  No 
sooner  had  the  barbarian  invasions  ceased  than 
the  ancient  aboriginal  blood  strains,  Mediterranean, 
Alpine  and  elements  derived  from  Paleolithic 
times,  began  a  slow  and  steady  recovery.  Step  by 
step  with  the  reappearance  of  these  primitive  and 
deep  rooted  stocks  the  Nordic  element  in  France 
declined  and  with  it  the  vigor  of  the  nation. 
Even  in  Normandy  the  Alpines  now  tend  to  pre- 
dominate and  the  French  blonds  are  becoming 
more  and  more  limited  to  the  northeastern  and 
eastern  provinces. 

The  chief  historic  events  of  the  last  thousand 
years  have  hastened  this  process  and  the  fact  that 
the  Nordic  element  everywhere  forms  the  fighting 
section  of  the  community  caused  the  loss  in  war 
to  fall  disproportionately  as  among  the  three  races 
in  France.  The  religious  wars  greatly  weakened 
the  Nordic  provincial  nobility,  which  was  before 
the  Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  largely  Protes- 


tant  and  the  extermination  of  the  upper  classes 
was  hastened  by  the  Revolutionary  and  Napoleonic 
wars.  These  last  wars  are  said  to  have  shortened 
the  stature  of  the  French  by  four  inches;  in  other 
words,  the  tall  Nordic  strain  was  killed  off  in 
greater  proportions  than  the  little  brunet. 

When  by  universal  suffrage  the  transfer  of  power 
was  completed  from  a  Nordic  aristocracy  to  lower 
classes  predominantly  of  Alpine  and  Mediterranean 
extraction,  the  decline  of  France  in  international 
power  set  in.  In  the  country  as  a  whole,  the  long 
skulled  Mediterraneans  are  also  yielding  rapidly  to 
the  round  skulled  Alpines  and  the  average  of  the 
cephalic  index  in  France  has  steadily  risen  since 
the  Middle  Ages  and  is  still  rising. 

The  survivors  of  the  aristocracy,  being  stripped 
of  political  power  and  to  a  large  extent  of  wealth, 
quickly  lost  their  caste  pride  and  committed  class 
suicide  by  mixing  their  blood  with  inferior  breeds. 
One  of  the  most  conspicuous  features  of  some  of 
the  French  nobility  of  to-day  is  the  strength  of 
Oriental  and  Mediterranean  strains  in  them.  Be- 
ing for  political  reasons  ardently  clerical  the  nobil- 
ity welcomes  recruits  of  any  racial  origin  as  long 
as  they  bring  with  them  money  and  devotion  to 
the  Church. 

The  loss  in  war  of  the  best  stock  through  death, 
wounds  or  absence  from  home  has  been  clearly 
shown  in  France.    The  conscripts  who  were  exam- 


ined  for  military  duty  in  1890-2  were  those  de- 
scended in  a  large  measure  from  the  military  re- 
jects and  other  stay-at-homes  during  the  Franco- 
Prussian  War.  In  Dordogne  this  contingent  showed 
seven  per  cent  more  deficient  statures  than  the 
normal  rate.  In  some  cantons  this  unfortunate 
generation  was  in  height  an  inch  below  the  recruits 
of  preceding  years  and  in  it  the  exemptions  for  de- 
fective physique  rose  from  the  normal  six  per  cent 
to  sixteen  per  cent. 

When  each  generation  is  decimated  or  destroyed 
in  turn  a  race  can  be  injured  beyond  recovery  but 
it  more  frequently  happens  that  the  result  is  the 
annihilation  of  an  entire  class,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
German  gentry  in  the  Thirty  Years'  War.  Deso- 
lation of  wide  districts  often  resulted  from  the 
plagues  and  famines  which  followed  the  armies  in 
old  days  but  deaths  from  these  causes  fall  most 
heavily  on  the  weaker  part  of  the  population.  The 
loss  of  valuable  breeding  stock  is  far  more  serious 
when  wars  are  fought  with  volunteer  armies  of 
picked  men  than  with  conscript  armies,  because 
in  the  latter  cases  the  loss  is  more  evenly  spread 
over  the  whole  nation.  Before  England  resorted 
in  the  present  war  to  universal  conscription  the  in- 
jury to  her  more  desirable  and  patriotic  classes  was 
much  more  pronounced  than  in  Germany  where  all 
types  and  ranks  were  called  to  arms. 

In  the  British  Isles  we  find,  before  the  appearance 


of  the  Nordic  race,  a  Mediterranean  population  and 
no  important  element  of  Alpine  blood,  so  that  at 
the  present  day  we  have  to  deal  with  only  two  of 
the  main  races  instead  of  all  three  as  in  France. 
It  Britain  there  were,  as  elsewhere,  representatives 
oi- earlier  races  but  the  preponderant  strain  of 
blood  was  Mediterranean  before  the  first  arrival  of 
the  Aryan-speaking  Nordics. 

Ireland  was  connected  with  Britain  and  Britain 
with  the  continent  until  times  very  recent  in  a 
geological  sense.  The  depression  of  the  Channel 
coasts  is  progressing  rapidly  to-day  and  is  known 
to  have  been  substantial  during  historic  times. 
The  close  parallel  in  blood  and  culture  between 
England  and  the  opposite  coasts  of  France  also  in- 
dicates a  very  recent  land  connection,  possibly  in 
early  Neolithic  times.  Men  either  walked  from 
the  continent  to  England  and  from  England  to  Ire- 
land, or  they  paddled  across  in  primitive  boats  or 
coracles.  The  art  of  ship-building  or  even  archaic 
navigation  cannot  go  much  further  back  than  late 
Neolithic  times. 

The  Nordic  tribes  of  Celtic  speech  came  to  the 
British  Isles  in  two  distinct  waves.  The  earlier 
invasion  of  the  Goidels,  who  were  still  in  the  Bronze 
culture,  arrived  in  England  about  800  B.  C.  and 
in  Ireland  two  centuries  later.  It  was  part  of  the 
same  movement  which  brought  the  Gauls  into 
France.    The  later  conquest  was  by  the  Cymric- 


speaking  Belgae  who  were  equipped  with  iron 
weapons.  It  began  in  the  third  century  B.  C.  and 
was  still  going  on  in  Caesar's  time.  These  Cymric 
Brythons  found  the  early  Goidels,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  aristocracy,  much  weakened  by  inter- 
mixture with  the  Mediterranean  natives  and  wo\?id 
probably  have  destroyed  all  trace  of  Goidelic  speech 
in  Ireland  and  Scotland,  as  they  actually  did  in 
England,  if  the  Romans  had  not  intervened.  The 
Brythons  reached  Ireland  in  small  numbers  only 
in  the  second  century  B.  C. 

These  Nordic  elements  in  Britain,  both  Goidelic 
and  Brythonic,  were  in  a  minority  during  Roman 
times  and  the  ethnic  complexion  of  the  island  was 
not  much  affected  by  the  Roman  occupation,  as 
the  legions  stationed  there  represented  the  varied 
racial  stocks  of  the  Empire. 

After  the  Romans  abandoned  Britain  and  about 
400  A.  D.,  floods  of  pure  Nordics  poured  into  the 
islands  for  nearly  six  centuries,  arriving  in  the  north 
as  the  Norse  pirates,  who  made  Scotland  Scandi- 
navian, and  in  the  east  as  Saxons  and  Angles,  who 
founded  England. 

The  Angles  came  from  somewhere  in  central 
Jutland  and  the  Saxons  came  from  coast  lands 
immediately  at  the  base  of  the  Danish  Peninsula. 
All  these  districts  were  then  and  are  now  almost 
purely  Teutonic;  in  fact,  this  is  part  of  old  Saxony 
and  is  to-day  the  core  of  Teutonic  Germany. 


These  Saxon  districts  sent  out  at  that  time 
swarms  of  invaders  not  only  into  England  but  into 
France  and  over  the  Alps  into  Italy,  just  as  at  a 
much  later  period  the  same  land  sent  swarming 
colonies  into  Hungary  and  Russia. 

The  same  Saxon  invaders  passed  down  the  Chan- 
nel coasts  and  traces  of  their  settlement  on  the 
mainland  remain  to  this  day  in  the  Cotentin  dis- 
trict around  Cherbourg.  Scandinavian  sea  peoples 
called  Danes  or  Northmen  swarmed  over  as  late 
as  900  A.  D.  and  conquered  all  eastern  England. 
This  Danish  invasion  of  England  was  the  same  that 
brought  the  Northmen  or  Normans  into  France. 
In  fact  the  occupation  of  Normandy  was  probably 
by  Danes  and  the  conquest  of  England  was  largely 
the  work  of  Norsemen,  as  Norway  at  that  time 
was  under  Danish  kings. 

Both  of  these  invasions,  especially  the  later,  swept 
around  the  greater  island  and  inundated  Ireland, 
driving  both  the  Neolithic  aborigines  and  their 
Celtic-speaking  masters  into  the  bogs  and  islands 
of  the  west. 

The  blond  Nordic  element  to-day  is  very  marked 
in  Ireland  as  in  England.  It  is  derived,  to  some 
extent,  from  the  early  invaders  of  Celtic  speech, 
but  the  Goidelic  element  has  been  very  largely 
absorbed  in  Ireland  as  in  western  England  and  in 
Scotland  by  the  Iberian  substratum  of  the  popu- 
lation and  is  found  to-day  rather  in  the  form  of 


Nordic  characters  in  brunets  than  in  the  entirely 
blond  individuals  who  represent  later  and  purer 
Nordic  strains. 

The  figures  for  recruits  taken  some  decades  ago 
in  the  two  countries  would  indicate  that  the  Irish 
as  a  whole  are  considerably  lighter  in  eye  and 
darker  in  hair  color  than  are  the  English.  The 
combination  of  black  Iberian  hair  with  blue  or  gray 
Nordic  eyes  is  frequently  found  in  Ireland  and  also 
in  Spain  and  in  both  these  countries  is  justly  ad- 
mired for  its  beauty,  but  it  is  by  no  means  an 
exclusively  Irish  type. 

The  tall,  blond  Irishmen  are  to-day  chiefly  Dan- 
ish with  the  addition  of  English,  Norman  and 
Scotch  elements,  which  have  poured  into  the 
lesser  island  for  a  thousand  years  and  have  im- 
posed the  English  speech  upon  it.  The  more  prim- 
itive and  ancient  elements  in  Ireland  have  always 
shown  great  ability  to  absorb  newcomers  and 
during  the  Middle  Ages  it  was  notorious  that  the 
Norman  and  English  colonists  quickly  sank  to  the 
cultural  level  of  the  natives. 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  Paleoliths  have  not  been 
found  there  some  indications  of  Paleolithic  man 
appear  in  Ireland  both  as  single  characters  and  as 
individuals.  Being,  like  Brittany,  situated  on  the 
extreme  western  outposts  of  Eurasia,  it  has  more 
than  its  share  of  generalized  and  low  types  sur- 
viving in  the  living  populations  and  these  types, 


the  Firbolgs,  have  imparted  a  distinct  and  very 
undesirable  aspect  to  a  large  portion  of  the  in- 
habitants of  the  west  and  south  and  have  greatly 
lowered  the  intellectual  status  of  the  population  as 
a  whole.  The  cross  between  these  elements  and  the 
Nordics  appears  to  be  a  bad  one  and  the  mental 
and  cultural  traits  of  the  aborigines  have  proved 
to  be  exceedingly  persistent  and  appear  especially 
in  the  unstable  temperament  and  the  lack  of  co- 
ordinating and  reasoning  power,  so  often  found 
among  the  Irish.  To  the  dominance  of  the  Mediter- 
raneans mixed  with  Pre-Neolithic  survivals  in  the 
south  and  west  are  to  be  attributed  the  aloofness 
of  the  island  from  the  general  trend  of  European 
civilization  and  its  long  adherence  to  ancient  forms 
of  religion  and  even  to  Pre-Christian  supersti- 

In  England,  the  same  two  ethnic  elements  are 
present,  namely  the  Nordic  and  the  Mediterranean. 
There  is,  especially  in  Wales  and  in  the  west  cen- 
tral counties  of  England,  a  large  substratum  of  an- 
cient Mediterranean  blood  but  the  later  Nordic 
elements  are  everywhere  superimposed  upon  it. 

Scotland  is  by  race  Anglian  in  the  Lowlands  and 
Norse  in  the  Highlands  with  underlying  Goidelic 
and  Brythonic  elements,  which  are  exceedingly 
hard  to  identify.  The  Mediterranean  strain  is 
marked  in  the  Highlands  and  is  frequently  asso- 
ciated with  tall  stature. 


This  brunetness  in  Scotland  is,  of  course,  derived 
from  the  same  underlying  Mediterranean  stock 
which  we  have  found  elsewhere  in  the  British 

The  inhabitants  of  Scotland  before  the  arrival 
of  the  Celtic-speaking  Nordics  seem  to  have  been 
the  Picts,  whose  language  was  almost  surely  Non- 
Aryan.  Judging  from  the  remnants  of  Anaryan 
syntax  in  the  Goidelic  and  to  a  lesser  degree  in 
the  Cymric  languages,  Pictish  was  related  to  the 
Anaryan  Berber  tongues  still  spoken  in  North 
Africa.  No  trace  of  this  Pre- Aryan  syntax  is  found 
in  English. 

Where  one  race  imposes  a  new  language  on  an- 
other, the  change  is  most  marked  in  the  vocabulary 
while  the  ancient  usage  in  syntax  or  the  construction 
of  sentences  is  the  more  apt  to  survive  and  these 
ancient  forms  often  give  us  a  valuable  clew  to  the 
aboriginal  speech.  This  same  Anaryan  syntax  is 
particularly  marked  in  the  Irish  language,  a  condi- 
tion which  fits  in  with  the  other  Pre- Aryan  usages 
and  types  found  there. 

This  divergence  between  the  new  vocabulary  and 
the  ancient  habits  of  syntax  is  probably  one  of 
the  causes  of  the  extreme  splitting  up  of  the  vari- 
ous branches  of  the  Aryan  mother  tongue. 

Wales,  like  western  Ireland,  is  a  museum  of 
racial  antiquities  and  being  an  unattractive  and 
poor  country  has  exported  men  rather  than  re- 


ceived  immigration,  while  such  invasions  as  did 
arrive  came  with  spent  force. 

The  mass  of  the  population  of  Wales  especially 
in  the  upland  or  moorland  districts  is  Mediterra- 
nean, with  a  considerable  addition  of  Paleolithic 
remnants.  With  changing  social  and  industrial 
conditions  these  Neolithic  Mediterraneans  are  push- 
ing into  the  valleys  or  towns  with  a  resultant  re- 
placement of  the  Nordic  types. 

Recent  and  intensive  investigations  reveal  every- 
where in  Wales  distinct  physical  types  living  side 
by  side  or  in  adjoining  villages  unchanged  and  un- 
changeable throughout  the  centuries.  Extensive 
blending  has  not  taken  place  though  much  cross- 
ing has  occurred  and  the  persistence  of  the  skull 
shape  has  been  particularly  marked.  Such  in- 
dividuals as  are  of  pure  Nordic  type  are  generally 
members  of  the  old  county  families  and  land  owning 

As  to  language  in  Wales,  the  Cymric  is  every- 
where spoken  in  various  dialects,  but  there  are  in- 
dications of  the  ancient  underlying  Goidelic.  In 
fact,  Brythonic  or  Cymric  may  not  have  reached 
Wales  much  before  the  Roman  conquest  of  Brit- 
ain. The  earlier  Goidelic  survived  in  parts  of 
Wales  as  late  as  the  seventh  century  but  by  the 
eleventh  century  all  consciousness  of  race  and  lin- 
guistic distinctions  had  disappeared  in  the  common 
name  of  Cymry.    This  name  should  perhaps  be  lim- 


ited  to  the  Brythons  of  England  and  not  used  for 
their  kindred  on  the  Continent. 

In  Cornwall  and  along  the  Welsh  border  racial 
types  are  often  grouped  in  separate  villages  and 
the  intellectual  and  moral  distinctions  between 
them  are  well  recognized. 

The  Nordic  species  of  man  in  its  various  branches 
made  Gaul  the  land  of  the  Franks  and  made  Brit- 
ain the  land  of  the  Angles  and  the  Englishmen 
who  built  the  British  Empire  and  founded  America 
were  of  the  Nordic  and  not  of  the  Mediterranean 

One  of  the  most  vigorous  Nordic  elements  in 
France,  England  and  America  was  contributed  by 
the  Normans  and  their  influence  on  the  develop- 
ment of  these  countries  cannot  be  ignored.  The 
descendants  of  the  Danish  and  Norse  Vikings  who 
settled  in  Normandy  as  Teutonic-speaking  heathen 
and  who  as  Normans  crossed  over  to  Saxon  Eng- 
land and  conquered  it  in  1066  are  among  the 
finest  and  noblest  examples  of  the  Nordic  race. 
Their  only  rivals  in  these  characters  were  the 
early  Goths. 

This  Norman  strain,  while  purely  Nordic,  seems 
to  have  been  radically  different  in  its  mental  make- 
up, and  to  some  extent  in  its  physical  detail  from 
the  Saxons  of  England  and  also  from  their  kindred 
in  Scandinavia. 

llie  Normans  appear  to  have  been  "fine  race"  to 


use  a  French  idiom  and  their  descendants  are  often 
characterized  by  a  tall,  slender  figure,  much  less 
bulky  than  the  typical  Teuton,  of  proud  bearing 
and  with  clearly  marked  features  of  classic  Greek 
regularity.  The  type  is  seldom  extremely  blond 
and  is  often  dark.  These  Latinized  Vikings  were 
and  are  animated  by  a  restless  and  nomadic  energy 
and  by  a  fierce  aggressiveness.  They  played  a 
brilliant  role  during  the  twelfth  and  following  cen- 
turies but  later,  on  the  continent,  this  strain  ran 
out,  though  leaving  here  and  there  traces  of  its 
former  presence,  notably  in  Sicily  where  the  gray- 
ish blue  Sicilian  eye  called  "the  Norman  eye"  is 
still  found  among  the  old  noble  families. 

The  Norman  type  is  still  very  common  among 
the  English  of  good  family  and  especially  among 
hunters,  explorers,  navigators,  adventurers  and  offi- 
cers in  the  British  army.  These  latter-day  Nor- 
mans are  natural  rulers  and  administrators  and  it 
is  to  this  type  that  England  largely  owes  her 
extraordinary  ability  to  govern  justly  and  firmly 
the  lower  races.  This  Norman  blood  occurs  often 
among  the  native  Americans  but  with  the  chang- 
ing social  conditions  and  the  filling  up  of  the  waste 
places  of  the  earth  it  is  doomed  to  a  speedy 

The  Normans  were  Nordics  with  a  dash  of  brunet  \ 
blood  and  their  conquest  of  England  strengthened 

the  Nordic  and  not  the  Mediterranean  elements 



in  the  British  Isles,  but  the  connection  once  estab- 
lished with  France  especially  with  Aquitaine  later 
introduced  from  southern  France  certain  brunet 
elements  of  Mediterranean  affinities. 

The  upper  class  Normans  on  their  arrival  in 
England  were  probably  purely  Scandinavian,  but 
in  the  lower  classes  there  were  some  dark  strains. 
They  brought  with  them  large  numbers  of  ecclesi- 
astics who  were,  for  the  most  part  drawn  from  the 
more  ancient  types  throughout  France.  Carefu? 
investigation  of  the  graveyards  and  vaults  in  which 
these  churchmen  were  buried  revealed  a  large  per- 
centage of  round  skulls  among  them. 

In  both  Normandy  and  in  the  lowlands  of  Scot- 
land there  was  much  the  same  mixture  of  blood 
between  Scandinavian  and  Saxon  but  with  a  smaller 
amount  of  Saxon  blood  in  France.  The  result  in 
both  cases  was  the  production  of  an  extraordinarily 
forceful  race. 

The  Nordics  in  England  are  in  these  days 
apparently  receding  before  the  Neolithic  Med- 
iterranean type.  The  causes  of  this  decline  are 
the  same  as  in  France  and  the  chief  loss  is  through 
the  wastage  of  blood  by  war  and  through  emigra- 

The  typical  British  soldier  is  blond  or  red  bearded 
and  the  typical  sailor  is  always  a  blond.  The  mi- 
grating type  from  England  is  also  chiefly  Nordic. 
These  facts  would  indicate  that  nomadism  as  well 


as  love  of  war  and  adventure  are  Nordic  character- 

An  extremely  potent  influence,  however,  is  the 
transformation  of  the  nation  from  an  agricultural 
to  a  manufacturing  community.  Heavy,  healthful 
work  in  the  fields  of  northern  Europe  enables  the 
Nordic  type  to  thrive,  but  the  cramped  factory 
and  crowded  city  quickly  weed  him  out,  while  the 
little  brunet  Mediterranean  can  work  a  spindle, 
set  type,  sell  ribbons  or  push  a  clerk's  pen  far  better 
than  the  big,  clumsy  and  somewhat  heavy  Nordic 
blond,  who  needs  exercise,  meat  and  air  and  can- 
not live  under  Ghetto  conditions. 

The  increase  of  urban  communities  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  countryside  is  also  an  important  ele- 
ment in  the  fading  of  the  Nordic  type,  because  the 
energetic  countryman  of  this  blood  is  more  apt  to 
improve  his  fortunes  by  moving  to  the  city  than  the 
less  ambitious  Mediterranean. 

The  country  villages  and  the  farms  are  the  nur- 
series of  nations,  while  cities  are  consumers  and 
seldom  producers  of  men.  The  effort  now  being 
made  in  America  to  settle  undesirable  immigrants 
on  farms  may,  from  the  viewpoint  of  race  replace- 
ment, be  more  dangerous  than  allowing  them  to 
remain  in  crowded  Ghettos  or  tenements. 

If  England  has  deteriorated  and  there  are  those 
who  think  they  see  indications  of  such  decline,  it  is 
due  to  the  lowering  proportion  of  the  Nordic  blood 


and  the  transfer  of  political  power  from  the  vigor- 
ous Nordic  aristocracy  and  middle  classes  to  the 
radical  and  labor  elements,  both  largely  recruited 
from  the  Mediterranean  type. 

Only  in  Scandinavia  and  northwestern  Germany 
does  the  Nordic  race  seem  to  maintain  its  full  vigor 
in  spite  of  the  enormous  wastage  of  three  thousand 
years  of  the  swarming  forth  of  its  best  fighting  men. 
Norway,  however,  after  the  Viking  outburst  has 
never  exhibited  military  power  and  Sweden,  in  the 
centuries  betwee*n  the  Varangian  period  and  the  rise 
of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  did  not  enjoy  a  reputation 
for  fighting  efficiency.  All  the  three  Scandinavian 
countries  after  vigorously  attacking  Christendom 
a  thousand  years  ago  disappear  from  history  as  a 
nursery  for  soldiers  until  the  Reformation  when 
Sweden  suddenly  reappears  just  in  time  to  save 
Protestantism  on  the  Continent.  To-«day  all  three 
seem  to  be  intellectually  anaemic. 

Upper  and  Lower  Austria,  the  Tyrol  and  Styria 
have  a  very  considerable  Nordic  element  which  is 
in  political  control  but  the  Alpine  races  are  slowly 
replacing  the  Nordics  both  there  and  in  Hungary. 

Holland  and  Flanders  are  purely  Teutonic,  the 
Flemings  being  the  descendants  of  those  Franks 
who  did  not  adopt  Latin  speech  as  did  their  Teu- 
tonic kin  across  the  border  in  Artois  and  Picardy; 
and  Holland  is  the  ancient  Batavia  with  the  Frisian 
coast  lands  eastward  to  old  Saxony. 


Denmark,  Norway  and  Sweden  are  purely  Nor- 
dic and  yearly  contribute  swarms  of  a  splendid  type 
of  immigrants  to  America  and  are  now,  as  they 
have  been  for  thousands  of  years,  the  chief  nursery 
and  broodland  of  the  master  race. 

In  southwestern  Norway  and  in  Denmark,  there 
is  a  substantial  number  of  short,  dark  round  heads 
of  Alpine  affinities.  These  dark  Norwegians  are 
regarded  as  somewhat  inferior  socially  by  their 
Nordic  countrymen.  Perhaps  as  a  result  of  this 
disability,  a  disproportionately  large  number  of 
Norwegian  immigrants  to  America  are  of  this  type. 
Apparently  America  is  doomed  to  receive  in  these 
later  days  the  least  desirable  classes  and  types 
from  each  European  nation  now  exporting  men. 

In  mediaeval  times  the  Norse  and  Danish  Vik- 
ings sailed  not  only  the  waters  of  the  known  At- 
lantic, but  ventured  westward  through  the  fogs 
and  frozen  seas  to  Iceland,  Greenland  and  America. 

Sweden,  after  sending  forth  her  Goths  and  other 
early  Teutonic  tribes,  turned  her  attention  to  the 
shores  of  the  eastern  Baltic,  colonized  the  coast 
of  Finland  and  the  Baltic  provinces  and  supplied 
also  a  strong  Scandinavian  element  to  the  aris- 
tocracy of  Russia. 

The  coast  of  Finland  is  as  a  result  Swedish  and 
the  natives  of  the  interior  have  distinctly  Nordic 
characters  with  the  exception  of  the  skull,  which 
in  its  roundness  shows  an  Alpine  cross. 


The  population  of  the  so-called  Baltic  provinces 
of  Russia  is  everywhere  Nordic  and  their  affinities 
are  with  Scandinavia  and  Germany  rather  than 
with  Slavic  Moscovy.  The  most  primitive  Aryan 
languages,  namely,  Lettish,  Lithuanian  and  the 
recently  extinct  Old  Prussian,  are  found  in  this 
neighborhood  and  here  we  are  not  far  from  the 
original  Nordic  homeland. 



The  area  in  Europe  where  the  Nordic  race  de- 
veloped and  in  which  the  Aryan  languages  origi- 
nated probably  included  the  forest  region  of  east- 
ern Germany,  Poland  and  Russia,  together  with 
the  grasslands  which  stretched  from  the  Ukraine 
eastward  into  the  steppes  south  of  the  Ural.  From 
causes  already  mentioned  this  area  was  long  isolated 
from  the  rest  of  the  world  and  especially  from 
Asia.  When  the  unity  of  the  Aryan  race  and  of 
the  Aryan  language  was  broken  up  at  the  end  of 
the  Neolithic  and  the  beginning  of  the  Bronze 
Age,  wave  after  wave  of  the  early  Nordics  pushed 
westward  along  the  sandy  plains  of  the  north  and 
pressed  against  and  through  the  Alpine  populations 
of  central  Europe.  Usually  these  early  Nordics,  as 
indeed  many  of  the  later  ones,  constituted  only  a 
thin  layer  of  ruling  classes  and  there  must  have 
been  many  countries  conquered  by  them  in  which 
we  have  no  historic  evidence  of  their  existence, 
linguistic  or  otherwise.  This  must  have  certainly 
been  the  case  in  those  numerous  instances  where 
only  the  leaders  were  Nordics  and  the  great  mass 

of  their  followers  slaves  or  serfs  of  inferior  races. 



The  Nordics  also  swept  down  through  Thrace 
into  Greece  and  Asia  Minor,  while  other  large  and 
important  groups  entered  Asia  partly  through  the 
Caucasus  Mountains,  but  in  greater  strength  they 
migrated  around  the  northern  and  eastern  sides  of 
the  Caspian-Aral  Sea. 

That  portion  of  the  Nordic  race  which  contin- 
ued to  inhabit  south  Russia  and  grazed  their  flocks 
of  sheep  and  herds  of  horses  on  the  grasslands 
were  the  Scythians  of  the  Greeks  and  from  these 
nomad  shepherds  came  the  Cimmerians,  Persians, 
Sacae,  Massagetae  and  perhaps  the  leaders  of  the 
Kassites,  Mitanni  and  other  early  Aryan-speaking 
Nordic  invaders  of  Asia.  The  descendants  of  these 
Nordics  are  scattered  throughout  Russia  but  are 
now  submerged  by  the  later  Slavs. 

Well  marked  characters  of  the  Nordic  race,  which 
were  established  in  Neolithic  times  if  not  earlier, 
enable  us  to  distinguish  it  definitely  wherever  it 
appears  in  history  and  we  know  that  all  the 
blondness  in  the  world  is  derived  from  this  source. 
As  blondness  is  easily  observed  and  recorded  we 
are  apt  to  lay  too  much  emphasis  on  this  single 
character.  The  brown  shades  of  hair  are  equally 

When  the  Nordics  first  enter  the  Mediterranean 
world  their  arrival  is  everywhere  marked  by  a 
new  and  higher  civilization.  In  most  cases  the 
contact  of  the  vigorous  barbarians  with  the  ancient 


civilizations  created  a  sudden  impulse  of  life  and 
an  outburst  of  culture  as  soon  as  the  first  destruc- 
tion wrought  by  the  conquest  was  repaired. 

In  addition  to  the  long  continued  selection  ex- 
ercised by  severe  climatic  conditions  and  the  con- 
sequent elimination  of  ineflectives,  both  of  which 
affects  a  race,  there  is  another  force  at  work  which 
concerns  the  individual  as  well.  The  energy  de- 
veloped in  the  north  is  not  lost  immediately  when 
transferred  to  the  softer  conditions  of  existence  in 
the  Mediterranean  and  Indian  countries.  This  en- 
ergy endures  for  several  generations  and  only  dies 
away  slowly  as  the  northern  blood  becomes  diluted 
and  the  impulse  to  strive  fades. 

The  contact  of  Hellene  and  Pelasgian  caused  the 
blossoming  of  the  ancient  civilization  of  Hellas, 
just  as  two  thousand  years  later  when  the  Nordic 
invaders  of  Italy  had  absorbed  the  science,  art 
and  literature  of  Rome,  they  produced  that  splen- 
did century  we  call  the  Renaissance. 

The  chief  men  of  the  Cinque  Cento  and  the 
preceding  century  were  of  Nordic  blood,  largely 
Gothic  and  Lombard,  which  is  recognized  easily  by 
a  close  inspection  of  busts  or  portraits  in  northern 
Italy.  Dante,  Raphael,  Titian,  Michael  Angelo, 
Leonardo  da  Vinci  were  all  of  Nordic  type,  just  as 
in  classic  times  many  of  the  chief  men  and  of  the 
upper  classes  were  Nordic. 

Similar  expansions  of  civilization  and  organiza- 


tion  of  empire  followed  the  incursion  of  the  Nordic 
Persians  into  the  land  of  the  round  skulled  Medes 
and  the  introduction  of  Sanskrit  into  India  by  the 
Nordic  Sacae  who  conquered  that  peninsula.  These 
outbursts  of  progress  due  to  the  first  contact  and 

mixture  of  two  contrasted  races  are,  however,  only 
transitory  and  pass  with  the  last  lingering  trace  of 
Nordic  blood. 

In  India  the  blood  of  these  Aryan-speaking  in- 
vaders has  been  absorbed  by  the  dark  Hindu  and  in 
the  final  event  only  their  synthetic  speech  survives. 

The  marvellous  organization  of  the  Roman  state 
made  use  of  the  services  of  Nordic  mercenaries  and 
kept  the  Western  Empire  alive  for  three  centuries 
after  the  ancient  Roman  stock  had  virtually  ceased 
to  exist. 

The  date  when  the  population  of  the  Empire  had 
become  predominantly  of  Mediterranean  and  Ori- 
ental blood,  due  to  the  introduction  of  slaves  from 
the  east  and  the  wastage  of  Italian  blood  in  war, 
coincides  with  the  establishment  of  the  Empire 
under  Augustus  and  the  last  Republican  patriots 
represent  the  final  protest  of  the  old  patrician  Nor- 
dic strain.  For  the  most  part  they  refused  to  ab- 
dicate their  right  to  rule  in  favor  of  manumitted 
slaves  and  imperial  favorites  and  they  fell  in  battle 
and  sword  in  hand.  The  Romans  died  out  but  the 
slaves  survived  and  their  descendants  form  the 
great  majority  of  the  south  Italians  of  to-day. 


In  the  last  days  of  the  Republic,  Caesar  was  the 
leader  of  the  mob,  the  Plebs,  which  by  that  time 
had  ceased  to  be  of  Roman  blood.  Pompey's 
party  represented  the  remnants  of  the  old  native 
Roman  aristocracy  and  was  defeated  at  Pharsalia 
not  by  Caesar's  plebeian  clients  but  by  his  Nordic 
legionaries  from  Gaul.  Cassius  and  Brutus  were 
the  last  successors  of  Pompey  and  their  overthrow 
at  Philippi  was  the  final  death  blow  to  the  Re- 
publican party;  with  them  the  native  Roman 
families  disappear  almost  entirely. 

The  decline  of  the  Romans  and  for  that  matter 
of  the  native  Italians  began  with  the  Punic  Wars 
when  in  addition  to  the  Romans  who  fell  in  battle 
a  large  portion  of  the  country  population  of  Italy 
was  destroyed  by  Hannibal.  Native  Romans  suf- 
fered greatly  in  the  Social  and  Servile  Wars  as  well 
as  in  the  civil  conflicts  between  the  factions  of 
Sylla,  who  led  the  Patricians,  and  Marius  who  rep- 
resented the  Plebs.  Bloody  proscriptions  of  the 
rival  parties  followed  alternately  the  victory  of  one 
side  and  then  of  the  other  and  under  the  tyranny 
of  the  Emperors  of  the  first  century  also  the  old 
Roman  stock  was  the  greatest  sufferer  until  it 
practically  vanished  from  the  scene. 

Voluntary  childlessness  was  the  most  potent 
cause  of  the  decline  under  the  Empire  and  when  we 
read  of  the  abject  servility  of  bearers  of  proud  names 
in  the  days  of  Nero  and  Caligula,  we  must  remem- 


ber  that  they  could  not  rally  to  their  standard  fol- 
lowers among  the  Plebs.  They  had  only  the  choice 
of  submission  or  suicide  and  many  chose  the  latter 
alternative.  The  abjectness  of  the  Roman  spirit 
under  the  Empire  is  thus  to  be  explained  by  a 
change  in  race. 

With  the  expanding  dominion  of  Rome  the  na- 
tive elements  of  vigor  were  drawn  year  after  year 
into  the  legions  and  spent  their  active  years  in 
wars  or  in  garrisons,  while  the  slaves  and  those 
unfit  for  military  duty  stayed  home  and  bred.  In 
the  present  great  war  while  the  native  Americans 
are  at  the  front  fighting  the  aliens  and  immigrants 
are  allowed  to  increase  without  check  and  the  par- 
allel is  a  close  one. 

Slaves  began  to  be  imported  into  Italy  in  num- 
bers in  the  second  century  B.  C.  to  work  the  large 
plantations — latifundia — of  the  wealthy  Romans. 
This  importation  of  slaves  and  the  ultimate  exten- 
sion of  the  Roman  citizenship  to  their  manumitted 
descendants  and  to  inferior  races  throughout  the 
growing  Empire  and  the  losses  in  internal  and  for- 
eign wars,  ruined  the  state.  In  America  we  find  an- 
other close  parallel  in  the  Civil  War  and  the  sub- 
sequent granting  of  citizenship  to  Negroes  and  to 
ever  increasing  numbers  of  immigrants  of  plebeian, 
servile  or  Oriental  races,  who  throughout  history 
have  shown  little  capacity  to  create,  organize  or 
even  to  comprehend  Republican  institutions. 


In  Rome,  when  this  change  in  blood  was  sub- 
stantially complete,  the  state  could  no  longer  be 
operated  under  Republican  forms  of  government 
and  the  Empire  arose  to  take  its  place.  At  the 
beginning  the  Empire  was  clothed  in  the  garb  of 
republicanism  in  deference  to  such  Roman  elements 
as  still  persisted  in  the  Senate  and  among  the 
Patricians  but  ultimately  these  external  forms  were 
discarded  and  the  state  became  virtually  a  pure 

The  new  population  understood  little  and  cared 
less  for  the  institutions  of  the  ancient  Republic 
but  they  were  jealous  of  their  own  rights  of  "Bread 
and  the  Circus" — "panem  et  circenses" — and  there 
began  to  appear  in  place  of  the  old  Roman  religion 
the  mystic  rites  of  Eastern  countries  so  welcome  to 
the  plebeian  and  uneducated  soul.  The  Emperors 
to  please  the  vulgar  erected  from  time  to  time  new 
shrines  to  strange  gods  utterly  unknown  to  the 
Romans  of  the  early  Republic.  In  America,  also, 
strange  temples,  which  would  have  been  abhorrent 
to  our  Colonial  ancestors,  are  multiplying  and  our 
streets  and  parks  are  turned  over  to  monuments  to 
foreign  "patriots,"  designed  not  to  please  the  ar- 
tistic sense  of  the  passer-by  but  to  gratify  the  na- 
tional preference  of  some  alien  element  in  the  elec- 

These  comments  on  the  change  of  race  in  Rome 
at  the  beginning  of  our  era  are  not  mere  speculation. 


An  examination  of  many  thousands  of  Roman  col- 
umbaria or  funeral  urns  and  the  names  inscribed 
thereon  show  quite  clearly  that  as  early  as  the  first 
century  of  our  era  eighty  to  ninety  per  cent  of 
the  urban  population  of  the  Roman  Empire  was  of 
servile  extraction  and  that  about  seven-eighths 
of  this  slave  population  was  drawn  from  districts 
within  the  boundaries  of  the  Empire  and  very 
largely  from  the  countries  bordering  on  the  eastern 
Mediterranean.  Few  names  are  found  which  in- 
dicate that  their  bearers  came  from  Gaul  or  the 
countries  beyond  the  Alps.  These  Nordic  barba- 
rians were  of  more  use  in  the  legions  than  as  house- 
hold servants. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era  the  entire 
Levant  and  countries  adjoining  it  in  Asia  Minor, 
Syria  and  Egypt  had  been  so  thoroughly  hellenized 
that  many  of  their  inhabitants  bore  Greek  names. 
It  was  from  these  countries  and  from  northern 
Africa  that  the  slave  population  of  Rome  was 
drawn.  Their  descendants  were  the  most  im- 
portant element  in  the  Roman  melting  pot  and 
even  to-day  form  the  predominant  element  in  the 
population  of  Italy  south  of  the  Apennines.  When 
the  Nordic  barbarians  a  few  centuries  later  poured 
in,  these  Romanized  Orientals  disappeared  tem- 
porarily from  view  under  the  rule  of  the  vigorous 
northerners  but  they  have  steadily  absorbed  the 
latter  until  the  Nordic  elements  in  Italy  now  are 


to  be  found  chiefly  in  the  Lombard  plains  and  the 
region  of  the  Alps. 

The  Byzantine  Empire  from  much  the  same 
causes  as  the  Roman  became  in  its  turn  gradually 
less  and  less  European  and  more  and  more  Oriental 
until  it,  too,  withered  and  expired. 

Regarded  in  the  light  of  the  facts  the  fall  of 
Rome  ceases  to  be  a  mystery.  The  wonder  is  that 
the  State  lived  on  after  the  Romans  were  extinct 
and  that  the  Eastern  Empire  survived  so  long  with 
an  ever  fading  Greek  population.  In  Rome  and  in 
Greece  only  the  language  of  the  dominant  race  sur- 

So  entirely  had  the  blood  of  the  Romans  van- 
ished in  the  last  days  of  the  Empire  that  sorry 
bands  of  barbarians  wandered  at  will  through  the 
desolated  provinces.  Caesar  and  his  legions  would 
have  made  short  work  of  these  unorganized  ban- 
ditti but  Caesar's  legions  were  a  memory,  though 
one  great  enough  to  inspire  in  the  intruders  some- 
what of  awe  and  desire  to  imitate.  Against  in- 
vaders, however,  brains  and  brawn  are  more  effec- 
tive than  tradition  &ad  culture,  however  noble 
these  last  may  be. 

Early  ascetic  Christianity  played  a  large  part  in 
this  decline  of  the  Roman  Empire  as  it  was  at  the 
outset  the  religion  of  the  slave,  the  meek  and  the 
lowly  while  Stoicism  was  the  religion  of  the  strong 
men  of  the  time.    This  bias  in  favor  of  the  weaker 


elements  greatly  interfered  with  their  elimination 
by  natural  processes  and  the  righting  force  of  the 
Empire  was  gradually  undermined.  Christianity 
was  in  sharp  contrast  to  the  worship  of  tribal 
deities  which  preceded  it  and  it  tended  then  as 
now  to  break  down  class  and  race  distinctions. 

The  maintenance  of  such  distinctions  is  abso- 
lutely essential  to  race  purity  in  any  community 
wlien  two  or  more  races  live  side  by  side. 

Race  feeling  may  be  called  prejudice  by  those 
whose  careers  are  cramped  by  it  but  it  is  a  natural 
antipathy  which  serves  to  maintain  the  purity  of 
type.  The  unfortunate  fact  that  nearly  all  species 
of  men  interbreed  freely  leaves  us  no  choice  in  the 
matter.  Races  must  be  kept  apart  by  artificial 
devices  of  this  sort  or  they  ultimately  amalgamate 
and  in  the  offspring  the  more  generalized  or  lower 
type  prevails. 


We  find  few  traces  of  Nordic  characters  outside 
of  Europe.  When  Egypt  was  invaded  by  the  Lib- 
yans from  the  west  in  1230  B.  C.  they  were  ac- 
companied by  "sea  peoples,"  probably  the  Achaean 
Greeks.  There  is  some  evidence  of  blondness 
among  the  people  of  the  south  shore  of  the  Med- 
iterranean down  to  Greek  times  and  the  Tamahu 
or  fair  Libyans  are  constantly  mentioned  in  Egyp- 
tian records.  The  reddish  blond  or  partly  blond 
Berbers  found  to-day  on  the  northern  slopes  of  the 
Atlas  Mountains  may  well  be  their  descendants. 
That  this  blondness  of  the  Berbers,  though  small 
in  amount,  is  of  Nordic  origin  we  may  with  safety 
assume,  but  through  what  channels  it  came  we 
have  no  means  of  knowing.  There  is  no  historic 
invasion  of  north  Africa  by  Nordics  except  the 
Vandal  conquests  but  there  seems  to  be  little 
probability  that  this  small  Teutonic  tribe  left  be- 
hind any  physical  trace  in  the  native  population. 

There  seem  to  have  been  traces  of  Nordic  blood 

among  the  Philistines  and  still  more  among  the 

Amorites.    Certain  references  to  the  size  of  the  sons 

of  Anak  and  to  the  fairness  of  David,  whose  mother 



was  an  Amoritish  woman,  point  vaguely  in  this  di- 

References  in  Chinese  annals  to  the  green  eyes  of 
the  Wu-suns  or  to  the  Hiung-Nu  in  central  Asia  are 
almost  the  only  evidence  we  have  of  the  Nordic  race 
in  contact  with  the  peoples  of  eastern  Asia,  though 
there  are  statements  in  ancient  Chinese  or  Mon- 
golian records  as  to  the  existence  of  blond  and 
tall  tribes  and  nations  in  those  parts  of  northern 
Asia  where  Mongols  are  now  found  exclusively. 
We  may  expect  to  acquire  much  new  light  on  this 
subject  during  the  next  few  decades. 

The  so-called  blondness  of  the  hairy  Ainus  of  the 
northern  islands  of  Japan  seems  to  be  due  to  a  trace 
of  what  might  be  called  Proto-Nordic  blood.  In 
hairiness  these  people  are  in  sharp  contrast  with 
their  Mongoloid  neighbors  but  this  is  a  generalized 
character  common  to  the  highest  and  the  low- 
est races  of  man.  The  primitive  Australoids  and 
the  highly  specialized  Scandinavians  are  among 
the  most  hairy  populations  in  the  world.  So  in  the 
Ainus  this  somatological  peculiarity  is  merely  the 
retention  of  a  primitive  trait.  The  occasional 
brown  or  greenish  eye  and  the  sometimes  fair  com- 
plexion of  the  Ainus  are,  however,  suggestive  of 
Nordic  affinities  and  of  an  extreme  easterly  exten- 
sion of  Proto-Nordics  at  a  very  early  period. 

The  skull  shape  of  the  Ainus  is  dolichocephalic  or 
mesaticephalic,  while  the  broad  cheek  bones  indi- 


cate  a  Mongolian  cross  as  among  the  Esquimaux. 
The  Ainus,  like  many  other  small,  mysterious 
peoples,  are  probably  merely  the  remnants  of  one 
of  the  early  races  that  are  fast  fading  into  extinc- 
tion. The  division  of  man  into  species  and  sub- 
species is  very  ancient  and  the  chief  races  of  the 
earth  are  the  successful  survivors  of  a  long  and 
fierce  competition.  Many  species,  subspecies  and 
races  have  vanished  utterly,  except  for  reversional 
characters  occasionally  found  in  the  larger  races. 

The  only  Nordics  in  Asia  Minor,  so  far  as  we 
know,  were  the  Phrygians  who  crossed  the  Helles- 
pont about  1400  B.  C.  as  part  of  the  same  migra- 
tion which  brought  the  Achaeans  into  Greece,  the 
Cimmerians  who  entered  by  the  same  route  and 
also  through  the  Caucasus  about  650  B.  C.  and 
still  later,  in  270  B.  C,  the  Gauls  who,  coming  from 
northern  Italy  through  Thrace,  founded  Galatia. 
So  far  as  our  present  information  goes  little  or  no 
trace  of  these  invasions  remains  in  the  existing 
populations  of  Anatolia.  The  expansions  of  the 
Persians  and  the  Aryanization  of  their  empire  and 
the  conquests  of  the  Nordics  east  and  south  of  the 
Caspian-Aral  Sea,  will  be  discussed  in  connection 
with  the  spread  of  Aryan  languages. 


Such  are  the  three  races,  the  Alpine,  the  Medi- 
terranean and  the  Nordic,  which  enter  into  the 
composition  of  European  populations  of  to-day  and 
in  various  combinations  comprise  the  great  bulk  of 
white  men  all  over  the  world.  These  races  vary 
intellectually  and  morally  just  as  they  do  physically. 
Moral,  intellectual  and  spiritual  attributes  are  as 
persistent  as  physical  characters  and  are  trans- 
mitted substantially  unchanged  from  generation  to 
generation.  These  moral  and  physical  characters 
are  not  limited  to  one  race  but  given  traits  do 
occur  with  more  frequency  in  one  race  than  in  an- 
other. Each  race  differs  in  the  relative  proportion 
of  what  we  may  term  good  and  bad  strains,  just  as 
nations  do,  or,  for  that  matter,  sections  and  classes 
of  the  same  nation. 

In  considering  skull  characters  we  must  remem- 
ber that,  while  indicative  of  independent  descent, 
the  size  and  shape  of  the  head  are  not  closely  re- 
lated to  brain  power.  Aristotle  was  a  Mediter- 
ranean if  we  may  trust  the  authenticity  of  his  busts 
and  had  a  small,  long  skull,  while  Humboldt's 

large    and    characteristically    Nordic    skull    was 



equally  dolichocephalic.  Socrates  and  Diogenes 
were  apparently  quite  un-Greek  and  represent  rem- 
nants of  some  early  race,  perhaps  of  Paleolithic  man. 
The  history  of  their  lives  indicates  that  each  was 
recognized  by  his  fellow  countrymen  as  in  some 
degree  alien,  just  as  the  Jews  apparently  regarded 
Christ  as,  in  some  indefinite  way,  non- Jewish. 

Mental,  spiritual  and  moral  traits  are  closely  as- 
sociated with  the  physical  distinctions  among  the 
different  European  races,  although  like  somatologi- 
cal  characters,  these  spiritual  attributes  have  in 
many  cases  gone  astray.  Enough  remain,  how- 
ever, to  show  that  certain  races  have  special  apti- 
tudes for  certain  pursuits. 

The  Alpine  race  is  always  and  everywhere  a  race 
of  peasants,  an  agricultural  and  never  a  maritime 
race.  In  fact  they  only  extend  to  salt  water  at  the 
head  of  the  Adriatic  and,  like  all  purely  agricul- 
tural communities  throughout  Europe,  tend  toward 
democracy,  although  they  are  submissive  to  au- 
thority both  political  and  religious  being  usually 
Roman  Catholics  in  western  Europe.  This  race  is 
essentially  of  the  soil  and  in  towns  the  type  is 
mediocre  and  bourgeois. 

The  coastal  and  seafaring  populations  of  north- 
ern Europe  are  everywhere  Nordic  as  far  as  the 
shores  of  Spain  and  among  Europeans  this  race  is 
pre-eminently  fitted  for  maritime  pursuits.  Enter- 
prise at  sea  during  the  Middle  Ages  was  in  the 


hands  of  Mediterraneans  just  as  it  was  originally 
developed  by  Cretans,  Phoenicians  and  Carthagin- 
ians but  after  the  Reformation  the  Nordics  seized 
and  occupied  this  field  almost  exclusively. 

The  Nordics  are,  all  over  the  world,  a  race  of 
soldiers,  sailors,  adventurers  and  explorers,  but 
above  all,  of  rulers,  organizers  and  aristocrats  in 
sharp  contrast  to  the  essentially  peasant  and  demo- 
cratic character  of  the  Alpines.  The  Nordic  race 
is  domineering,  individualistic,  self-reliant  and  jeal- 
ous of  their  personal  freedom  both  in  political  and 
religious  systems  and  as  a  result  they  are  usually 
Protestants.  Chivalry  and  knighthood  and  their 
still  surviving  but  greatly  impaired  counterparts 
are  peculiarly  Nordic  traits,  and  feudalism,  class 
distinctions  and  race  pride  among  Europeans  are 
traceable  for  the  most  part  to  the  north. 

The  social  status  of  woman  varies  largely  with 
race  but  here  religion  plays  a  part.  In  the  Roman 
Republic  and  in  ancient  Germany  women  were  held 
in  high  esteem.  In  the  Nordic  countries  of  to-day 
women's  rights  have  received  much  more  recogni- 
tion than  among  the  southern  nations  with  their 
traditions  of  Latin  culture.  To  this  general  state- 
ment modern  Germany  is  a  marked  exception. 
The  contrast  is  great  between  the  mental  attitude 
toward  woman  of  the  ancient  Teutons  and  that  of 
the  modern  Germans. 

The  pure  Nordic  peoples  are  characterized  by  a 


greater  stability  and  steadiness  than  are  mixed  peo- 
ples such  as  the  Irish,  the  ancient  Gauls  and  the 
Athenians  among  all  of  whom  the  lack  of  these 
qualities  was  balanced  by  a  correspondingly  greater 

The  mental  characteristics  of  the  Mediterranean 
race  are  well  known  and  this  race,  while  inferior  in 
bodily  stamina  to  both  the  Nordic  and  the  Alpine, 
is  probably  the  superior  of  both,  certainly  of  the  Al- 
pines, in  intellectual  attainments.  In  the  field  of  art 
its  superiority  to  both  the  other  European  races  is 
unquestioned,  although  in  literature  and  in  scientific 
research  and  discovery  the  Nordics  far  excel  it. 

Before  leaving  this  interesting  subject  of  the 
correlation  of  spiritual  and  moral  traits  with  phys- 
ical characters  we  may  note  that  these  influences 
are  so  deeply  rooted  in  everyday  consciousness 
that  the  modern  novelist  or  playwright  does  not 
fail  to  make  his  hero  a  tall,  blond,  honest  and 
somewhat  stupid  youth  and  his  villain  a  small,  dark 
and  exceptionally  intelligent  individual  of  warped 
moral  character.  So  in  Celtic  legend  as  in  the 
Graeco-Roman  and  mediaeval  romances,  prince  and 
princess  are  always  fair,  a  fact  rather  indicating 
that  the  mass  of  the  people  were  brunet  at  the 
time  when  the  legends  were  taking  shape.  In 
fact,  "fair"  is  a  synonym  for  beauty.  Most  an- 
cient tapestries  show  a  blond  earl  on  horseback 
and  a  dark  haired  churl  holding  the  bridle. 


The  gods  of  Olympus  were  almost  all  described  as 
blond,  and  it  would  be  difficult  to  imagine  a  Greek 
artist  painting  a  brunet  Venus.  In  church  pic- 
tures all  angels  are  blond,  while  the  denizens  of  the 
lower  regions  revel  in  deep  brunetness.  "Non  Angli 
sed  angeli,"  remarked  Pope  Gregory  when  he  first 
saw  Saxon  children  exposed  for  sale  in  the  Roman 

In  depicting  the  crucifixion  no  artist  hesitates  to 
make  the  two  thieves  brunet  in  contrast  to  the 
blond  Saviour.  This  is  something  more  than  a 
convention,  as  such  quasi-authentic  traditions  as 
we  have  of  our  Lord  strongly  suggest  his  Nordic, 
possibly  Greek,  physical  and  moral  attributes. 

These  and  similar  traditions  clearly  point  to  the 
relations  of  the  one  race  to  the  other  in  classic, 
mediaeval  and  modern  times.  How  far  they  may 
be  modified  by  democratic  institutions  and  the  rule 
of  the  majority  remains  to  be  seen. 

The  wars  of  the  past  two  thousand  years  in  Eu- 
rope have  been  almost  exclusively  wars  between 
the  various  nations  of  this  race  or  between  rulers 
of  Nordic  blood. 

From  a  race  point  of  view  the  present  European 
conflict  is  essentially  a  civil  war  and  nearly  all  the 
officers  and  a  large  proportion  of  the  men  on  both 
sides  are  members  of  this  race.  It  is  the  same  old 
tragedy  of  mutual  butchery  and  mutual  destruc- 
tion between  Nordics,  just  as  the  Nordic  nobility 


of  Renaissance  Italy  seems  to  have  been  possessed 
with  a  blood  mania  to  murder  one  another.  It  is 
the  modern  edition  of  the  old  Berserker  blood  rage 
and  is  class  suicide  on  a  gigantic  scale. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  it  was  difficult  to 
say  on  which  side  there  was  the  preponderance  of 
Nordic  blood.  Flanders  and  northern  France  are 
more  Nordic  than  south  Germany,  while  the  back- 
bone of  the  armies  that  England  put  into  the  field 
as  well  as  of  those  of  her  colonies  was  almost 
purely  Nordic  and  a  large  proportion  of  the  Rus- 
sian army  was  of  the  same  race.  As  heretofore 
stated,  with  America  in  the  war,  the  greater  part 
of  the  Nordics  of  the  world  are  fighting  against 

Although  the  writer  has  limited  carefully  the 
use  of  the  word  "Teutonic"  to  that  section  of  the 
Nordic  race  which  originated  in  Scandinavia  and 
which  later  spread  over  northern  Europe,  never- 
theless this  term  is  unfortunate  because  it  is  cur- 
rently given  a  national  and  not  a  racial  meaning 
and  is  used  to  denote  the  populations  of  the  cen- 
tral empires.  This  popular  use  includes  millions 
who  are  un-Teutonic  and  excludes  millions  of  pure 
Teutonic  blood  who  are  outside  of  the  political 
borders  of  Austria  and  Germany  and  who  are  bit- 
terly hostile  to  the  very  name  itself. 

The  present  inhabitants  of  the  German  Empire, 
to  say  nothing  of  Austria,  are  only  to  a  limited  ex- 


tent  descendants  of  the  ancient  Teutonic  tribes, 
being  very  largely  Alpines,  especially  in  the  east 
and  south.  To  abandon  to  the  Germans  and 
Austrians  the  exclusive  right  to  the  name  Teuton 
or  Teutonic  would  be  to  acquiesce  in  one  of  their 
most  grandiose  pretensions. 


Having  shown  the  existence  in  Europe  of  three 
distinct  subspecies  of  man  and  a  single  predomi- 
nant group  of  languages  called  the  Aryan  or  syn- 
thetic group,  it  remains  to  inquire  to  which  of  the 
three  races  can  be  assigned  the  honor  of  inventing, 
elaborating  and  introducing  this  most  highly  de- 
veloped form  of  human  speech.  Our  investiga- 
tions will  show  that  the  facts  point  indubitably 
to  an  original  unity  between  the  Nordic  or  rather 
the  Proto-Nordic  race  and  the  Proto-Aryan  lan- 
guage or  the  generalized,  ancestral,  Aryan  mother 

Of  the  three  claimants  to  the  honor  of  being  the 
original  creator  of  the  Aryan  group  of  languages, 
we  can  at  once  dismiss  the  Mediterranean  race. 
The  members  of  this  subspecies  on  the  south 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  the  Berbers  and  the 
Egyptians,  and  many  peoples  in  western  Asia  speak 
now  and  have  always  spoken  Anaryan  tongues. 
We  also  know  that  the  speech  of  the  original  Pe- 
lasgians  was  not  Aryan,  that  in  Crete  remnants  of 
Pre- Aryan  speech  persisted  until  about  500  B.  C. 
and  that  the  Hellenic  language  was  introduced 



into  ^Egean  countries  from  the  north.  In  Italy  the 
Etruscan  in  the  north  and  the  Messapian  in  the 
south  were  Anaryan  languages  and  the  ancestral 
form  of  Latin  speech  in  the  guise  of  Umbrian  and 
Oscan  came  through  the  Alps  from  the  countries 

In  Spain  a  Celtic  language  was  introduced  from 
the  north  about  500  B.  C.  but  with  so  little  force 
behind  it  that  it  was  unable  to  replace  entirely 
the  Anaryan  Basque  language  of  at  least  a  portion 
of  the  aborigines. 

In  Britain,  Aryan  speech  was  introduced  about 
800  B.C.  and  in  France  somewhat  earlier.  In  cen- 
tral and  northern  Europe  no  certain  trace  of  the 
Anaryan  languages  at  one  time  spoken  there  per- 
sists, except  among  the  Lapps  and  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  Gulf  of  Finland,  where  Non-Aryan 
Finnic  dialects  are  spoken  to-day  by  the  Finlanders 
and  the  Esthonians. 

We  thus  know  the  approximate  dates  of  the  intro- 
duction of  Aryan  speech  into  western  and  southern 
Europe  and  that  it  came  in  through  the  medium 
of  the  Nordic  race. 

In  Spain  and  in  the  adjoining  parts  of  France 
nearly  half  a  million  people  continue  to  speak  an 
agglutinative  language,  called  Basque  or  Euska- 
rian.  In  skull  shape  these  Basques  correspond 
closely  with  the  Aryan-speaking  populations  around 
them,  being  dolichocephalic  in  Spain  and  brachy- 

ARYA  235 

cephalic  or  pseudo-brachy cephalic  in  France.  In 
the  case  of  both  the  long  skulled  and  the  round 
skulled  Basques  the  lower  part  of  the  face  is  long 
and  thin,  with  a  peculiar  and  pointed  chin  and 
among  the  French  Basques  the  skull  is  broadened 
in  the  temporal  region.  In  other  words,  their  faces 
show  certain  secondary  racial  characters  which  have 
been  imposed  by  selection  upon  a  people  composed 
originally  of  two  races  of  independent  origin,  but 
long  isolated  by  the  limitations  of  language. 

The  Euskarian  language  is  believed  to  have  been 
related  to  the  ancient  Iberian  but  has  affinities 
which  point  to  Asia  as  its  place  of  origin  and  make 
possible  the  hypothesis  that  it  may  have  been  de- 
rived from  the  ancient  language  of  the  Proto- Alpines 
in  the  west. 

The  problem  of  the  extinct  Ligurian  language 
must  be  considered  in  this  connection.  It  seems  to 
have  been  Anaryan,  but  we  do  not  know  whether 
it  was  the  speech  originally  of  Alpines  or  of  Med- 
iterraneans either  of  whom  could  be  reasonably 
considered  as  a  claimant. 

Other  than  the  Basque  language  there  are  in 
western  Europe  but  few  remains  of  Pre-Aryan 
speech,  and  these  are  found  chiefly  in  place  names 
and  in  a  few  obscure  words. 

Remnants  of  Anaryan  speech  exist  here  and  there 
throughout  European  Russia,  but  many  of  them 
can  be  traced  to  historic  invasions.     Until  we  reach 


the  main  body  of  Ural-Altaic  speech  in  the  east  of 
Russia,  the  Esthonians,  with  kindred  tribes  of  Li- 
vonians  and  Tchouds,  and  the  Finns  are  the  only 
peoples  who  speak  Non-Aryan  tongues,  but  the 
physical  type  with  the  exception  of  the  skull  shape 
of  all  these  tribes  is  distinctly  Nordic.  In  this  con- 
nection the  Lapps  and  related  groups  in  the  far 
north  can  be  disregarded. 

The  problem  of  the  Finns  is  a  difficult  one.  The 
coast  of  Finland,  of  course,  is  purely  Swedish,  but 
the  great  bulk  of  the  population  in  the  interior  is 
brachycephalic,  though  otherwise  thoroughly  Nor- 
dic in  type. 

The  Anaryan  Finnish,  Esthonian  and  Livonian 
languages  were  probably  introduced  at  the  same 
time  as  were  round  skulls  into  Finland.  The 
shores  of  the  Gulf  of  Finland  were  originally  in- 
habited by  Nordics  and  the  intrusion  of  round 
skulled  Finns  probably  came  soon  after  the  Chris- 
tian era.  This  immigration  and  that  of  the  Livo- 
nians  and  Esthonians  may  possibly  have  been  part 
of  the  same  movement  which  brought  the  Alpine 
Wends  into  eastern  Germany.  The  earliest  refer- 
ences to  the  Finns  that  we  have  locate  them  in 
central  Russia. 

The  most  important  Anaryan  language  in  Europe 
is  the  Magyar  of  Hungary,  but  this  we  know  was  in- 
troduced from  the  eastward  at  the  end  of  the  ninth 
century,  as  was  the  earlier  but  now  extinct  Avar. 

ARYA  2.37 

In  the  Balkans  the  language  of  the  Turks  has 
never  been  a  vernacular  as  it  is  in  Asia  Minor.  In 
Europe  it  was  spoken  only  by  the  soldiers  and  the 
civil  administrators  and  by  very  sparse  colonies 
of  Turkish  settlers.  The  mania  of  the  Turks  for 
white  women,  which  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
motives  that  led  to  the  conquest  of  the  Byzantine 
Empire,  has  unconsciously  resulted  in  the  oblitera- 
tion of  the  Mongoloid  type  of  the  original  Asiatic 
invaders.  Persistent  crossing  with  Circassian  and 
Georgian  women,  as  well  as  with  slaves  of  every 
race  in  Asia  Minor  and  in  Europe  with  whom  they 
came  in  contact,  has  made  the  European  Turk 
of  to-day  indistinguishable  in  physical  characters 
from  his  Christian  neighbors.  At  the  same  time, 
polygamy  has  greatly  strengthened  the  hold  of  the 
dominant  Turk.  In  fact,  among  the  upper  classes 
of  the  higher  races  monogamy  and  the  resultant 
limitation  in  number  of  offspring  has  been  a  source 
of  weakness  from  the  viewpoint  of  race  expansion. 
The  Turks  of  Seljukian  and  Osmanli  origin  were 
never  numerous  and  the  Sultan's  armies  were 
largely  composed  of  Islamized  Anatolians  and  Eu- 

In  Persia  and  India,  also,  the  Aryan  languages 
were  introduced  from  the  north  at  known  periodsf 
so  in  view  of  all  these  facts  the  Mediterranean 
race  cannot  claim  the  honor  of  either  the  inven- 
tion or  dissemination  of  the  synthetic  languages 


The  chief  claim  of  the  Alpine  race  of  central  Eu- 
rope and  western  Asia  to  the  invention  and  intro- 
duction into  Europe  of  the  Proto-Aryan  form  of 
speech  rests  on  the  fact  that  nearly  all  the  members 
of  this  race  in  Europe  speak  well  developed  Aryan 
languages,  chiefly  in  some  form  of  Slavic.  This 
fact  taken  by  itself  may  have  no  more  significance 
than  the  fact  that  the  Mediterranean  race  in 
Spain,  Italy  and  France  speaks  Romance  lan- 
guages, but  it  is,  nevertheless,  an  argument  of  some 

Outside  of  Europe  the  Armenians  and  other 
Armenoid  brachycephalic  peoples  of  Asia  Minor 
and  the  Iranian  Highlands,  all  of  Alpine  race,  to- 
gether with  a  few  isolated  tribes  of  the  Caucasus, 
speak  Aryan  languages  and  these  peoples  lie  on 
the  highroad  along  which  knowledge  of  the  metals 
and  other  cultural  developments  entered  Europe. 

If  the  Aryan  language  were  invented  and  de- 
veloped by  these  Armenoid  Alpines  we  should  be 
obliged  to  assume  that  they  introduced  it  along 
with  bronze  culture  into  Europe  about  3000  B.  C. 
and  taught  the  Nordics  both  their  language  and 
their  metal  culture.  There  are,  however,  in  west- 
ern Asia  many  Alpine  peoples  who  do  not  speak 
Aryan  languages  and  yet  are  Alpine  in  type,  such 
as  the  Turcomans  and  in  Asia  Minor  the  so- 
called  Turks  are  also  largely  Islamized  Alpines  of 
the  Armenoid  subspecies  who  speak  Turki.     There 

ARYA  239 

is  no  trace  of  Aryan  speech  south  of  the  Caucasus 
until  after  1700  B.  C.  and  the  Hittite  language 
spoken  before  that  date  in  central  and  eastern 
Asia  Minor,  although  not  yet  clearly  deciphered, 
was  Anaryan  to  the  best  of  our  present  knowl- 
edge. The  Hittites  themselves  were  probably  an- 
cestral to  the  living  Armenians. 

We  are  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  languages 
of  the  ancient  Mesopotamian  countries  to  know 
that  the  speech  of  Accad  and  Sumer,  of  Susa  and 
Media  was  agglutinative  and  that  the  languages  of 
Assyria  and  of  Palestine  were  Semitic.  The  speech 
of  the  Kassites  was  Anaryan,  but  they  seem  to  have 
been  in  contact  with  the  horse-using  Nordics  and 
some  of  their  leaders  bore  Aryan  names.  The 
language  of  the  shortlived  empire  of  the  Mitanni 
in  the  foothills  south  of  Armenia  is  the  only  one 
about  the  character  of  which  there  can  be  serious 
doubt.  There  is,  therefore,  much  negative  evidence 
against  the  existence  of  Aryan  speech  in  that  part 
of  the  world  earlier  than  its  known  introduction 
by  Nordics. 

If,  then,  the  last  great  expansion  into  Europe  of 
the  Alpine  race  brought  from  Asia  the  Aryan 
mother  tongue,  as  well  as  the  knowledge  of  metals, 
we  must  assume  that  all  the  members  of  the  Nor- 
dic race  thereupon  adopted  synthetic  speech  from 
the  Alpines. 

We  know   that  these  Alpines  reached  Britain 


about  1800  B.  C.  and  probably  they  had  previously 
occupied  much  of  Gaul,  so  that  if  they  are  to  be 
credited  with  the  introduction  of  the  synthetic 
languages  into  western  Europe,  it  is  difficult  to 
understand  why  we  have  no  known  trace  of 
any  form  of  Aryan  speech  in  central  Europe  or 
west  of  the  Rhine  prior  to  1000  B.  C.  while  we 
have  some,  though  scanty,  evidence  of  Non-Aryan 

It  may  be  said  in  favor  of  this  claim  of  the  Al- 
pine race  to  be  the  original  inventor  of  synthetic 
speech,  that  language  is  ever  a  measure  of  culture 
and  the  higher  forms  of  civilization  are  greatly 
hampered  by  the  limitations  of  speech  imposed 
by  the  less  highly  evolved  languages,  namely,  the 
monosyllabic  and  the  agglutinative,  which  include 
nearly  all  the  Non-Aryan  languages  of  the  world. 
It  does  not  seem  probable  that  barbarians,  how- 
ever fine  in  physical  type  and  however  well  en- 
dowed with  the  potentiality  of  intellectual  and 
moral  development,  dwelling  as  hunters  in  the 
bleak  and  barren  north  along  the  edge  of  the  re- 
treating glaciers  and  as  nomad  shepherds  in  the 
Russian  grasslands,  could  have  evolved  a  more 
complicated  and  higher  form  of  articulate  speech 
than  the  inhabitants  of  southwestern  Asia,  who 
many  thousand  years  earlier  were  highly  civilized 
and  are  known  to  have  invented  the  arts  of  agri- 
culture, metal  working  and  domestication  of  ani- 

ARYA  241 

mals,  as  well  as  of  writing  and  pottery.    Never- 
theless, such  seems  to  be  the  fact. 

To  summarize,  it  appears  that  a  study  of  the 
Mediterranean  race  shows  that  so  far  from  being 
purely  European,  it  is  equally  African  and  Asiatic 
and  that  in  the  narrow  coastal  fringe  of  southern 
Persia,  in  India  and  even  farther  east  the  last 
strains  of  this  race  gradually  fade  into  the  Negroids 
through  prolonged  cross  breeding.  A  similar  in- 
quiry into  the  origin  and  distribution  of  the  Alpine 
subspecies  shows  clearly  the  fundamentally  Asiatic 
origin  of  the  type  and  that  on  its  easternmost 
borders  in  central  Asia  it  marches  with  the  round 
skulled  Mongols,  and  that  neither  the  one  nor  the 
other  was  the  inventor  of  Aryan  speech. 


By  the  process  of  elimination  set  forth  in  the  pre- 
ceding chapter  we  are  compelled  to  acknowledge 
that  the  strongest  claimant  for  the  honor  of  being 
the  race  of  the  original  Aryans,  is  the  tall,  blond 
Nordic.  An  analysis  of  the  various  languages  of 
the  Aryan  group  reveals  an  extreme  diversity  which 
can  be  best  explained  by  the  hypothesis  that  the 
existing  languages  are  now  spoken  by  people  upon 
whom  Aryan  speech  has  been  forced  from  with- 
out. This  theory  corresponds  exactly  with  the 
known  historic  fact  that  the  Aryan  languages,  dur- 
ing the  last  three  or  four  thousand  years  at  least 
have,  again  and  again,  been  imposed  by  Nordics 
upon  populations  of  Alpine  and  Mediterranean 

Within  the  present  distributional  area  of  the 

Nordic  race  on  the  Gulf  of  Riga  and  in  the  very 

middle  of  a  typical  area  of  isolation,  are  the  most 

generalized  members  of  the  Aryan  group,  namely 

Lettish  and  Lithuanian,  both  almost  Proto-Aryan 

in   character.     Close  at  hand  existed  the  closely 

related  Old  Prussian  or  Borussian,  very  recently 



extinct.  These  archaic  languages  are  relatively 
close  to  Sanskrit  and  exist  in  actual  contact  with 
the  Anaryan  speech  of  the  Esthonians  and  Finns. 

The  Anaryan  languages  in  eastern  Russia  are 
Ugrian,  a  form  of  speech  which  extends  far  into 
Asia  and  which  appears  to  contain  elements  which 
unite  it  with  synthetic  speech  and  may  be  dimly 
transitory  in  character.  In  the  opinion  of  many 
philologists,  a  primitive  form  of  Ugrian  might  have 
given  birth  to  the  Proto- Aryan  ancestor  of  existing 
synthetic  languages. 

This  hypothesis,  if  sustained  by  further  study, 
will  provide  additional  evidence  that  the  site  of 
the  development  of  the  Aryan  languages  and  of 
the  Nordic  subspecies  was  in  eastern  Europe, 
in  a  region  which  is  close  to  the  meeting  place  be- 
tween the  most  archaic  synthetic  languages  and 
the  most  nearly  related  Anaryan  tongue,  the  ag- 
glutinative Ugrian. 

The  Aryan  tongue  was  introduced  into  Greece 
by  the  Achaeans  about  1400  B.  C.  and  later,  about 
1 100  B.  C.  by  the  true  Hellenes,  who  brought  in 
the  classic  dialects  of  Dorian,  Ionian  and  JF.olia.n. 

These  Aryan  languages  superseded  their  Anar- 
yan predecessor,  the  Pelasgian.  From  the  lan- 
guage of  these  early  invaders  came  the  Illyrian, 
Thracian,  Albanian,  classic  Greek  and  the  debased 
modern  Romaic,  a  descendant  of  the  Ionian  dia- 


Aryan  speech  was  introduced  among  the  Anar- 
yan-speaking  Etruscans  of  the  Italian  Peninsula 
by  the  Umbrians  and  Oscans  about  noo  B.  C. 
and  from  the  language  of  these  conquerors  was  de- 
rived Latin  which  later  spread  to  the  uttermost 
confines  of  the  Roman  Empire.  Its  descendants 
to-day  are  the  Romance  tongues  spoken  within 
the  ancient  imperial  boundaries,  Portuguese  on  the 
west,  Castilian,  Catalan,  Provencal,  French,  the 
Langue  d'oil  of  the  Walloons,  Romansch,  Ladin, 
Friulian,  Tuscan,  Calabrian  and  Rumanian. 

The  problem  of  the  existence  of  a  language 
clearly  descended  from  Latin,  the  Rumanian,  in  the 
eastern  Carpathians  cut  off  by  Slavic  and  Magyar 
tongues  from  the  nearest  Romance  tongues  presents 
difficulties.  The  Rumanians  themselves  make  two 
claims;  the  first,  which  can  be  safely  disregarded, 
is  an  unbroken  linguistic  descent  from  a  group  of 
Aryan  languages  which  occupied  this  whole  section 
of  Europe,  from  which  Latin  was  derived  and  of 
which  Albanian  is  also  a  remnant. 

The  more  serious  claim,  however,  made  by  the 
Rumanians  is  to  linguistic  and  racial  descent  from 
the  military  colonists  planted  by  the  Emperor 
Trajan  in  the  great  Dacian  plain  north  of  the 
Danube.  This  may  be  possible,  so  far  as  the  lan- 
guage is  concerned,  but  there  are  some  weighty  ob- 
jections to  it. 

We  have  little  evidence  for,  and  much  against,  the 


existence  of  Rumanian  speech  north  of  the  Danube 
for  nearly  a  thousand  years  after  Rome  abandoned 
this  outlying  region.  Dacia  was  one  of  the  last 
provinces  to  be  occupied  by  Rome  and  was  the 
first  from  which  the  legions  were  withdrawn  upon 
the  decline  of  the  Empire.  The  northern  Car- 
pathians, furthermore,  where  the  Rumanians  claim 
to  have  taken  refuge  during  the  barbarian  inva- 
sions formed  part  of  the  Slavic  homeland  and  it 
was  in  these  same  mountains  and  in  the  Ruthenian 
districts  of  eastern  Galicia  that  the  Slavic  lan- 
guages were  developed,  probably  by  the  Sarmatians 
and  Venethi,  from  whence  they  spread  in  all  di- 
rections in  the  centuries  that  immediately  followed 
the  fall  of  Rome.  So  it  is  almost  impossible  to 
credit  the  survival  of  a  frontier  community  of 
Romanized  natives  situated  not  only  in  the  path 
of  the  great  invasions  of  Europe  from  the  east, 
but  also  in  the  very  spot  where  Slavic  tongues 
were  at  the  time  evolving. 

Rumanian  speech  occupies  large  areas  outside 
of  the  present  kingdom  of  Rumania,  in  Russian 
Bessarabia,  Austrian  Bukowina  and  above  all  in 
Hungarian  Transylvania. 

The  linguistic  problem  is  further  complicated 
by  the  existence  in  the  Pindus  Mountains  of  Thes- 
saly  of  another  large  community  of  Vlachs  of  Ru- 
manian speech.  How  this  later  community  could 
have   survived   from  Roman  times  until   to-day, 


untouched  either  by  the  Greek  language  of  the 
Byzantine  Empire  or  by  the  Turkish  conquest  is 
another  difficult  problem. 

The  evidence,  on  the  whole,  points  to  the  descent 
of  the  Vlachs  from  the  early  inhabitants  of  Thrace, 
who  adopted  Latin  speech  in  the  first  centuries  of 
the  Christian  era  and  clung  to  it  during  the  dom- 
ination of  the  Bulgarians  from  the  seventh  cen- 
tury onward  in  the  lands  south  of  the  Danube.  In 
the  thirteenth  century  the  mass  of  these  Vlachs, 
leaving  scattered  remnants  behind  them,  crossed 
the  Danube  and  founded  Little  and  Great  Walla- 
chia.  From  there  they  spread  into  Transylvania 
and  a  century  later  into  Moldavia. 

The  solution  of  this  problem  receives  no  assist- 
ance from  anthropology,  as  these  Rumanian- 
speaking  populations  both  on  the  Danube  and  in 
the  Pindus  Mountains  in  no  way  differ  physically 
from  their  neighbors  on  all  sides.  But  through 
whatever  channel  they  acquired  their  Latin  speech 
the  Rumanians  of  to-day  can  lay  no  valid  claim  to 
blood  descent  even  in  a  remote  degree  from  the 
true  Romans. 

The  first  Aryan  languages  known  in  western 
Europe  were  the  Celtic  group  which  first  appears 
west  of  the  Rhine  about  1000  B.  C. 

Only  a  few  dim  traces  of  Pre- Aryan  speech  have 
been  found  in  the  British  Isles,  and  these  largely 
in  place  names.    The  Pre-Aryan  language  of  the 


Pre-Nordic  population  of  Britain  may  have  sur- 
vived down  to  historic  times  as  Pictish. 

In  Britain,  Celtic  speech  was  introduced  in  two 
successive  waves,  first  by  the  Goidels  or  "Q"  Celts, 
who  apparently  appeared  about  800  B.  C.  and  this 
form  exists  to  this  day  as  Erse  in  western  Ireland, 
as  Manx  of  the  Isle  of  Man  and  as  Gaelic  in  the 
Scottish  Highlands. 

The  Goidels  were  still  in  a  state  of  bronze  cul- 
ture. When  they  reached  Britain  they  must  have 
found  there  a  population  preponderantly  of  Med- 
iterranean type  with  numerous  remains  of  still  ear- 
lier races  of  Paleolithic  times  and  also  some  round 
skulled  Alpines  of  the  Round  Barrows,  who  have 
since  largely  faded  from  the  living  population. 
When  the  next  invasion,  the  Cymric  or  Brythonic, 
occurred  the  Goidels  had  been  absorbed  very  largely 
by  the  underlying  Mediterranean  aborigines  who 
had  meanwhile  accepted  the  Goidelic  form  of  Celtic 
speech,  just  as  on  the  continent  the  Gauls  had 
mixed  with  Alpine  and  Mediterranean  natives  and 
had  imposed  upon  the  conquered  their  own  tongue. 
In  fact,  in  Britain,  Gaul  and  Spain  the  Goidels  and 
Gauls  were  chiefly  a  ruling,  military  class,  while  the 
great  bulk  of  the  population  remained  unchanged 
although  Aryanized  in  speech. 

These  Brythonic  or  Cymric  tribes  or  "P"  Celts 
followed  the  "Q"  Celts  four  or  five  hundred  years 
later,  and  drove  the  Goidels  westward  through  Ger- 


many,  Gaul  and  Britain  and  this  movement  of 
population  was  still  going  on  when  Caesar  crossed 
the  Channel.  The  Brythonic  group  gave  rise  to 
the  modern  Cornish,  extinct  within  a  century,  the 
Cymric  of  Wales  and  the  Armorican  of  Brittany. 

In  central  Europe  we  find  traces  of  these  same 
two  forms  of  Celtic  speech  with  the  Goidelic  every- 
where the  older  and  the  Cymric  the  more  recent 
arrival.  The  cleavage  between  the  dialects  of  the 
"Q"  Celts  and  the  "P"  Celts  was  probably  less 
marked  two  thousand  years  ago  than  at  present, 
since  in  their  modern  form  they  are  both  Neo- Celtic 
languages.  What  vestiges  of  Celtic  languages  re- 
main in  France  belong  to  Brythonic.  Celtic  was 
not  generally  spoken  in  Aquitaine  in  Caesar's  time. 

When  the  two  Celtic-speaking  races  came  into 
conflict  in  Britain  their  original  relationship  had 
been  greatly  obscured  by  the  crossing  of  the  Goi- 
dels  with  the  underlying  dark  Mediterranean  race 
of  Neolithic  culture  and  by  the  mixture  of  the 
Belgae  with  Teutonic  tribes.  The  result  was  that 
the  Brythons  did  not  distinguish  between  the  blond 
Goidels  and  the  brunet  but  Celticized  Mediterra- 
neans as  they  all  spoke  Goidelic  dialects. 

In  the  same  way  when  the  Saxons  and  the  An- 
gles entered  Britain  they  found  there  a  population 
speaking  Celtic  of  some  form,  either  Goidelic  or 
Cymric  and  promptly  called  them  all  Welsh  (for- 
eigners).     These  Welsh  were   preponderantly  of 


Mediterranean  type  with  some  mixture  of  a  blond 
Goidel  strain  and  a  much  stronger  blond  strain  of 
Cymric  origin  and  these  same  elements  exist  to-day 
in  England.  The  Mediterranean  race  is  easily  dis- 
tinguished, but  the  physical  types  derived  from 
Goidel  and  Brython  alike  are  merged  and  lost  in 
the  later  floods  of  pure  Nordic  blood,  Angle,  Saxon, 
Dane,  Norse  and  Norman.  In  this  primitive, 
dark  population  with  successive  layers  of  blond 
Nordics  imposed  upon  it,  each  one  more  purely 
Nordic  and  in  the  relative  absence  of  round  heads 
lie  the  secret  and  the  solution  of  the  anthropology 
of  the  British  Isles.  This  Iberian  substratum  was 
able  to  absorb  to  a  large  extent  the  earlier  Celtic- 
speaking  invaders,  both  Goidels  and  Brythons, 
but  it  is  only  just  beginning  to  seriously  threaten 
the  later  Nordics  and  to  reassert  its  ancient  brunet 
characters  after  three  thousand  years  of  submer- 

In  northwest  Scotland  there  is  a  Gaelic-speaking 
area  where  the  place  names  are  all  Scandinavian 
and  the  physical  types  purely  Nordic.  This  is 
the  only  spot  in  the  British  Isles  where  Celtic 
speech  has  reconquered  a  district  from  the  Teu- 
tonic languages  and  it  was  the  site  of  one  of  the 
conquests  of  the  Norse  Vikings,  probably  in  the 
early  centuries  of  the  Christian  era.  In  Caithness 
in  north  Scotland,  as  well  as  in  some  isolated 
spots  on  the  Irish  coasts,  the  language  of  these 


same  Norse  pirates  persisted  within  a  century.  In 
the  fifth  century  of  our  era  and  after  the  break-up 
of  Roman  domination  in  Britain  there  was  much 
racial  unrest  and  a  back  wave  of  Goidels  crossed 
from  Ireland  and  either  reintroduced  or  reinforced 
the  Gaelic  speech  in  the  highlands.  Later,  Goidelic 
speech  was  gradually  driven  northward  and  west- 
ward by  the  intrusive  English  of  the  lowlands  and 
was  ultimately  forced  over  this  originally  Norse- 
speaking  area.  We  have  elsewhere  in  Europe  evi- 
dence of  similar  shiftings  of  speech  without  any 
corresponding  change  in  the  blood  of  the  popula- 

Except  in  the  British  Isles  and  in  Brittany  Celtic 
languages  have  left  no  modern  descendants,  but 
have  everywhere  been  replaced  by  languages  of  Neo- 
Latin  or  of  Teutonic  origin.  Outside  of  Brittany 
one  of  the  last,  if  not  quite  the  last,  reference  to 
Celtic  speech  in  Gaul  is  the  historic  statement 
that  "Celtic"  tribes,  as  well  as  " Armoricans,"  took 
part  at  Chalons  in  the  great  victory  in  451  A.  D. 
over  Attila  the  Hun  and  his  confederacy  of  sub- 
ject nations. 

On  the  continent  the  only  existing  populations 
of  Celtic  speech  are  the  primitive  inhabitants  of 
central  Brittany,  a  population  noted  for  their  re- 
ligious fanaticism  and  for  other  characteristics  of  a 
backward  people.  This  Celtic  speech  is  claimed  to 
have  been  introduced  about  450-500  A.  D.  by 


Britons  fleeing  from  the  Saxons.  These  refugees, 
if  there  were  any  substantial  number  of  them,  must 
have  been  dolichocephs  of  either  Mediterranean  or 
Nordic  race  or  both.  We  are  asked  by  this  tradi- 
tion to  believe  that  their  long  skull  was  lost,  but 
that  their  language  was  adopted  by  the  round 
skulled  Alpine  population  of  Armorica.  It  is  much 
more  probable  that  the  Cymric-speaking  Alpines 
of  Brittany  have  merely  retained  in  this  isolated 
corner  of  France  a  form  of  Celtic  speech  which  was 
prevalent  throughout  northern  Gaul  and  Britain 
before  these  provinces  were  conquered  by  Rome 
and  Latinized  and  which,  perhaps,  was  reinforced 
later  by  British  Cymry.  Caesar  remarked  that 
there  was  little  difference  between  the  speech  of  the 
Belgae  in  northern  Gaul  and  in  Britain.  In  both 
cases  the  speech  was  Cymric. 

Long  after  the  conquest  of  Gaul  by  the  Goths 
and  Franks  Teutonic  speech  remained  predominant 
among  the  ruling  classes  and,  by  the  time  it  suc- 
cumbed to  the  Latin  tongue  of  the  Romanized  na- 
tives, the  old  Celtic  languages  had  been  entirely 
forgotten  outside  of  Brittany. 

An  example  of  similar  changes  of  language  is 
to  be  found  in  Normandy  where  the  country  was 
inhabited  by  the  Nordic  Belgae  speaking  a  Cymric 
language  before  that  tongue  was  replaced  by  Latin. 
This  coast  was  ravaged  about  300  or  400  A.  D.  by 
Saxons  who  formed  settlements  along  both  sides 


of  the  Channel  and  the  coasts  of  Brittany  which 
were  later  known  as  the  Litus  Saxonicum.  Their 
progress  can  best  be  traced  by  place  names  as  our 
historic  record  of  these  raids  is  scanty. 

The  Normans  landed  in  Normandy  in  the  year 
911  A.  D.  They  were  heathen,  Danish  barbarians, 
speaking  a  Teutonic  tongue.  The  religion,  culture 
and  language  of  the  old  Romanized  populations 
worked  a  miracle  in  the  transformation  of  every- 
thing except  blood  in  one  short  century.  So  quick 
was  the  change  that  155  years  later  the  descend- 
ants of  the  same  Normans  landed  in  England  as 
Christian  Frenchmen  armed  with  all  the  culture  of 
their  period.  The  change  was  startling,  but  the 
Norman  blood  remained  unchanged  and  entered 
England  as  a  substantially  Nordic  type. 


In  the  JEgean  region  and  south  of  the  Caucasus 
Nordics  appear  after  1700  B.  C.  but  there  were 
unquestionably  invasions  and  raids  from  the 
north  for  many  centuries  previous  to  our  first 
records.  These  early  migrations  were  probably 
not  in  sufficient  force  to  modify  the  blood  of  the 
autochthonous  races  or  to  substitute  Aryan  lan- 
guages for  the  ancient  Mediterranean  and  Asiatic 

These  men  of  the  North  came  from  the  grass- 
lands of  Russia  in  successive  waves  and  among 
the  first  of  whom  we  have  fairly  clear  knowledge 
were  the  Achaeans  and  Phrygians.  Aryan  names 
are  mentioned  in  the  dim  chronicles  of  the  Meso- 
potamian  empires  about  1700  B.  C.  among  the 
Kassites  and  later,  Mitanni.  Aryan  names  of 
prisoners  captured  beyond  the  mountains  in  the 
north  and  of  Aryan  deities  before  whom  oaths 
were  taken  are  recorded  about  1400  B.  C.  but  one 
of  the  first  definite  accounts  of  Nordics  south  of  the 
Caucasus  describes  the  presence  of  Nordic  Persians 
at  Lake  Urmia  about  900  B.  C.  There  were  many 
incursions  from  that  time  on,  the  Cimmerians  raid- 



ing  across  the  Caucasus  as  early  as  650  B.  C.  and 
shortly  afterward  overrunning  all  Asia  Minor. 

The  easterly  extension  of  the  Russian  steppes  or 
Kiptchak  north  of  the  Caspian-Aral  Sea  in  Turke- 
stan as  far  as  the  foothills  of  the  Pamirs  was  oc- 
cupied by  the  Sacae  or  Massagetae,  who  were  also 
Nordics  and  akin  to  the  Cimmerians  and  Persians, 
as  were,  perhaps,  the  Ephtalites  or  White  Huns  in 
Sogdiana  north  of  Persia,  destroyed  by  the  Turks 
in  the  sixth  century. 

For  several  centuries  groups  of  Nordics  drifted 
as  nomad  shepherds  across  the  Caucasus  into  the 
empire  of  the  Medes,  introducing  little  by  little 
the  Aryan  tongue  which  later  developed  into  Old 
Persian.  By  550  B.  C.  these  Persians  had  become 
sufficiently  numerous  to  overthrow  their  rulers  and 
under  the  leadership  of  the  great  Cyrus  they  organ- 
ized the  Persian  Empire,  one  of  the  most  enduring  of 
Oriental  states.  The  base  of  the  population  of  the 
Persian  Empire  rested  on  the  round  skulled  Medes 
who  belonged  to  the  Armenoid  subdivision  of  the 
Alpines.  Under  the  leadership  of  their  priestly 
caste  of  Magi  these  Medes  rebelled  again  and  again 
against  their  Nordic  masters  before  the  two  peoples 
became  fused. 

From  525  to  485  B.  C.  during  the  reign  of 
Darius,  whose  sculptured  portraits  show  a  man  of 
pure  Nordic  type,  the  tall,  blond  Persians  had  be- 
come almost  exclusively  a  class  of  great  ruling 


nobles  and  had  forgotten  the  simplicity  of  their 
shepherd  ancestors.  Their  language  belonged  to 
the  Eastern  or  Iranian  division  of  Aryan  speech 
and  was  known  as  Old  Persian,  which  continued 
to  be  spoken  until  the  fourth  century  before  the 
Christian  era.  From  it  were  derived  Pehlevi,  or 
Parthian  as  well  as  modern  Persian.  The  great 
book  of  the  old  Persians,  the  Avesta,  which  was 
written  in  Zendic,  also  an  Iranian  language,  does 
not  go  back  to  the  reign  of  Darius  and  was  re- 
modelled after  the  Christian  era,  but  the  Old  Per- 
sian of  Darius  was  closely  related  to  the  Zendic  of 
Bactria  and  to  the  Sanskrit  of  Hindustan.  From 
Zendic,  also  called  Medic,  are  derived  Ghalcha, 
Balochi,  Kurdish  and  other  dialects. 

The  rise  to  imperial  power  of  the  dolichocephalic 
Aryan-speaking  Persians  was  largely  due  to  the 
genius  of  their  leaders  but  the  Aryanization  of 
western  Asia  by  them  is  one  of  the  most  amazing 
events  in  history.  The  whole  region  became  com- 
pletely transformed  so  far  as  the  acceptance  by  the 
conquered  of  the  language  and  religion  of  the  Per- 
sians was  concerned,  but  the  blood  of  the  Nordic 
race  quickly  became  diluted  and  a  few  centuries 
later  disappears  from  history. 

During  the  great  wars  with  Greece  the  pure 
Persian  blood  was  still  unimpaired  and  in  con- 
trol. In  the  literature  of  the  time  there  is  little 
evidence,  of  race  antagonism  between  the  Greek 


and  the  Persian  leaders  although  their  rival  cul- 
tures were  sharply  contrasted.  In  the  time  of 
Alexander  the  Great  the  pure  Persian  blood  was 
obviously  confined  to  the  nobles  and  it  was  the 
policy  of  Alexander  to  Hellenize  the  Persians  and 
to  amalgamate  his  Greeks  with  them.  The  amount 
of  pure  Macedonian  blood  was  not  sufficient  to 
reinforce  the  Nordic  strain  of  the  Persians  and 
the  net  result  was  the  entire  loss  of  the  Greek 

It  is  a  question  whether  the  Armenians  of  Asia 
Minor  derived  their  Aryan  speech  from  this  inva- 
sion of  the  Nordic  Persians,  or  whether  they  received 
it  at  an  earlier  date  from  the  Phrygians  and  from 
the  west.  These  Phrygians  entered  Asia  Minor 
by  way  of  the  Dardanelles  and  broke  up  the  Hit- 
tite  Empire.  Their  language  was  Aryan  and  prob- 
ably was  related  to  Thracian.  In  favor  of  the 
theory  of  the  introduction  of  the  Armenian  lan- 
guage by  the  Phrygians  from  the  west,  rather 
than  by  the  Persians  from  the  east,  is  the  highly 
significant  fact  that  the  basic  structure  of  that 
tongue  shows  its  relationship  to  be  with  the  west- 
ern or  Centum  rather  than  with  the  eastern  or 
Satem  group  of  Aryan  languages  and  this,  too,  in 
spite  of  a  very  large  Persian  vocabulary. 

The  Armenians  themselves,  like  all  the  other 
natives  of  the  plateaux  and  highlands  as  far  east 
as  the  Hindu  Kush  Mountains,  while  of  Aryan 


speech,  are  of  the  Armenoid  subdivision,  in  sharp 
contrast  to  the  predominant  types  south  of  the 
mountains  in  Persia,  Afghanistan  and  Hindustan, 
all  of  which  are  dolichocephalic  and  of  Mediter- 
ranean affinity  but  generally  betraying  traces  of 
admixture  with  still  more  ancient  races  of  Negroid 
origin,  especially  in  India. 

We  now  come  to  the  last  and  easternmost  exten- 
sion of  Aryan  languages  in  Asia.  As  mentioned 
above,  the  grasslands  and  steppes  of  Russia  ex- 
tend north  of  the  Caucasus  Mountains  and  the 
Caspian  Sea  to  ancient  Bactria,  now  Turkestan. 
This  whole  country  was  occupied  by  the  Nordic 
Sacae  and  the  closely  related  Massagetae.  These 
Sacae  may  be  identical  with  the  later  Scythians. 

Soon  after  the  opening  of  the  second  millennium 
B.  C.  and  perhaps  even  earlier,  the  first  Nordics 
crossed  over  the  Afghan  passes,  entered  the  plains 
of  India  and  organized  a  state  in  the  Punjab,  "the 
land  of  the  five  rivers,"  bringing  with  them  Aryan 
speech  to  a  population  probably  of  Mediterranean 
type  and  represented  to-day  by  the  Dravidians. 
The  Nordic  Sacae  arrived  later  in  India  and  intro- 
duced the  Vedas,  religious  poems,  which  were  at 
first  transmitted  orally  but  which  were  reduced  to 
written  form  in  Old  Sanskrit  by  the  Brahmans  at 
the  comparatively  late  date  of  300  A.  D.  From 
this  classic  Sanskrit  are  derived  all  the  modern 
Aryan  languages   of   Hindustan,   as  well    as   the 


Singalese  of  Ceylon  and  the  chief  dialects  of 

There  is  great  diversity  among  scholars  as  to  the 
date  of  the  first  entry  of  these  Aryan-speaking 
tribes  into  the  Punjab  but  the  consensus  of  opinion 
seems  to  indicate  a  period  between  1600  and  1700 
B.  C.  or  even  somewhat  earlier.  However,  the  very 
close  affinity  of  Sanskrit  to  the  Old  Persian  of 
Darius  and  to  the  Zenda vesta  would  strongly  indi- 
cate that  the  final  introduction  of  Aryan  languages 
in  the  form  of  Sanskrit  occurred  at  a  much  later 
time.  The  most  recent  tendency  is  to  bring  these 
dates  somewhat  forward. 

If  close  relationship  between  languages  indicates 
correlation  in  time  then  the  entry  of  the  Sacae  into 
India  would  appear  to  have  been  nearly  simultane- 
ous with  the  crossing  of  the  Caucasus  by  the  Nor- 
dic Cimmerians  and  their  Persian  successors. 

The  relationship  between  the  Zendavesta  and 
the  Sanskrit  Vedas  is  as  near  as  that  between  High 
and  Low  German  and  consequently  such  close 
affinity  prevents  our  thrusting  back  the  date  of  the 
separation  of  the  Persians  and  the  Sacae  more  than 
a  few  centuries. 

A  simultaneous  migration  of  nomad  shepherds 
on  both  sides  of  the  Caspian-Aral  Sea  would  nat- 
urally occur  in  a  general  movement  southward 
and  such  migrations  may  have  taken  place  several 
times.     In  all  probability  these  Nordic  invasions 


occurred  one  after  another  for  a  thousand  years  or 
more,  the  later  ones  obscuring  and  blurring  the 
memory  of  their  predecessors. 

When    shepherd    tribes    leave    their   grasslands 
and  attack  their  agricultural  neighbors,  the  reason 
is  nearly  always  a  famine  due  to  prolonged  drought 
and  causes  such  as  these  have  again  and  again  in 
history  put  the  nomad  tribes  in  motion  over  large       , J 
areas.     During  many  centuries  fresh  tribes  com-  / 
posed  of  Nordics  or  under  the  leadership  of  Nor- 
dics   but    all    Aryan-speaking,    poured    over    the 
Afghan  passes  from  the  northwest  and  pushed  be- 
fore them  the  earlier  arrivals.     Clear  traces  of  these/ 
successive  floods  of  conquerors  are  to  be  found  in 
the  Vedas  themselves. 

The  Zendic  form  of  the  Iranian  group  of  Aryan 
languages  was  spoken  by  those  Sacae  who  remained 
in  old  Bactria  and  from  it  is  derived  a  whole  group 
of  closely  related  dialects  still  used  in  the  Pamirs  of 
which  Ghalcha  is  the  best  known. 

The  Sacae  and  Massagetae  were,  like  the  Persians, 
tall,  blond  dolichocephs  and  they  have  left  behind 
them  dim  traces  of  their  blood  among  the  living 
Mongolized  nomads  of  Turkestan,  the  Kirghizes. 
Ancient  Bactria  maintained  its  Nordic  and  Aryan 
aspect  long  after  Alexander's  time  and  did  not  be- 
come Mongolized  and  receive  the  sinister  name  of 
Turkestan  until  the  seventh  century,  when  it  was 
the  first  victim  of  the  series  of  ferocious  invasions 


from  the  north  and  east,  which  under  various 
Mongol  leaders  destroyed  civilization  in  Asia  and 
threatened  its  existence  in  Europe.  These  con- 
quests culminated  in  1241  A.  D.  at  Wahlstatt  in 
Silesia  where  the  Germans,  though  themselves 
badly  defeated,  put  a  final  limit  to  this  westward 
rush  of  Asiatics. 

The  Sacae  were  the  most  easterly  members  of 
the  Nordic  race  of  whom  we  have  definite  record. 
The  Chinese  knew  well  these  "green  eyed  devils,,, 
whom  they  called  by  their  Tatar  name,  the  "Wu- 
suns," — the  tall  ones — and  with  whom  they  came 
into  contact  about  200  B.  C.  in  what  is  now  Chi- 
nese Turkestan.  Other  Nordic  tribes  are  recorded 
in  this  region.  Evidence  is  accumulating  that  cen- 
tral Asia  had  a  large  Nordic  population  in  the 
centuries  preceding  the  Christian  era.  The  discov- 
ery of  the  Aryan  Tokharian  language  in  Chinese 
Turkestan  considered  in  connection  with  other 
facts  indicates  intensive  occupation  by  Nordics  of 
territories  in  central  Asia  now  wholly  Mongol,  just 
as  in  Europe  dark-haired  Alpines  occupy  large  ter- 
ritories where  in  Roman  times  fair  haired  Nordics 
were  preponderant.  In  short  we  find  both  in  Eu- 
rope and  in  western  and  central  Asia  the  same 
record  of  Nordic  decline  during  the  last  two  thou- 
sand years  and  their  replacement  by  races  of  in- 
ferior value  and  civilization. 

This   Tokharian  is  undoubtedly  a  pure   Aryan 


language  related,  curiously  enough,  to  the  western 
group  rather  than  to  the  Indo-Iranian.  It  has 
been  deciphered  from  inscriptions  recently  found 
in  northeast  Turkestan  and  was  a  living  language 
prior  to  the  ninth  century  A.  D. 

Of  all  the  wonderful  conquests  of  the  Sacae  there 
remain  as  evidence  of  their  invasions  only  these 
Indian  and  Afghan  languages.  Dim  traces  of 
their  blood  have  been  found  in  the  Pamirs  and 
in  Afghanistan,  but  in  the  south  their  blond  traits 
have  vanished,  even  from  the  Punjab.  It  may  be 
that  the  stature  of  some  of  the  Afghan  hill  tribes 
and  of  the  Sikhs  and  some  of  the  facial  characters 
of  the  latter  are  derived  from  this  source,  but  all 
blondness  of  skin,  hair  or  eye  of  the  original  Sacae 
has  utterly  vanished. 

The  long  skulls  all  through  India  are  to  be  at- 
tributed to  the  Mediterranean  race  rather  than  to 
this  Nordic  invasion,  while  the  Pre-Dra vidians  and 
Negroids  of  south  India,  with  which  the  former  are 
largely  mixed,  are  also  dolichocephs. 

In  short,  the  introduction  in  Iran  and  India  of 
Aryan  languages,  Iranian,  Ghalchic  and  Sanskrit, 
represents  a  linguistic  and  not  an  ethnic  conquest. 

In  concluding  this  revision  of  the  racial  founda- 
tions upon  which  the  history  of  Europe  has  been 
based  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  point  out  that  the 
actual  results  of  the  spectacular  conquests  and  in- 


vasions  of  history  have  been  far  less  permanent 
than  those  of  the  more  insidious  victories  arising 
from  the  crossing  of  two  diverse  races  and  that  in 
such  mixtures  the  relative  prepotency  of  the  vari- 
ous human  subspecies  in  Europe  appears  to  be  in 
inverse  ratio  to  their  social  value. 

The  continuity  of  physical  traits  and  the  limi- 
tation of  the  effects  of  environment  to  the  indi- 
vidual only  are  now  so  thoroughly  recognized  by 
scientists  that  it  is  at  most  a  question  of  time  when 
the  social  consequences  which  result  from  such 
crossings  will  be  generally  understood  by  the  public 
at  large.  ('As  soon  as  the  true  bearing  and  import 
of  the  facts  are  appreciated  by  lawmakers  a  com- 
plete change  in  our  political  structure  will  inevitably 
occur  and  our  present  reliance  on  the  influence  of 
education  will  be  superseded  by  a  readjustment 
based  on  racial  values.  )> 

Bearing  in  mind  the  extreme  antiquity  of  physi- 
cal and  spiritual  characters  and  the  persistency 
with  which  they  outlive  those  elements  of  environ- 
ment termed  language,  nationality  and  forms  of 
government,  we  must  consider  the  relation  of  these 
facts  to  the  development  of  the  race  in  America. 
We  may  be  certain  that  the  progress  of  evolution 
is  in  full  operation  to-day  under  those  laws  of  na- 
ture which  control  it  and  that  the  only  sure  guide 
to  the  future  lies  in  the  study  »f  the  operation  of 
these  laws  in  the  past. 


We  Americans  must  realize  that  the  altruistic 
ideals  which  have  controlled  our  social  develop- 
ment during  the  past  century  and  the  maudlin  sen- 
timentalism  that  has  made  America  "an  asylum 
for  the  oppressed,"  are  sweeping  the  nation  toward 
a  racial  abyss.  If  the  Melting  Pot  is  allowed  to 
boil  without  control  and  we  continue  to  follow  our 
national  motto  and  deliberately  blind  ourselves  to 
all  "distinctions  of  race,  creed  or  color,"  the  type 
of  native  American  of  Colonial  descent  will  be- 
come as  extinct  as  the  Athenian  of  the  age  of  Per- 
icles, and  the  Viking  of  the  days  of  Rollo. 


The  maps  shown  facing  pages  266,  268,  270,  and  272  of 
this  book  attempt  in  broad  and  somewhat  hypothetical  lines 
to  represent  by  means  of  color  diagrams  the  original  distri- 
bution and  the  subsequent  expansion  and  migration  of  the 
three  main  European  races,  the  Mediterranean,  the  Alpine 
and  the  Nordic,  as  outlined  in  this  book. 

The  Maximum  Expansion  of  the  Alpines  with 
Bronze  Culture,  3000-1800  B.  C. 

The  first  map  (PL  I)  shows  the  distribution  of  these  races 
at  the  close  of  the  Neolithic,  as  well  as  their  later  expansion. 
It  also  indicates  the  sites  of  earlier  cultures.  The  distribu- 
tion of  megaliths  in  Asia  Minor  on  the  north  coast  of  Africa 
and  up  the  Atlantic  seaboard  through  Spain,  France  and 
Britain  to  Scandinavia  is  set  forth.  These  great  stone 
monuments  were  seemingly  the  work  of  the  Mediterranean 
race  using,  however,  a  culture  of  bronze  acquired  from  the 
Alpines.  The  map  also  shows  the  sites  throughout  Russia 
of  the  kurgans,  or  ancient  artificial  mounds,  distribution  of 
which  seems  to  correspond  closely  with  the  original  habitat 
of  the  Nordics. 

In  southwestern  France  there  is  indicated  the  area  where 
the  Cro-Magnon  race  persisted  longest  and  where  traces  of  it 
are  still  to  be  found.  The  site  is  shown  of  the  type  station 
of  the  latest  phase  of  the  Paleolithic  known  as  the  Mas 
d'Azil — a  great  cavern  in  the  eastern  Pyrenees  from  which 
that  period  took  its  name  of  Azilian. 

At  the  entrance  of  the  Baltic  Sea  is  also  shown  the  type 
station  of  the  Maglemose  culture  which  flourished  at  the 
close  of  the  Paleolithic  and  was  probably  the  work  of  early 

In  the  centre  of  the  district  occupied  by  the  Alpines  is 
located  Robenhausen,  the  most  characteristic  of  the  Neolithic 



lake  dwelling  stations  and  also  the  Terramara  stations  in 
which  a  culture  transitional  between  the  Neolithic  and  the 
Bronze  existed.  In  the  Tyrol  the  site  is  indicated  of  the 
village  of  Hallstatt,  which  gave  its  name  to  the  first  iron 

The  site  of  La  Tene  at  the  north  end  of  Lake  Neuchatel 
in  Switzerland  is  also  shown.  From  this  village  the  La 
Tene  Iron  Age  takes  its  name. 

The  difficulty  of  depicting  the  shifting  of  races  during 
twelve  centuries  is  not  easily  overcome,  but  the  map  attempts 
to  show  that  at  the  close  of  the  Neolithic  all  the  coast 
lands  of  the  Mediterranean  and  of  the  Atlantic  seaboard  up 
to  Germany  and  including  the  British  Isles  were  populated 
by  the  Mediterranean  race,  in  addition,  of  course,  to  rem- 
nants of  earlier  Neanderthals  and  Cro-Magnons,  who  prob- 
ably, at  that  date,  still  formed  an  appreciable  portion  of 
the  population. 

The  yellow  arrows  indicate  the  route  of  the  migrations  of 
Mediterranean  man,  who  appears  to  have  entered  Europe 
from  the  east  along  the  African  littoral.  But  the  main  in- 
vasions passed  up  through  Spain  and  Gaul  into  the  British 
Isles,  where  from  that  time  to  this  they  have  formed  the 
substratum  of  the  population.  In  the  central  portion  of 
their  range  these  Mediterraneans  were  swamped  by  the 
Alpines,  as  shown  by  the  spreading  green,  while  in  northern 
Gaul  and  Britain  the  Mediterraneans  were  submerged  after- 
ward by  Nordics,  as  appears  on  the  later  maps. 

The  arrows  and  routes  of  migration  shown  on  the  yellow 
area  of  this  map  indicate  changes  which  occurred  during  the 
Neolithic  and  perhaps  earlier,  but  the  pink  and  red  arrows  in 
the  northern  and  southeastern  portions  represent  migrations 
which  were  in  full  swing  and  in  fact  were  steadily  increasing 
during  the  entire  period  involved.  The  next  map  shows 
these  Nordics  bursting  out  of  their  original  homeland  in 
every  direction  and  in  their  turn  conquering  Europe. 

Between  these  two  races,  the  Mediterranean  and  the  Nor- 
dic, there  entered  a  great  intrusion  of  Alpines,  flowing  from 
the  highlands  of  western  Asia  through  Asia  Minor  and  up 
the  valley  of  the  Danube  throughout  central  Europe  and 


thence  expanding  in  every  direction.  Forerunners  of  these 
same  Alpines  were  found  in  western  Europe  as  far  back  as 
the  closing  Azilian  phase  of  the  Paleolithic,  where  they  are 
known  as  the  Furfooz-Grenelle  race  and  are  thus  contem- 
porary in  western  Europe  with  the  earliest  Mediterraneans. 

During  all  the  Neolithic  the  Alpines  occupied  the  moun- 
tainous core  of  Europe,  but  their  great  and  final  expansion 
occurred  at  the  close  of  the  Neolithic  and  the  beginning  of 
the  Bronze  Period,  when  a  new  and  extensive  Alpine  invasion 
from  the  region  of  the  Armenian  highlands  brought  in  the 
Bronze  culture.  This  last  migration  apparently  followed  the 
routes  of  the  earlier  invasions  and,  in  the  extreme  south- 
west, it  even  reached  Spain  in  small  numbers,  where  its 
remnants  can  still  be  found  in  the  Cantabrian  Alps.  The 
Alpines  occupied  all  Savoy  and  central  France,  where  from 
that  day  to  this  they  constitute  the  bulk  of  the  peasant 
population.  They  reached  Brittany  and  to-day  that  pe- 
ninsula is  their  westernmost  outpost.  They  crossed  over  in 
small  numbers  to  Britain  and  some  even  reached  Ireland. 
In  England  they  were  the  men  of  the  Round  Barrows,  but 
nearly  all  trace  of  this  invasion  has  vanished  from  the  liv- 
ing population. 

The  Alpines  also  reached  Holland,  Denmark  and  south- 
western Norway  and  traces  of  their  colonization  in  these 
countries  are  still  found. 

The  author  has  attempted  to  indicate  the  lines  of  this 
Alpine  expansion  by  means  of  the  solid  green  spreading  over 
central  Europe  and  Asia  Minor,  with  outlying  dots  showing 
the  outer  limits  of  the  invasion.  Black  arrows  proceeding 
from  the  east  denote  its  main  lines  and  routes.  Those 
Alpines  who  crossed  the  Caucasus  passed  through  southern 
Russia  and  a  side  wave  of  the  same  migration  passed  down 
the  Syrian  coast  to  Egypt  and  along  the  north  coast  of 
Africa,  entering  Italy  by  way  of  Sicily.  The  last  African 
invasion  left  behind  it  the  Giza  round  skulls  of  Egypt. 
This  final  Alpine  expansion  taught  the  other  races  of  Europe, 
both  Mediterranean  and  Nordic,  the  art  of  metallurgy. 

The  Nordics  apparently  originated  in  southern  Russia, 
but  long  before  the  Bronze  Period  they  had  spread  north- 


ward  across  the  Baltic  into  Scandinavia,  where  they  special- 
ized into  the  race  now  known  as  the  Scandinavian  or  Teu- 
tonic. On  the  map  the  continental  Nordics  are  indicated 
by  pink  and  the  Nordics  of  Scandinavia  are  shown  in  red. 
At  the  very  end  of  the  period  covered  by  this  map,  these 
Scandinavian  Nordics  were  beginning  to  return  to  the  con- 
tinent. The  routes  of  these  migrations  and  their  extent  are 
indicated  by  red  arrows  and  circles  respectively. 

To  sum  up,  this  map  shows  the  expansion  from  central 
Asia  of  the  round  skull  Alpines  across  central  Europe,  sub- 
merging, in  the  south  and  west,  the  little,  dark,  long  skulled 
Mediterraneans  of  Neolithic  culture,  while  at  the  same  time 
they  pressed  heavily  upon  the  Nordics  in  the  north  and  intro- 
duced Bronze  culture  among  them. 

This  development  of  the  Alpines  at  the  expense  of  the 
Mediterraneans  had  a  permanent  influence  in  western  Eu- 
rope, but  in  the  north  their  impress  was  of  a  more  temporary 
character.  It  is  probable  that  in  the  first  instance  they 
were  able  to  conquer  the  Nordics  by  reason  of  the  superi- 
ority of  bronze  weapons  to  stone  hatchets.  But  no  sooner 
had  they  imparted  the  knowledge  of  the  manufacture  and 
use  of  metal  weapons  and  tools  to  the  Nordics  than  the  latter 
turned  on  their  conquerors  and  completely  mastered  them, 
as  appears  on  the  next  map. 

The  Expansion  of  the  Pre-Teutonic  Nordics, 
1800-100  B.  C. 

The  second  map  (PI.  II)  of  the  series  shows  the  shatter- 
ing and  submergence  of  the  green  Alpine  area  by  the  pink 
Nordic  area.  It  will  be  noted  that  in  Italy,  Spain,  France 
and  Britain  the  solid  green  and  the  green  dots  have  steadily 
declined  and  in  central  Europe  the  green  has  been  torn 
apart  and  riddled  in  every  direction  by  pink  arrows  and 
pink  dots,  leaving  solid  green  only  in  mountainous  and  in- 
fertile districts.  This  submergence  of  the  Alpines  by  the 
Nordics  was  so  complete  that  their  very  existence  was  for- 
gotten until  in  our  own  day  it  was  discovered  that  the 
central  core  of  Europe  was  inhabited  by  a  short,  stocky, 
round  skulled  race  originally  from  Asa.     To-day  these  Al- 


pines  are  gradually  recovering  their  influence  in  the  world 
by  sheer  weight  of  numbers.  On  this  map  the  green  Alpine 
area  is  shown  to  be  everywhere  shrinking  except  in  the 
countries  around  the  Carpathians  and  the  Dnieper  River, 
where  the  Sarmatians  and  Wends  are  located.  It  was  in 
this  district  that  the  Slavic-speaking  Alpines  were  develop- 
ing. Simultaneously  with  this  expansion  toward  the  west, 
south  and  east  of  the  continental  Nordics,  the  Scandinavian 
or  Teutonic  tribes  appear  on  the  scene  in  increasing  numbers, 
as  shown  by  the  red  area  and  red  arrows,  pressing  upon  and 
forcing  ahead  of  them  their  kinsmen  on  the  mainland. 

The  pink  arrows  in  Spain  show  the  invasion  of  Celtic- 
speaking  Nordics,  closely  related  to  the  Nordic  Gauls  who 
a  little  earlier  had  conquered  France.  This  same  wave  of 
Nordic  invasion  crossed  the  Channel  and  appears  in  the 
pink  dots  of  Britain  and  Ireland,  where  the  intruders  are 
known  as  Goidels.  These  early  Nordics  were  followed 
some  centuries  later  by  another  wave  of  kindred  peoples 
who  were  known  as  Brythons  or  Cymry  in  Britain  and  as 
Belgae  on  the  continent.  These  Cymric  Belgas  or  Brythons 
probably  represented  the  mixed  descendants  of  the  earliest 
Teutons  who  crossed  from  Scandinavia  and  had  adopted 
and  modified  the  Celtic  languages  spoken  by  the  continental 
Nordics.  These  Cymric-speaking  Nordics  drove  before 
them  the  earlier  Gauls  in  France  and  the  Goidels  in  Britain, 
but  their  impulse  westward  was  very  likely  caused  by  the 
oncoming  rush  of  pure  Teutons  from  Scandinavia  and  the 
Baltic  coasts. 

In  Italy  the  pink  arrows  entering  from  the  west  show  the 
route  of  the  invading  Gauls,  who  occupied  the  country  north 
of  the  Apennines  and  made  it  Cisalpine  Gaul,  while  the  ar- 
rows entering  Italy  from  the  northeast  show  the  earlier  in- 
vasions of  the  Nordic  Umbrians  and  Oscans,  who  introduced 
Aryan  speech  into  Italy.  Farther  east  in  Greece  and  the 
Balkans,  the  pink  arrows  show  the  routes  of  invasion  of  the 
Achaeans  and  the  kindred  Phrygians  of  Homer  as  well  as  the 
later  Dorians  and  Cimmerians.  In  the  region  of  the  Cau- 
casus, the  routes  of  the  invading  Persians  are  shown  and, 
north  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  the  line  of  migration  of  the  Sacee 


from  the  grasslands  of  southern  Russia  toward  the  east.  In 
the  inset  map  in  the  upper  right  corner  is  shown  the  expan- 
sion of  these  Nordics  into  Asia,  where  the  Sacae  and  closely 
related  Massagetae  occupied  what  is  now  Turkestan  and 
from  this  centre  swarmed  over  the  mountains  of  Afghanis- 
tan into  India  and  introduced  Aryan  speech  among  the 
swarming  millions  of  that  peninsula. 

In  the  northern  part  of  the  main  map  the  expansion  of  the 
Teutonic  Nordics  is  shown,  with  the  Goths  in  the  east  and 
Saxons  in  the  west  of  the  red  area,  but  the  salient  feature  is 
the  expansion  of  the  pink  at  the  expense  of  the  green  and 
the  ominous  growth  of  the  red  area  centring  around  Scan- 
dinavia in  the  north. 

The  Expansion  of  the  Teutonic  Nordics  and  Slavic 
Alpines,  100  B.  C.  to  1100  A.  D. 

This  map  (PL  III)  shows  the  yellow  area  greatly  diminished 
in  central  and  northern  Europe,  while  it  retains  its  suprem- 
acy in  Spain  and  Italy  as  well  as  on  the  north  coast  of 
Africa.  In  the  latter  areas  the  green  dots  have  nearly  van- 
ished and  have  been  replaced  by  pink  and  red  dots.  In  cen- 
tral Europe  the  green  area  is  still  more  broken  up  and  re- 
duced to  a  minimum.  In  the  Balkans  and  eastern  Europe, 
however,  two  large  centres  of  green,  north  and  south  of  the 
Danube  respectively,  represent  the  expanding  power  of  the 
Slavic-speaking  Alpines.  The  pink  area  of  the  continental 
Nordics  is  everywhere  fading  and  is  on  the  point  of  vanish- 
ing "as  a  distinctive  type  and  of  merging  in  the  red.  The 
expansion  of  the  Teutonic  Nordics  from  Scandinavia  and 
from  the  north  of  Germany  is  now  at  its  maximum  and 
they  are  everywhere  pressing  through  the  Empire  of  Rome 
and  laying  the  foundations  of  the  modern  nations  of  Europe. 
The  Vandals  have  migrated  from  the  coasts  of  the  Baltic  to 
what  is  now  Hungary,  then  westward  into  France  and 
finally,  after  occupying  for  a  while  southern  Spain,  under 
pressure  of  the  kindred  Visigoths  to  northern  Africa,  where 
they  established  a  kingdom  which  is  the  sole  example  we 
have  of  a  Teutonic  state  on  that  continent.  The  Visigoths 
and  Suevi  laid  the  foundations  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  while 


the  Franks,  Burgundians  and  Normans  transformed  Gaul 
into  France. 

Into  Italy  for  a  thousand  years  floods  of  Nordic  Teutons 
crossed  the  Alps  and  settled  along  the  Po  Valley.  While 
many  tribes  participated  in  these  invasions,  the  most  im- 
portant migration  was  that  of  the  Lombards,  who,  coming 
from  the  basin  of  the  Baltic  by  way  of  the  Danubian  plains, 
occupied  the  Po  Valley  in  force  and  scattered  a  Teutonic 
nobility  throughout  the  peninsula.  The  Lombard  and 
kindred  strains  in  the  north  give  to  that  portion  of  the 
peninsula  its  present  predominance  over  the  provinces  south 
of  the  Apennines. 

The  conquest  of  the  British  Isles  by  the  Teutonic  and  Scan- 
dinavian Nordics  was  far  more  complete  than  was  their  con- 
quest of  Spain,  Italy  or  even  northern  France.  When  these 
Teutons  arrived  upon  the  scene,  the  ancient,  dark  Neolithics 
had  very  largely  absorbed  the  early  Nordic  invaders,  Goidels 
and  Cymry  alike.  Floods  of  Saxons,  of  Angles  and  later  of 
Danes,  crossed  the  Channel  and  the  North  Sea  and  displaced 
the  old  population  in  Scotland  and  the  eastern  half  of  Eng- 
land, while  Norse  Vikings  following  in  their  wake  occupied 
nearly  all  of  the  outlying  islands  and  much  of  the  coast. 
Both  these  later  invasions,  Danish  and  Norse,  passed  around 
the  greater  island  and  inundated  Ireland,  so  that  the  big, 
blond  or  red-haired  Irishman  of  to-day  is  to  a  large  extent  a 
Dane  in  a  state  of  culture  analogous  to  that  of  Scotland 
before  the  Reformation. 

This  map  shows  that  the  vitality  of  Scandinavia  was  far 
from  exhausted  after  sending  for  upward  of  two  thousand 
years  tribe  after  tribe  across  to  the  continent  and  that  it 
was  now  producing  an  extraordinarily  vigorous  type,  the 
Vikings  in  the  west  and  the  equally  warlike  and  energetic 
Varangians  in  the  east,  who  migrated  back  to  the  mother- 
land of  the  Nordics  and  laid  the  foundations  of  modern 

While  all  these  splendid  conquests  were  in  full  swing  a 
little  known  group  of  tribes  was  growing  and  spreading  in 
eastern  and  southern  Germany  and  in  Austria-Hungary 
and  occupying  the  lands  left  vacant  by  the  Teutonic  nations, 


which  had  invaded  the  Roman  Empire.  From  this  centre 
in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Carpathians  and  in  Galicia  east- 
ward to  the  head  of  the  Dnieper  River,  the  Wends  and  Sarma- 
tians  expanded  in  all  directions.  They  were  the  ancestors 
of  those  Alpines  who  are  to-day  Slavic-speaking.  From  this 
obscure  beginning  came  the  bulk  of  the  Russians  and  the 
South  Slavs.  The  expansion  of  the  Slavs  is  one  of  the  most 
significant  features  of  the  Dark  Ages  and  the  author  has 
attempted  to  indicate  the  centre  of  expansion  of  these 
tribes  by  green  dots  and  green  arrows,  radiating  in  all  direc- 
tions from  the  solid  green  area  in  Europe.  To  sum  up  this 
map,  the  yellow  area  has  steadily  declined  everywhere, 
while  in  western  Europe  the  green  area  is  now  limited  to 
the  infertile  and  backward  mountain  regions.  In  eastern 
Europe,  however,  this  same  green  Alpine  area  is  showing  a 
marvellous  capacity  for  recovery,  as  will  appear  from  the 
map  of  the  races  of  to-day. 

The  red  area  is  widely  spread  and  occupies  the  river  val- 
leys and  the  fertile  lands  and  represents  everywhere  the  rul- 
ing, military  aristocracy  more  or  less  thinly  scattered  over 
a  conquered  peasantry  of  Mediterranean  and  Alpine  blood. 
One  phenomenon  of  dire  import  is  shown  on  the  map,  where, 
coming  from  the  districts  north  and  east  of  the  Caspian  Sea, 
certain  black  arrows  are  seen  shooting  westward  into  Europe, 
reaching  in  one  extreme  instance  as  far  as  Chalons  in  France, 
where  Attila  nearly  succeeded  in  destroying  what  remained 
of  western  civilization.  These  arrows  mark  respectively 
Huns,  Cumans,  Avars,  Magyars,  Bulgars  and  other  Asiatic 
hordes,  probably  for  the  most  part  of  Mongoloid  origin  and 
coming  originally  from  central  Asia  far  beyond  the  range 
of  Aryan  speech.  These  hordes  of  Mongoloids  destroyed 
the  budding  culture  of  Russia,  while  at  a  later  date  kindred 
tribes  under  the  name  of  Turks  or  Tatars  flooded  the  Balkans 
and  the  valley  of  the  Danube  but  these  later  invasions  en- 
tered Europe  from  Asia  Minor. 

The  Present  Distribution  of  European  Races 

The  preparation  of  the  last  map  (PI.  IV),  showing  the 
present  distribution  of  European  races,  was  in  some  respects 


a  more  intricate  task  than  that  of  the  earlier  maps.  The 
main  difficulty  is  that,  as  a  result  of  successive  migrations 
and  expansions,  the  different  races  of  Europe  are  now  often 
represented  by  distinct  classes.  Numerically  one  type  may 
be  in  a  majority,  as  are  the  Rumanians  in  eastern  Hungary, 
where  they  constitute  nearly  two-thirds  of  the  population. 
At  the  same  time  this  majority  is  of  no  intellectual  or  social 
importance,  since  all  the  professional  and  military  classes  in 
Transylvania  are  either  Magyar  or  Saxon.  Under  the  exist- 
ing scheme  of  showing  majorities  by  color  these  ruling  mi- 
norities do  not  appear  at  all.  In  this  last  map  the  yellow  is 
beginning  to  expand,  especially  in  the  British  Isles.  The 
green  also  is  recovering  somewhat  in  central  and  western 
Europe,  but  in  the  Balkans,  eastern  Germany,  Austria 
and  above  all  in  Poland  and  Russia,  it  has  largely  replaced 
the  former  Nordic  color.  The  pink,  i.  e.,  the  continental 
Nordics  as  a  distinct  type,  has  entirely  vanished  and  has 
been  everywhere  replaced  by  the  Teutonic  red.  This  does 
not  mean  that  there  are  no  existing  remnants  of  the  con- 
tinental Nordics,  but  it  does  mean  that  these  remnants  can- 
not now  be  distinguished  from  the  all-pervading  and  master- 
ful type  of  the  Teutonic  Nordics. 

In  general,  this  last  map,  as  compared  with  the  earlier  ones, 
although  showing  a  steady  shrinkage  of  the  Nordic  area, 
brings  out  clearly  the  manner  in  which  it  centres  around  the 
basins  of  the  Baltic  and  the  North  Sea,  radiating  thence  in 
every  direction  and  in  decreasing  numbers.  The  menace 
of  the  continued  expansion  of  the  green  area  westward  and 
northward  into  the  red  area  of  the  Nordics  is  undoubtedly 
one  of  the  causes  of  the  present  world  war.  This  expansion 
began  as  far  back  as  the  fall  of  Rome,  but  only  in  our  day  and 
generation  has  this  backward  race  even  claimed  a  parity  of 
strength  and  culture  with  the  Master  Race. 


The  purpose  of  these  notes  is  to  meet  an  insistent  demand 
for  authorities  for  the  statements  made  in  the  body  of  the 
book.  As  was  mentioned  in  the  Introduction,  in  a  work  of 
this  compass  and  aim,  mere  lack  of  space  forbade  all  but 
the  barest  outlines,  so  that  often  an  appearance  of  dogma- 
tism was  the  result. 

There  is  a  vast  literature  on  the  subjects  discussed  and 
to  give  all  the  references  would  be  almost  a  physical  impos- 
sibility. It  is  particularly  difficult  to  name  all  that  has  ap- 
peared in  periodicals,  since  they  have  become  so  numerous, 
especially  during  the  last  few  years. 

The  author  has  in  mind  to  refer  only  to  those  works  which 
bear  directly  on  the  most  essential  statements  made  and, 
necessarily,  to  but  a  part  of  these.  In  many  cases  only  books 
which  are  most  easily  available  have  been  used.  The  author 
has  intentionally  quoted  chiefly  works  in  English,  where 
these  exist,  and  when  using  foreign  authorities  has  trans- 
lated the  statements. 

It  must  be  clearly  understood  that  the  references  are  given 
for  the  facts  rather  than  the  theories  they  contain.  In  no 
case,  unless  specifically  stated,  is  the  author  committed  to 
the  conclusions  drawn  in  the  works  cited.  In  order  to  pre- 
sent all  sides,  authorities  who  differ  in  view-point  are  some- 
times listed,  the  reader  being  left  to  make  his  own  decision 
of  the  case. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  references  will  be  of  assistance  to  stu- 
dents of  anthropology  and  to  those  who  care  to  inquire 
further  into  the  subjects  under  discussion. 

Where  an  author  is  quoted  frequently  or  for  more  than 
one  book,  he  is  referred  to  merely  by  name;  the  book  is 
given  by  number  immediately  following.  Its  full  title  may 
be  ascertained  in  the  bibliography. 




Page  xix  :  line  22.  Immutability  of  somatological  or 
bodily  characters.  Charles  B.  Davenport,  pp.  225  seq.  and 
252  seq.:  William  E.  Castle,  1,  pp.  125  seq.;  Frederick 
Adams  Woods,  3,  p.  107;  and  Edwin  G.  ConkUn,  1,  pp.  191 
seq.  See  the  note  to  p.  226,  7  for  a  quotation  from  Conklin 
bearing  on  this  point. 

xix  :  23.  Immutability  of  psychical  predispositions  and 
impulses.  See  note  above.  Professor  Irving  Fisher  said, 
on  p.  627  of  National  Vitality,  speaking  of  laws  relating  to 
eugenics:  "What  such  laws  might  accomplish  may  be  judged 
from  the  history  of  two  criminal  families,  the  'Jukes'  and 
the  'Tribe  of  Ishmael.'  Out  of  1,200  descendants  from  the 
founder  of  the  'Jukes'  through  75  years,  310  were  profes- 
sional paupers  ...  50  were  prostitutes,  7  murderers,  60 
habitual  thieves,  and  130  common  criminals."  Certainly 
these  facts  were  not  all  due  entirely  to  identity  or  similarity 
of  environment.  On  p.  675  we  read:  "Similarly,  the  'Tribe 
of  Ishmael,'  numbering  1,692  individuals  in  six  generations, 
has  produced  121  known  prostitutes  and  has  bred  hundreds 
of  petty  thieves,  vagrants  and  murderers.  The  history  of 
the  tribe  is  a  swiftly  moving  picture  of  social  degeneration 
and  gross  parasitism  extending  from  its  seventeenth-century 
convict  ancestry  to  the  present-day  horde  of  wandering  and 
criminal  descendants."  See  R.  L.  Dugdale  and  Oscar  C. 
McCulloch,  pp.  154-159.  For  transmission  of  opposite  ten- 
dencies see  pp.  675-676,  Fisher.  The  Jukes  were  a  family  of 
Dutch  descent,  living  in  an  isolated  valley  in  the  mountains 
of  northern  New  York.    The  Ishmaels  were  a  family  of 



central  Indiana  which  came  from  Maryland  through  Ken- 
tucky. The  Kalikak  family  is  another  striking  instance. 
See  also  Davenport,  1,  and  the  note  to  p.  226:  7. 

xxi  :  5.  Professor  Charles  B.  Davenport  says  in  corre- 
spondence: "By  the  way,  it  was  Judge  John  Lowell  who 
added  'free  and'  to  the  words  of  the  Declaration  in  writing 
the  Constitution  of  Massachusetts  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century." 

xxiii  :  20-25.  A  Statistical  Account  of  the  British  Empire. 
J.  R.  McCulloch,  vol.  I,  pp.  400  seq. 


4  :  6.  Archbishop  Ussher,  1581-1656.  See  the  New  Schaff- 
Herzog  Religious  Encyclopedia;  also  other  religious  encyclo- 
pedias.   Taylor,  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  p.  8. 

5  :  15.     See  fimile  Faguet,  Le  Culte  de  V Incompetence. 

6  : 3.  Cf.  The  Loyalists  of  Massachusetts,  by  James  H. 

9:7.  A  good  description  of  conditions  is  to  be  found 
in  Bryce's  The  Remarkable  History  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany, p.  73,  all  of  chapter  XLII  and  elsewhere. 

10  : 3  seq.  Charles  B.  Davenport,  passim,  has  discussed 
migratory  instincts,  see  especially  1. 

10  :  16-17.  These  conditions  are  quaintly  described  in 
what  is  known  as  the  Italian  Relation,  translated  by  Charlotte 
Augusta  Sneyd.  See  especially  pp.  34  and  36.  The  result- 
ing laws  may  be  found  in  Sir  James  Fitzjames  Stephen's  His- 
tory of  the  Criminal  Law  of  England,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  267  seq.; 
Pollard's  Political  History  of  England,  vol.  VI,  pp.  29-30; 
Green's  History  of  the  English  People,  vol.  II,  pp.  20;  and 

11:3.    See  the  note  to  p.  79  :  15. 

11  :  17.    See  Notes  to  p.  218  :  16. 

11  :  20.  For  a  very  interesting  series  of  letters  written 
from  Santo  Domingo  in  1808  concerning  conditions  among 
the  whites  as  the  negro  slaves  were  gaining  the  ascendancy, 
consult  the  anonymous  Secret  History,  or  The  Horrors  of 
Santo  Domingo,  in  a  series  of  letters  written  by  a  lady  at 


Cape  Francois  to  Colonel  Burr  (late  Vice-President  of  the 
United  States),  principally  during  the  command  of  General 
Rochambeau.  Lothrop  Stoddard,  in  his  French  Revolution 
in  San  Domingo,  pp.  25  seq.,  gives  a  vivid  picture  of  these 
times  and  conditions. 

n  :  24.  Immigration  Restriction  and  World  Eugenics, 
Prescott  Hall,  pp.  125-127. 


13  :  7.  See  W.  D.  Matthew,  Climate  and  Evolution;  John 
C.  Merriam,TAe  Beginnings  of  Human  History,  Read  from  the 
Geological  Record:  The  Emergence  of  Man,  especially  pp.  208- 
209  of  the  first  part;  and  Madison  Grant,  The  Origin  and 
Relationships  of  North  American  Mammals,  pp.  5-7. 

13  :  20.  Mendelism.  See  Edwin  G.  Conklin,  1,  chap. 
Ill,  C,  pp.  224  seq.,  or  2,  vol.  X,  no.  2,  pp.  170  seq.  Also 
Punnett's  Mendelism,  or  the  appendix  to  Castle's  Genetics 
and  Eugenics,  which  is  a  translation  of  Mendel's  paper. 
Practically  all  late  writers  on  heredity  give  Mendel's  prin- 

13  :  22-14  :  IO-  For  these  and  other  statements  on  hered- 
ity see  the  writings  of  Charles  B.  Davenport,  Frederic  Adams 
Woods,  G.  Archdall  Reid,  Edwin  G.  Conklin,  Thomas  Hunt 
Morgan,  E.  B.  Wilson,  J.  Arthur  Thomson,  William  E. 
Castle,  and  Henry  Fairfield  Osborn,  2. 

14  :  10  seq.  Blends.  E.  G.  Conklin  remarks  in  corre- 
spondence: "In  so  far  as  races  interbreed,  their  characters 
mingle  but  do  not  blend  or  fuse,  and  come  out  again  in  all 
their  purity  in  descendants."  See  also  the  same  authority, 
1,  pp.  208,  280,  282-287. 

Every  now  and  then  an  observation  is  met  with  which 
corroborates  this  statement.  The  inheritance  from  one  par- 
ent or  the  other  of  the  shape  of  the  skull,  in  a  fairly  pure 
form,  has  been  noted  a  number  of  times. 

Fleure  and  James  in  their  study  of  the  Anthropological 
Types  in  Wales,  p.  39,  make  the  following  observation:  "It 
may  be  said  that  certain  component  features  of  head  form, 
in  many  cases,  seem  to  segregate  more  or  less  in  Mendelian 


fashion,  but  this  is  a  matter  for  further  investigation;  we 
are  on  safer  ground  in  saying  that  the  children  of  parents 
of  different  head  form  very  frequently  show  a  fairly  complete 
resemblance  to  one  or  other  parent,  i.  e.,  that  head  form  is 
frequently  inherited  in  a  fairly  pure  fashion." 

Von  Luschan  found  still  more  striking  evidence  of  this 
in  his  study  of  modern  Greeks,  which  he  describes  in  his 
Early  Inhabitants  of  Western  Asia.  He  has  found  that  the 
children  of  parents  of  different  head  form  inherit  in  quite 
strict  fashion  the  shape  of  skull  of  one  or  the  other  parent, 
and  that  the  population,  instead  of  being  mesaticephalic,  is 
to-day  as  distinctly  divided  into  two  groups,  dolicho-  and 
brachycephalic,  as  in  prehistoric  times,  in  spite  of  the  con- 
stant intermixture  that  has  occurred. 

14  :  18.  See  notes  to  p.  13.  This  is  a  statement  made 
by  Dr.  Davenport,  in  correspondence. 

15  :  17.  On  the  Neanderthal  and  Cro-Magnon  types  con- 
sult Professor  Arthur  Keith,  1,  pp.  101-1 20,  and  2 ;  also  Henry 
Fairfield  Osborn,  1,  the  table  on  p.  23,  pp.  214  seq.,  289  seq., 
291-305  and  elsewhere,  and  the  authorities  given. 

On  the  resurgence  of  types,  see  Beddoe,  4;  Fleure  and 
James;  Giuffrida-Ruggeri;  Parsons;  and  numerous  other  re- 
cent anthropologists. 

15  :  25.  See  the  notes  to  p.  xix  of  the  Introduction  to 
this  book,  and  Keith,  2. 

15  :  29  seq.  Professor  G.  Elliot  Smith,  The  Ancient  Egyp- 
tians, chap.  IV,  and  pp.  41  seq.  On  p.  43  we  read:  "If  we 
want  to  add  to  such  sources  of  information  and  complete 
the  picture  of  the  early  Egyptian  ...  he  can  be  found  re- 
incarnated in  his  modern  descendants  with  surprisingly  little 
change,  either  in  physical  characteristics  or  mode  of  life,  to 
show  for  the  passage  of  six  thousand  years."  On  p.  44: 
"Although  alien  elements  from  north  and  south  have  been 
coming  into  Upper  Egypt  for  fifty  centuries,  it  has  been  a 
process  of  percolation,  and  not  an  overwhelming  rush;  the 
population  has  been  able  to  assimilate  the  alien  minority 
and  retain  its  own  distinctive  features  and  customs  with  only 
slight  change;  and  however  large  a  proportion  of  the  popula- 
tion has  taken  on  hybrid  traits  resulting  from  Negro,  Arab, 


or  Armenoid  admixture,  there  still  remain  in  the  Thebaid 
large  numbers  of  its  people  who  present  features  and  bodily 
conformation  precisely  similar  to  those  of  their  remote  an- 
cestors, the  Proto-Egyptians."  See  also  G.  Sergi,  1,  p.  65, 
and  4,  p.  200. 

17:5.  See  Franz  Boas,  Changes  in  the  Bodily  Form  of  the 
Descendants  of  Immigrants,  pp.  9,  27,  etc. 

17  :  28-18  :  7.    See  the  notes  to  p.  13. 

18  :  13.  See  notes  to  p.  14.  Also  Ripley,  pp.  465-466  for 
a  statement  as  to  brunetness. 

18  :  24-19  :  2.  E.  G.  Conklin,  1,  pp.  454_455>  and  2,  es- 
pecially vol.  X,  no.  1,  pp.  55-58. 

19  :  3.  Anders  Retzius  was  the  first  to  make  use  of  the 
head  form  in  anthropological  study,  and  to  give  the  impetus 
to  the  index  measurement  system  in  The  Form  of  the  Skulls 
of  the  Northern  Peoples  of  Europe.  See  also  A.  C.  Haddon,  1, 
chap.  I,  in  which  he  discusses  these  traits  in  full,  and  Ripley, 
chap.  Ill,  especially  pp.  55  seq.  Modern  physical  anthro- 
pologists still  agree  that  the  skull  form  is  a  most  stable  and 
reliable  character. 

19  :  25.    Ripley,  p.  39. 

19  :  27-pp.  20  and  21.  Beddoe,  Broca,  Collignon,  Livi, 
Topinard  and  a  host  of  other  anthropologists  all  affirm  the 
existence  of  three  European  racial  types,  which  Ripley  has 
discussed  exhaustively.  Deniker  alone  differs  from  them  in 
classifying  the  populations  of  Europe,  from  the  same  data, 
into  six  principal  races  and  four  or  more  sub-races.  See 
Appendix  D,  in  Ripley's  Races  of  Europe. 

The  three  terms,  Nordic,  Alpine  and  Mediterranean,  have 
now  become  quite  generally  accepted  designations  for  the 
three  European  races.  The  term  Nord,  rather  than  Nordic, 
has  been  chosen,  perhaps  more  wisely,  by  some  authors. 
In  the  present  book  these  names  are  applied  with  quite  dif- 
ferent connotations  from  those  usually  understood. 

It  cannot  be  too  clearly  stated  that  in  speaking  of  Nordics, 
the  proto-type  was  probably  quite  generalized,  with  hair 
shades  including  the  browns  and  reds.  In  the  author's 
opinion  the  blond  Scandinavian  represents  an  extreme  spe- 
cialization of  Nordic  characters.     (See  p.  167  of  this  book.) 


20  :  5-24.  The  term  Nordic  was  first  used  by  Deniker. 
The  authorities  for  the  descriptions  of  these  races  may  all 
be  found  in  Ripley.  The  Mediterranean  race  was  first  de- 
fined by  Sergi,  who  also  calls  it  Eurafrican.  The  term  Al- 
pine, proposed  by  Linnaeus,  was  revived  by  DeLapouge,  and 
later  adopted  by  Ripley,  since  when  it  has  come  into  general 
use.  Sergi  and  Zaborowski  prefer  that  of  Eurasian.  While 
this  latter  name  does  cover  the  requirements,  since  it  correctly 
signifies  not  only  the  European  and  Asiatic  range  of  the  peo- 
ple under  discussion,  but  also  their  actual  relationship  to 
Asiatics,  it  is  objectionable  because  it  implies  the  adoption 
of  the  similarly  constructed  term  Eurafrican,  which,  as  de- 
fined by  Sergi,  is  misleading.  Correct  as  Eurafrican  may  be 
for  signifying  the  European  and  African  range  of  the  Medi- 
terranean race,  it  involves  an  acceptance  of  the  theory  put 
forward  by  its  sponsor,  that  the  Mediterranean  race  orig- 
inated in  Africa  and  is  closely  related  to  the  negro,  both  being 
long-skulled  peoples,  descended  from  a  common  stock,  the 

The  chief  objection  to  the  term  Mediterranean  is  that  the 
race  extends  in  habitat  beyond  the  Mediterranean  region, 
but  the  name  is  now  so  generally  accepted  and  this  fact  so 
well  known  that  misunderstandings  are  unlikely.  The  term 
Alpine,  also,  is  not  as  inappropriate  as  it  might  seem,  since 
the  word  Alps  is  frequently  not  confined  to  the  Swiss  ranges 
but  extended  to  many  other  mountain  chains,  and  Alpine, 
like  the  term  Mediterranean,  is  not,  at  this  late  date,  apt  to 
be  misunderstood. 

20  :  24-21  :  9.  Von  Luschan,  The  Early  Inhabitants  of 
Western  Asia,  pp.  221-244,  and  G.  Elliot  Smith,  The  Ancient 

22  :  10.  Thomson,  Heredity,  p.  387;  Darwin,  Descent  of 
Man;  Boas,  Modern  Populations  of  America,  p.  571. 

22  :  25.    Haddon,  1,  pp.  15  seq. 

22  :  29.    The  same,  pp.  12-14. 

23  :  8.  Clark  Wissler,  in  The  American  Indian,  makes 
clear  the  general  uniformity  of  American  Indian  types  in 
chap.  XVIII.  See  also  Haddon,  1,  p.  8,  and  Hrdlicka,  The 
Genesis  of  the  American  Indian,  pp.  559  seq. 


23  :  13.  Haddon,  1,  pp.  10  and  11.  There  are  numerous 
other  references  to  this  fact,  especially  in  articles  in  various 
anthropological  journals,  and  general  works  on  anthropology, 
such  as  those  of  Deniker,  Collignon,  Martin  and  Ratzel. 

23  :  16.  For  the  differentiation  of  skull  types  in  Europe 
during  the  Paleolithic  period,  see  Keith,  2,  the  chapters  on 
Pre-Neolithic,  Mousterian  and  Neanderthal  man;  and  1, 
pp.  74  seq.;  as  well  as  Osborn,  1,  who  also  gives  the  dates  of 
the  Paleolithic  in  the  table  on  p.  18. 

24  :  3-5.  This  claim  was  put  forth  by  Sergi,  in  his  Medi- 
terranean Race,  pp.  252,  258-259,  and  was  followed  by  Ripley 
in  his  Races  of  Europe. 

24  :  14.    Deniker,  Races  of  Man,  pp.  48-49;  Ripley,  p.  465. 

25  :  5.  Topinard,  1,  4;  Collignon,  1;  and  Virchow,  1,  p. 
325;  Ripley,  p.  64.  Ripley  says:  "If  the  hair  be  light,  one 
can  generally  be  sure  that  the  eyes  will  be  of  a  correspond- 
ing shade.  Bassanovitch,  ...  p.  29,  strikingly  confirms 
this  rule  even  for  so  dark  a  population  as  the  Bulgarian." 

25  :  6.     See  p.  163  of  this  book  on  the  Albanians. 

25  :  8.     Ripley,  pp.  75-76  and  the  footnote  on  p.  76. 

25  :  11.    Deniker,  2,  p.  51.     Also  Davenport,  passim. 

25  :  13.  Sir  Edmund  Loder,  in  correspondence,  February, 
191 7,  asks:  "Has  it  been  noticed  at  Creedmore  and  elsewhese 
in  America  that  nearly  all  noted  shots  have  blue  eyes?  It 
has  been  very  noticeable  at  Wimbledon  and  Bisby,  where  it 
was  quite  exceptional  to  find  a  man  in  the  front  rank  of 
marksmen  with  dark  colored  eyes.  There  was,  however,  one 
man  who  shot  in  my  team  who  had  very  dark  eyes  and  was 
one  of  the  best  shots  of  the  day." 

25  :  16.  There  are  said  to  be  blue  eyes  occasionally  in 
other  races,  where  traces  of  Nordic  blood  cannot  be  discov- 
ered. Green  and  blue  eyes  have  been  found  among  the 
Rendeli  (Desert  Masai),  although  they  are  otherwise  normal 

25  :  19.  The  following  quotation  is  from  Von  Luschan, 
1,  p.  224:  "In  Marmaritza  near  Halikarnassos,  where  a 
British  squadron  had  a  winter  station  for  many  years,  a 
very  great  proportion  of  the  children  is  said  to  be  'flaxen- 
haired.'"    According  to  a  statement  made  to  the  author  by 


Professor  G.  Elliot  Smith  on  May  4,  1920,  a  similar  nest  of 
blondness  is  found  in  the  Egyptian  delta  near  Aboukir  and 
is  due  to  the  fact  that  after  the  battle  of  the  Nile  the  Sea- 
forth  Highlanders  were  long  stationed  there.  At  one  time 
this  blondness  was  supposed  to  bear  some  relation  to  the 
ancient  Lybian  blondness  depicted  on  the  monuments. 

25  :  25  seq.  On  the  Berbers  see  Sergi,  4,  pp.  59  seq.,  and 
Topinard,  3.  In  regard  to  the  Albanians,  Ripley  refers  to 
their  blondness,  on  p.  414,  as  follows:  "The  Albanian  colo- 
nists, studied  by  Livi  and  Zampa  in  Calabria,  still,  after  four 
centuries  of  Italian  residence  and  intermixture,  cling  to  many 
of  their  primitive  characteristics,  notably  their  brachy- 
cephaly  and  their  relative  blondness."  See  also  Zampa,  1, 
and  Deniker,  1,  for  scientific  discussions  of  their  physical 
characters.  Giuffrida-Ruggeri  gives  a  summary  of  the  most 
recent  literature  on  Albania. 

25  :  29-26  :  6.  See  Beddoe,  The  Races  of  Britain,  pp.  14, 
15  and  passim. 

26  :  18.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  147. 

27  : 1  seq.  See  Ripley,  pp.  399-400  for  a  summary  of  ob- 
servations on  this  point.  See  also  Darwin,  Descent  of  Man, 
pp.  340-341  and  344  seq.;  and  Fleure  and  James,  p.  49. 

27  :  14-28  :  19.  Haddon,  1,  p.  2;  also  2;  Deniker,  2,  chap. 
II  and  passim. 

28  :  19.  Davenport,  passim;  Ripley,  passim;  and  any 
general  book  on  anthropology. 

28  :  24-29  :  17.  Ripley,  pp.  80,  81,  84,  108-109, 131,  132, 
252,  271,  307.  Also  see  Davenport  and  Conklin,  passim, 
and  the  notes  to  p.  18  of  this  book. 

30  :  18-31  :  8.  For  a  very  interesting  discussion  of  this 
question  see  Conklin,  2,  vol.  IX,  no.  6,  pp.  492-6;  Deniker, 
2,  p.  18;  Haddon,  2,  chap.  IV;  and  Louis  R.  Sullivan,  The 
Growth  of  the  Nasal  Bridge  in  Children,  are  other  authorities. 
Some  special  studies  of  the  nose  have  been  made  by  Majer 
and  Koperniki,  Weisbach,  and  Olechnowicz,  for  which  see 
Ripley,  pp.  394-395.  Jacobs,  pp.  23-62,  is  particularly  good 
on  nostrility. 

31  :  9.     Deniker,  2,  p.  83. 

31  :  13.    On  the  shape  of  the  foot  as  a  racial  character  see 


Rudolf  Martin,  Lehrbuch  der  Anthropologic,  pp.  317  seq.;  and 
Beddoe,  4,  pp.  245  seq.;  W.  K.  Gregory,  2,  p.  14,  and  John 
C.  Merriam,  vol.  LX,  pp.  202  seq.,  have  both  discussed  the 
evolution  of  the  foot  and  the  hand,  and  the  anatomical  differ- 
ences which  distinguish  those  of  man  from  those  of  the 

31  :  16.  P.  Topinard,  2,  chap.  X,  and  Rudolf  Martin, 
pp.  367  seq. 

32  :  4.  Beard  lighter  than  head  hair.  Darwin,  Descent 
of  Man,  p.  850. 

32  :  8.  The  red-haired  branch  of  the  Nordics.  On  red 
hair  see  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  3, 151-156;  Fleure  and  James,  Anthro- 
pological Types  in  Wales,  pp.  118  seq.;  Ripley,  pp.  205-207, 
based  on  Arbo;  T.  Rice  Holmes,  Ccesar's  Conquest  of  Gaul, 
p.  337;  and  F.  G.  Parsons,  Anthropological  Observations  on 
German  Prisoners  of  War,  pp.  32  seq. 

32  :  21.     See  notes  to  p.  66. 

t,^  :  7.  Haddon,  1,  p.  9  seq.;  Deniker,  Races  of  Man; 
Ratzel,  History  of  Mankind;  etc. 

33  :  13.     Haddon,  1,  p.  16  seq.;  Deniker;  Ratzel;  etc. 

33  :  23-34  :  21.  Haddon,  1,  pp.  2  and  3,  and  Deniker,  2, 
pp.  42  seq.  While  this  classification  is  substantially  sound, 
and  sufficient  for  our  purpose,  recent  investigations  have 
shown  that  other  factors  also  contribute  to  straightness  or 
kinkiness,  such  as  coarseness  of  texture,  as  opposed  to  fine- 
ness. Probably  these  will  be  determined  by  Mr.  Louis  R. 
Sullivan,  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  who 
is  working  on  the  subject.  It  has  been  found  that  the  Japa- 
nese and  Eskimo  are  exceptions  to  the  rule  of  "  straight  hair, 
round  cross-section,"  for  they  show  an  ellipse.  There  is  also 
a  wide  range  of  variation  in  the  cross-sections  of  hair  for  in- 
dividuals of  any  race,  who  are  classified  according  to  the 
preponderance  of  cross-sections  of  a  single  type.  For  a  fine 
series  of  plates  which  are  photographs  of  the  magnified  hair 
of  individuals  of  various  races,  see  Das  Haupthaare  und  seiner 
Bildungsstatte  bei  den  Rassen  des  Menschen,  Gustave  Fritsch. 
Another  recent  paper  is  the  study  by  Leon  Augustus  Haus- 
mann  of  Cornell,  "The  Microscopic  Structure  of  the  Hair 
as  an  Aid  in  Race  Determination." 


35  :  27.  Livi,  Antropometria  Militate,  and  Ripley,  pp. 
115,  255  and  258. 

36.  Deniker,  1 ;  Zampa,  1,  2;  Weisbach,  1,  2,  3;  and  others 
given  by  Ripley,  pp.  411-415- 


37  :  6.  Sir  G.  Archdall  Reid,  The  Principles  of  Heredity, 
chaps.  VII,  VIII,  DC 

37  :  17.     Ripley  discusses  them  in  full  in  chap.  VI. 

37  :  20-38  :  2.  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Early  Man  in  Britain, 
p.  233;  Keane,  Ethnology,  pp.  no  seq.;  Osborn,  Men  of  the 
Old  Stone  Age,  pp.  220,  479-486  seq.;  Keith,  Antiquity  of 
Man,  p.  16. 

38  :  10.  Ellsworth  Huntington,  1,  p.  83;  Charles  E. 
Woodruff,  1,  pp.  85-86;  also  the  Report  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  for  1891,  which  contains  an  article  on  "Isothermal 

38  :  17  seq.    Ellsworth  Huntington,  1,  pp.  86  seq. 

40  :  27.     Ellsworth  Huntington,  1,  pp.  14,  27. 

41  :  25-42.  G.  Retzius,  On  the  So-called  North  European 
Race  of  Mankind,  p.  300;  and  many  other  authorities. 

43  :  23.    Ripley,  pp.  352  seq.  and  470. 

44  :  17.    G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  p.  61;  G.  Sergi,  4. 

44  :  26.    Ripley,  pp.  443  and  582-583. 

45  :  2.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  270. 


47  :  17.  Prescott  F.  Hall,  Immigration  Restriction  and 
World  Eugenics. 

49  :  15-51.  See  the  Eugenics  Record  Office  Bulletins,  10A 
and  10B,  by  Harry  H.  Laughlin,  Cold  Spring  Harbor,  Long 
Island.  Part  I  is  "The  Scope  of  the  Committee's  Work"; 
Part  II,  "The  Legal,  Legislative  and  Administrative  Aspects 
of  Sterilization."  See  also  H.  H.  Hart,  Sterilization  as  a 
Practical  Measure;  and  Raymond  Pearl,  The  Sterilization  of 
Degenerates;  as  well  as  The  Eugenical  News  for  April,  May 
and  August,  1918. 


52  :  17.  Sir  Francis  Gal  ton,  Hereditary  Genius,  pp.  351- 
359;  Darwin,  The  Descent  of  Man,  p.  218. 

53  :  6.     Galton,  Hereditary  Genius,  pp.  345-346. 

55  :  3  sea-  Sir  G.  Archdall  Reid,  2,  p.  182;  The  Handbook 
of  the  American  Indian,  under  Health  and  Disease;  Payne, 
A  History  of  the  New  World  Called  America;  and  elsewhere  in 
early  accounts.  Also,  Paul  Popenoe,  One  Phase  of  Man's 
Modern  Evolution,  p.  618. 


60  :  18.     See  the  note  to  p.  18. 

62  :  2.  Ripley,  passim;  and  the  notes  to  pp.  142  :  23, 
172  :  22,  187  :  23,  188  :  15,  195  :  18,  213  and  247  of  this 

63  :  13.  This  absence  of  round  skulls  was  universally  ac- 
cepted, but  recent  studies  show  an  appreciable  Alpine  ele- 
ment which  is  increasing. 

64  :  2  seq.    See  pp.  201  and  203. 

64  :  18.  Ripley  discusses  the  Slavs  in  full  in  chap.  XIII, 
and  gives  the  original  sources  for  all  of  his  information. 

65  :  1.    Ripley,  pp.  422-428. 

65  :  3.    Von  Luschan,  1;  Ripley,  pp.  406-411. 

65  :  14.    Ripley,  pp.  361  seq. 

66  :  4.  Blumenbach  was  the  first  to  divide  the  races  into 
Caucasian,  Mongolian,  Ethiopian,  American  and  Malayan, 
in  his  De  Generis  Humani  Varietate  Nativa,  in  1775. 

66  :  8-23.  Ossetes.  For  a  full  description  of  these  peo- 
ple see  Zaborowski,  Les  peuples  aryens  d'Asie  et  a" Europe, 
pp.  246-272.  Deniker  likewise  treats  of  them  in  Races  of 
Man,  p.  356.  Minns,  Scythians  and  Greeks,  p.  37,  says: 
"Klaproth  first  proved  in  1822  that  the  Ossetes  are  the  same 
as  the  Caucasian  Alans,  and  this  is  supported  by  the  testi- 
mony of  the  chroniclers,  Russian,  Georgian,  Greek  and 
Arab.  From  Ammianus  Marcellinus  (XXXI,  II,  16-25)  we 
know  that  at  the  time  of  the  Huns'  invasion  these  Alans  pas- 
tured their  herds  over  the  plains  to  the  north  of  the  Cau- 
casus, and  made  raids  upon  the  coast  of  the  Maeotis  and  the 


peninsula  of  Taman.  The  Huns  passed  through  their  land, 
plundering  Ermanrich,  the  king  of  the  Goths.  .  .  .  Ammi- 
anus  means  by  Alans  all  the  nomadic  tribes  about  the  Tanais 
(Don)  and  gives  a  description  of  their  habits,  borrowed  from 
the  account  of  the  Scythians  in  Herodotus.  For  the  first 
three  centuries  of  our  era  we  find  these  Alans  mentioned 
(Pliny,  JV.  H.,  IV,  80;  Dionysius  Perigetes,  305,  306;  Fl. 
Josephus,  Bell.  Jud.,  VII,  VII,  4;  Ptolemy,  etc.),  as  neighbors 
of  the  Sarmatians  on  this  side  or  the  other  of  the  Don,  liv- 
ing the  same  life  and  counting  as  one  of  their  tribes.  That 
is,  that  the  Ossetes,  Jasy,  Alans,  Sarmatians*  are  all  of  one 
stock,  once  nomad,  now  confined  to  the  valleys  of  the  cen- 
tral chain  of  the  Caucasus.  The  Ossetes  are  tall,  well-made, 
and  inclined  to  be  fair,  corresponding  to  the  description  of 
the  Alans  in  Ammianus  (XXXI,  II,  21)  and  their  Iranian 
language  answers  to  the  accounts  of  the  Sarmatians,  of 
whom  Pliny  says  'Medorum  ut  ferunt  soboles'  (N.H.,  VI, 


Chantre  found  among  the  Ossetes  30  per  cent  of  blonds. 
See  Chantre,  2. 

66  :  16.  Alans.  See  Jordanes,  History  of  the  Goths, 
Mierow  translation.  Procopius,  writing  about  550  A.  D., 
says:  "At  this  time  the  Alani  and  the  Absagi  were  Chris- 
tians and  friends  of  the  Romans  of  old  and  lived  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Caucasus."  In  his  vol.  Ill,  chap.  II, 
2-8,  we  read  of  the  period  from  395-425  A.  D.  "There  were 
many  Gothic  nations  in  earlier  times  just  as  also  at  the 
present,  but  the  greatest  and  most  important  of  all  are  the 
Goths,  Vandals,  Visigoths  and  Gepaedes.  In  ancient  times, 
however,  they  were  named  Sauromatae  and  Melanchlaeni, 
and  there  were  some  too  who  called  these  nations  Getic. 
All  these,  while  they  are  distinguished  from  one  another  by 
their  names,  as  has  been  said,  do  not  differ  in  anything  else 
at  all.  For  they  all  have  white  bodies  and  fair  hair  and  are 
tall  and  handsome  to  look  upon,  and  they  use  the  same 
laws,  and  practise  a  common  religion.    For  they  are  all  of 

*The  author  agrees  with  Zaborowski  and  differs  from  Minns  in 
his  belief  that  the  Ossetes  are  of  Nordic  stock  while  the  Sarmatians 
were  Alpines. 


the  Arian  faith  and  have  one  language  called  'Gothic.'" 
(Procopius  thinks  they  all  came  originally  from  one  tribe, 
and  were  distinguished  later  by  the  names  of  those  who  led 
each  group  of  old.  They  dwelt  north  of  the  Danube  and 
later  the  Gepsedes  took  possession  of  the  portion  south  of  the 
river.  In  regard  to  the  derivation  of  the  Goths  and  other 
tribes  from  the  Sauromatae,  compare  the  note  on  Sarmatians, 
for  p.  143  :  ax.)  As  to  the  Goths  in  the  Crimea  see  Zeuss, 
Die  Deutschen,  pp.  432  seq.;  F.  Kluge,  Geschichte  der  gotischen 
Sprache,  pp.  515  seq.  C  rim-go  tisch  existed  as  a  language  in 
southern  Russia  up  to  the  16th  century. 
66  :  23.    Scythians.     See  the  note  to  p.  214  :  10. 

66  :  24.  Indo-European.  The  earliest  known  occurrence 
of  this  term  is  in  an  article  in  The  Quarterly  Review  for  18 13, 
written  by  Doctor  Thomas  Young  (no.  XIX,  p.  225). 

Indo-Germanic.  This  term,  although  said  not  to  have 
been  invented  by  Klaproth,  was  used  by  him  as  early  as 
1823.  See  Leo  Meyer,  in  Uber  den  Ur sprung  der  Namen 
Indo-Germanen,  Semiten  und  Ugro-finner,  Gottingergelehrte 
Nachrichten,  philologisch-historische  Klasse,  1901,  pp.  454  seq. 

67  : 4.  The  idea  of  an  Aryan  race  was  first  promulgated 
by  Oscar  Schrader  in  his  Sprachvergleichung  und  Ur  geschichte. 
That  there  was  an  original  Aryan  tongue  but  no  Aryan  race 
was  the  idea  of  Broca.  P6sche  identified  the  Aryans  with 
the  Reihengraber  type.  Consult  also  Penka,  Herkunft  der 
Arier  and  Origmes  Ariacce. 

67  :  12.  See  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  1-10. 

67  :  15.  See  the  notes  to  p.  70  :  22  seq. 

67  :  19.  See  the  notes  to  p.  242  :  5. 

68  :  11.  See  pp.  192-193  and  elsewhere,  in  this  book. 


69  :  10.  See  T.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  185-199.  The  same 
thing  may  have  happened  in  Britain  at  Caesar's  conquest, 
and  still  more  in  the  Saxon  conquest. 

70  :  4  seq.    See  p.  206  :  13  and  note. 

70  :  12-71  :  6.  These  paragraphs  elicited  a  very  inter- 
esting letter  from  a  British  officer  in  Howrah,  Bengal,  India, 


in  October,  1919.  He  says:  "May  I  offer  one  or  two  re- 
marks on  points  of  detail?  On  p.  70  it  is  stated  'The  Hindu 
today  speaks  a  very  ancient  form  of  Aryan  language  but 
there  remains  not  one  recognizable  trace  of  the  blood  of  the 
white  conquerors  who  poured  in  through  the  passes  of  the 
Northwest,'  and  again  at  p.  261,  'Of  all  the  wonderful  con- 
quests of  the  Sacae  there  remain  as  evidence  of  their  in- 
vasions only  these  Indian  and  Afghan  languages.  Dim 
traces  of  their  blood,  as  stated  before,  have  been  found  in 
the  Pamirs  and  in  Afghanistan,  but  in  the  South  their  blond 
traits  have  vanished,  even  from  the  Punjab.  It  may  be 
that  the  stature  of  some  of  the  Afghan  hill  tribes  and  of  the 
Sikhs,  and  some  of  the  facial  characters  of  the  latter,  are 
derived  from  this  source,  but  all  blondness  of  skin,  hair  and 
eye  of  the  original  Sacae  have  utterly  vanished.' 

"This  hardly  agrees  with  my  own  observations  during  two 
years'  service  in  the  Punjab  and  Northwest  Frontier  Prov- 
ince. I  should  say  that  among  the  Pathans  living  in  British 
territory  about  Peshawar,  blond  traits, — fair  skin,  the  color 
of  old  ivory,  red  or  brown  hair,  grey,  green,  or  blue  eyes, — are 
as  common  as  really  black  hair  is  in  Scotland;  while  among 
Panjabi  Mussulmans  living  about  Jhelum  these  traits  are, 
if  not  common,  at  least  not  extremely  rare.  Judging  from 
the  experience  of  one  squadron  of  cavalry,  I  should  put  the 
proportion  of  men  with  blond  traits  at  not  less  than  one 
per  cent.  The  women,  whom  one  does  not  see,  must  be 
fairer  than  the  men,  as  elsewhere.  I  have  seen  a  small  Pan- 
jabi Mahommedan  girl,  from  about  Dera  Ismail  Khan  with 
yellow  hair.  I  have  also  seen  a  Sikh  with  red  hair,  but  that 
was  certainly  exceptional. 

"These  remarks  are  based  on  what  I  have  seen  myself, 
though  no  statistics  are  kept  and  it  is  possible  that  I  am 
generalizing  from  insufficient  data.  It  would  not,  however, 
I  think,  be  too  much  to  say  that  'Blond  traits  are  not  un- 
common in  Afghanistan,  and  are  even  to  be  found  among 
Mussulmans  in  the  Northwestern  Pan  jab.'  (Afghans  and 
Indian  Mussulmans  of  course  sometimes  dye  their  beards 
red,  but  this  artificial  blondness  has  not  been  confused  with 
the  real  thing.) " 


The  following  quotation  is  from  The  Outlook  for  March 
10,  1920,  which  contains  an  article  entitled  "The  Present 
Situation  in  India,"  by  Major-General  Thomas  D.  Pilcher, 
of  the  British  Army. 

"Beside  these  castes  there  are  tribes,  and  the  Brahmin 
from  the  Punjab  has  very  little  indeed  in  common  with  the 
Brahmin  from  Bengal  or  Madras.  Many  Pathans  and 
Punjabi  Mohammedans  have  blue  eyes  and  are  no  darker 
than  a  southern  European,  whereas  some  of  the  depressed 
tribes  are  as  black  as  Negroes.  Many  of  the  northern  peo- 
ples are  at  least  as  tall  as  men  of  our  own  race,  whereas  other 
tribes  do  not  average  five  feet." 

70  :  16.  Castes.  Deniker,  2,  p.  403 :  "  About  2,000  castes 
may  be  enumerated  at  the  present  day, 'but  year  by  year 
new  ones  are  being  called  into  existence  as  a  certain  number 
disappear."  In  his  footnote  Deniker  says:  "The  so-called 
primitive  division  into  four  castes:  Brahmans  (priests), 
Kshatriya  (soldiers),  Vaisyas  (husbandmen  and  merchants), 
and  Sudra  (common  people,  outcasts,  subject  peoples?), 
mentioned  in  the  later  texts  of  the  Vedas,  is  rather  an  indi- 
cation of  the  division  into  three  principal  classes  of  the  ruling 
race  as  opposed,  in  a  homogeneous  whole,  to  the  conquered 
aboriginal  race  (fourth  caste)."  He  continues:  "The  essen- 
tial characteristics  of  all  castes,  persisting  amid  every  change 
of  form,  are  endogamy  within  themselves  and  the  regulation 
forbidding  them  to  come  into  contact  one  with  another  and 
partake  of  food  together." 

See  also  Zaborowski,  Les  peuples  aryens,  p.  65.  There  is, 
of  course,  an  enormous  number  of  books  which  deal  with  the 
caste  system  of  India. 

71:7.  Sir  G.  Archdall  Reid,  2,  p.  186:  "If  history  teaches 
any  lesson  with  clearness,  it  is  this,  that  conquest,  to  be 
permanent,  must  be  accompanied  with  extermination;  other- 
wise, in  the  fulness  of  time,  the  natives  expel  or  absorb  the 
conquerors.  The  Saxon  conquest  of  England  was  perma- 
nent; of  the  Norman  conquest  there  remains  scarcely  a  trace." 

71  :  24.    See  pp.  217-222  and  notes. 

72  :  4.     See  the  notes  to  p.  141  :  4  seq. 

72  :  19.    Ripley,  pp.  219-220,  says:  "Thf  r*c  question 


in  Germany  came  to  the  front  some  years  ago  under  rather 
peculiar  circumstances.  Shortly  after  the  Franco-Prussian 
War,  De  Quatrefages  promulgated  the  theory  .  .  .  that  the 
dominant  people  in  Germany  were  not  Teutons  at  all,  but 
were  directly  descended  from  the  Finns.  Being  nothing  but 
Finns,  they  were  to  be  classed  with  the  Lapps  and  other 
peoples  of  western  Russia.  .  .  .  Coming  at  a  time  of  pro- 
found national  humiliation  in  France  .  .  .  the  book  created 
a  profound  sensation.  ...  A  champion  of  the  Germans 
was  not  hard  to  find.  Professor  Virchow  of  Berlin  set  him- 
self to  work  to  disprove  the  theory  which  thus  damned  the 
dominant  people  of  the  empire.  The  controversy,  half  politi- 
cal and  half  scientific,  waxed  hot  at  times.  .  .  .  One  great 
benefit  flowed  indirectly  from  it  all,  however.  The  German 
government  was  induced  to  authorize  the  official  census  of 
the  color  of  hair  and  eyes  of  the  six  million  school  children  of 
the  empire.  ...  It  established  beyond  question  the  differ- 
ences in  pigmentation  between  the  North  and  the  South  of 
Germany.  At  the  same  time  it  showed  the  similarity  in 
blondness  between  all  the  peoples  along  the  Baltic.  The 
Hohenzollern  territory  was  as  Teutonic  in  this  respect  as  the 

73  :  6.  Deniker  is  one  of  these.  See  his  Races  of  Man, 
p.  334.  Collignon  is  another.  See  the  Bulletin  de  la  Sociiti 
d' anthropologic,  Paris,  1883,  p.  463;  and  V Anthropologic,  no. 
2,  for  1890. 

73  :  11.  See  Keith,  3,  p.  19;  Beddoe,  4,  p.  39;  and  Ripley, 
section  on  Germany. 

73  :  19.  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  39-40;  Deniker,  2,  p.  339;  Ripley, 
p.  294. 

74  :  12.     See  the  note  to  p.  198  :  22. 


76  :  16.  An  old  edition  of  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica 
states:  "The  pure  white  population  [of  Venezuela]  is  esti- 
mated at  only  one  per  cent  of  the  whole,  the  remainder  of 
the  inhabitants  being  Negroes  (originally  slaves,  now  all  free), 
Indians  and  mixed  races  (Mulattos  and  Zambos)." 



The  nth  edition  of  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  estimates 
the  percentage  of  whites,  the  Creole  element  (whites  of  Eu- 
ropean descent),  at  10  per  cent,  as  in  Colombia,  and  the  mixed 
races  at  70  per  cent,  the  remainder  consisting  of  Africans, 
Indians  and  resident  foreigners. 

76  :  19.  Jamaica.  The  New  International  Encyclopedia, 
1915  edition,  gives  as  follows  figures  which  agree  with  the 
1915  Statesman's  Yearbook: 





















*East  Indians,  17,380;  Chinese,  2,111;  not  stated,  2,905. 

76  :  21.  The  nth  edition  of  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica 
gives  the  entire  population  of  Mexico  as  13,607,259,  of  which 
less  than  one-fifth  (19  per  cent)  were  classed  as  whites,  38 
per  cent  as  Indians,  and  43  per  cent  as  mixed  bloods. 
There  were  57,507  foreign  residents,  including  a  few  Chinese 
and  Filipinos. 

78  :  5.  The  Argentine  Republic.  In  1810  the  population 
was  approximately  250,000;  in  1895,  3,955,110;  in  1914, 
7,885,237.  For  a  total  of  fifty-nine  years  in  which  the  sta- 
tistics have  been  kept,  the  number  of  immigrants  from  Mon- 
tevideo is  4,711,013.  They  were  divided  by  nationality  as 

Italians 2,259,933 

Spaniards 1,492,848 

French 225,049 

English . 







Other  nationalities. 










For  added  information  on  the  Argentine,  see  the  Statistical 
Book  of  the  Argentine  Republic,  191 5;  Argentine  Geography, 
published  by  Urien  &  Colombo;  and  Juan  Alsina's  European 
Immigration  to  the  Argentine. 

78  :  22.  Philippines.  The  following  figures  were  taken 
from  the  New  International  Encyclopedia  and  the  Statesman's 
Yearbook  for  1915.  The  size  of  the  population  was  estab- 
lished in  June,  1914. 

Total  population 8,650,937 

Native  born 6,931,548  or  99.2% 

Chinese 41.035  or    0.6% 

Americans  and  Europeans. . .        20,000  or    0.3% 

The  natives  are  mostly  of  the  Malayan  race  with  the  excep- 
tion of  25,000  Negrito  tribesmen. 

78  :  24.  Dutch  East  Indies.  The  figures  are  taken  from 
the  census  of  1905. 

Total  population  is  approximately 38,000,000 

Europeans 80,910 

Chinese 563,000 

Arabs 29,000 

Other  Orientals 23,000 

78  :  25.  British  India.  The  figures  are  from  the  census 
of  1911: 

Total  population 315,156,396 

(Of  these  650,502  were  not  born  in  India.) 

The  remainder  are  divided  according  to  the  languages 


East  Asiatics 4,410,000 

Tibeto-Chinese 12,970,000 

Dravidian 62,720,000 

Aryan 232,820,000 

European 320,000 

81  :  5.  See  Francis  Parkman,  The  Old  Rtgime  in  Canada, 
vol.  II,  pp.  12  and  13. 

82  :  10.  See  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  The  Negro  in  the  New 
World,  p.  343. 


83  :  8.  See  the  Genealogical  Records  of  the  Society  of  the 
Colonial  Wars. 

84  :  6.    See  the  notes  to  p.  38. 

84  :  11  seq.  A  letter  from  Abraham  C.  Strite.  a  lawyer  of 
Hagerstown,  Maryland,  contains  additional  information  on 
the  so-called  Pennsylvania  Dutch.  Mr.  Strite  says:  "They 
are  not  Palatine  Germans,  but  largely  Swiss  who  speak  a 
dialect  of  German.  The  writer  happens  to  be  of  this  stock. 
Its  characteristics  are  round  head,  black  hair,  dark  brown 
eyes,  stocky  stature,  brunet  type,  all  clearly  indicating,  ac- 
cording to  your  analysis,  an  Alpine  origin.  This  description 
fairly  well  averages  up  the  prevailing  Pennsylvania  Dutch 
type  of  this  section  although  there  are  some  red  heads  and 
some  blonds  which  would  indicate  a  Nordic  admixture, 
again  meeting  your  argument.  There  are  many  other  varie- 
ties of  Teutons  in  this  section,  but  I  am  confining  my  remarks 
to  the  class  known  as  the  Pennsylvania  Dutch.  I  have  never 
made  any  head  measurements  among  them  but  I  am  of  the 
opinion  that  the  round-headed  type  vastly  predominates. 
The  ancestors  of  these  people  emigrated  from  southern  Eu- 
rope, mostly  Switzerland,  in  quite  some  numbers  between  the 
years  1700  and  1775,  and  settled  in  Lancaster  County,  Pa.; 
from  thence  they  have  spread  out  over  the  adjoining  sec- 
tions of  Pennsylvania,  down  through  the  Cumberland  valley 
and  into  the  valley  of  Virginia,  and  today  they  form  an 
important  element  of  the  population.  They  are  the  organ- 
izers in  America  of  the  religious  sect  known  as  the  Mennon- 

"The  early  settlers  of  Germantown  who  were  Mennonites, 
were  of  Palatine  stock.  Of  this  there  can  be  no  doubt. 
Later  immigration  to  Lancaster  County,  Pennsylvania,  which 
constituted  the  bulk  of  the  Pennsylvania  Dutch  stock  will  be 
found,  I  think,  largely  to  have  come  from  Switzerland,  al- 
though not  exclusively.  Rupp's  30,000  Names  of  Immigrants 
to  America  gives  the  names,  dates  and  sailings  of  this  Men- 
nonite  stock.  Your  conclusions  are  correct  enough  for  all 
practical  purposes  but  it  seemed  to  me  that  the  immigrants 
from  Switzerland  and  from  the  Palatinate  might  be  dis- 


Doctor  C.  P.  Noble,  of  Radnor,  Pa.,  writes  concerning  the 
Pennsylvania  Dutch:  "I  have  seen  much  of  them  as  patients 
and  as  I  have  observed  them  they  have  the  medium  stature 
and  stocky  build  of  the  Alpines,  also  they  have,  usually, 
broad,  round  faces  which  are  associated  with  brachycephaly 
and  certainly  they  have  always  exhibited  peasant  traits. 
Moreover,  it  is  unusual  to  find  a  blond  among  them." 

Doctor  Jordan,  of  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society, 
furnished  Doctor  Noble  with  some  data  concerning  them. 
That  there  were  some  Alpine  elements  among  them  will  ap- 
pear from  what  follows.  Doctor  Jordan  agreed  that  the 
present-day  Pennsylvania  Germans  are  almost  exclusively 
brunet,  with  stocky  bodies  of  moderate  height.  Existing 
portraits  of  various  leaders  among  them  when  they  arrived 
in  Pennsylvania  showed  the  same  types.  Furthermore, 
Doctor  Jordan's  extensive  reading  of  early  documents  re- 
lating to  them  tends  to  confirm  the  belief  that  the  present- 
day  descendants  represent  the  original  types.  Tall  blonds 
are  very  rare  among  them. 

Doctor  Noble  knows  some  individuals  with  Nordic  traits, 
but  these  were  acquired  by  intermarriage  with  Anglo-Saxons. 
Most  of  these  groups  came  from  southern  Germany,  from 
Silesia  on  the  east  to  the  Palatinate  on  the  west. 

The  following  are  Doctor  Jordan's  notes: 

Moravians.  They  were  located  in  Pennsylvania,  at  first 
in  Bethlehem  and  later  in  Nazareth.  The  land  in  Nazareth 
was  purchased  of  Whitfield,  the  predestinarian  Methodist. 

The  Moravian  immigration  was  carefully  supervised.  The 
church  either  owned  or  chartered  the  vessels  which  brought 
over  the  immigrants.  Frequently  it  was  definitely  arranged 
as  to  how  many  artisans  of  each  trade  should  come  over  so 
that  they  would  prosper  on  arrival. 

The  Moravian  immigration  was  small — about  500  up  to 
1750.  Until  about  1840  the  Moravian  settlements  were 
closed  towns — no  non-Moravians  could  buy  property. 

Not  one  quarter  of  the  present  Moravians  are  descendants 
of  the  early  settlers.  The  rest  are  converts  or  descendants 
of  converts.  A  connection  exists  between  the  Moravians, 
Huss  and  his  Protestant  followers,  and  the  Waldenses.    A 


short  resume  of  this  will  be  found  in  the  Encyclopaedia  Britan- 
nica — under  Huss  and  Moravians — from  the  world  stand- 

Moravians  migrated  from  Bohemia  to  Saxony  and  were 
protected  by  Count  Zinzendorf — a  liberal  Lutheran — and 
lived  on  his  estates.  He  assisted  in  their  migration  to  Penn- 
sylvania.    Some  went  to  Georgia  and  later  to  Pennsylvania. 

Schwenkfelders.  These  were  the  followers  of  Kaspar 
Schwenkenfeld  (1490-1561).  See  the  Encyclopaedia  Britan- 
nica  for  a  short  account.  They  formed  a  sect  in  Silesia 
which  has  persisted.  In  1720  a  commission  of  Jesuits  was 
sent  to  convert  them  by  force.  Most  of  them  fled  into  Sax- 
ony and  were  protected  by  Count  Zinzendorf.  From  thence 
they  migrated  to  Holland,  England  and  Pennsylvania. 
Frederick  the  Great,  when  he  seized  Silesia,  protected  those 
remaining  there. 

Ursinus  College,  Collegeville,  is  Schwenkfelder.  The  sect 
is  not  large  and  was  located  in  or  around  Montgomery  County. 
Their  migration  to  Saxony  and  also  to  Pennsylvania  ante- 
dated that  of  the  Moravians.  Generally  speaking,  they  have 
been  much  more  aggressive  and  vigorous  than  the  Moravians. 

The  Dunkards,  Mennonites,  Amish,  and  Seventh  Day 
Baptists  (Wissahickon  and  Ephrata,  Pennsylvania),  came 
from  south  Germany  and  the  Palatinate. 

The  Harmony  Society,  small  in  numbers,  the  Lutherans 
and  German  Reformed,  came  largely  from  south  Germany 
and  the  Palatinate,  but  also  from  other  parts  of  Germany. 
The  Lutherans  and  the  Reformed  were  the  large  sects  in 

Germans  from  the  Hudson  valley  migrated  to  Berks  County 
around  Reading.  The  Swedes  in  New  Jersey  were  almost 
exclusively  below  Philadelphia — from  Gloucester  down  the 
Delaware  River.  Before  the  Revolution  there  were  about 
30,000  Germans  in  Pennsylvania,  out  of  a  total  estimated 
population  of  100,000  to  120,000. 

84  :  16.  Scotch-Irish.  See  The  Scotch-Irish  in  America, 
by  Henry  Jones  Ford;  and  also  Sir  George  Trevelyan  on  the 
Irish  Protestants  in  chap.  XI,  vol.  II,  of  George  HI  and 
Charles  Fox. 


87  :  24.  In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  that 
an  early  Egyptian  king  said  almost  the  same  concerning  the 
negroes  of  his  time.  The  quotation  is  taken  from  Hall's 
Ancient  History  oj the  Near  East,  pp.  i6i-i62,andis  a  transla- 
tion of  a  portion  of  the  manifesto  of  Senusert  III,  of  the 
XHth  dynasty,  which  he  caused  to  be  set  up  at  the  time 
of  the  Nubian  wars:  "Vigor  is  valiant,  but  cowardice  is  vile. 
He  is  a  coward  who  is  vanquished  on  his  own  frontier,  since 
the  negro  will  fall  prostrate  at  a  word;  answer  him,  and  he 
retreats;  if  one  is  vigorous,  he  turns  his  back,  retiring  even 
when  on  the  way  to  attack.  Behold,  these  people  have  noth- 
ing terrible  about  them;  they  are  feeble  and  insignificant; 
they  have  buttocks  for  hearts.  I  have  seen  it,  even  I,  the 
majesty;  it  is  no  lie.  .  .  ." 

88  :  9.  Barrett  Wendell,  A  Literary  History  oj  America, 
chap.  III. 

88  :  28.  The  belief  in  the  approximation  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  in  America  to  the  Amerindian  is  wide-spread,  but  is 
entirely  without  justification,  scientific  or  otherwise. 

89  :  1.  Hall,  Immigration  Restriction  and  World  Eugenics, 
and  especially  his  Immigration,  pp.  107-112. 

91  :  1.    Hall,  2. 

94  :  1.  Beddoe,  5,  p.  416.  For  similar  conclusions  see 
DeLapouge,  passim;  G.  Retzius,  3;  and  Roese,  Beitrage  zur 
Europaischen  Rassenkunde.  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  125  and 
1 51-15  2  make  similar  observations. 




97  :  10.    Osborn,  i,  the  tables  on  pp.  18  and  41. 

98  :  15.     Galton,  pp.  309-310;  Woods,  1,  chap.  XVIII. 

99  :  5-10.  A  Statistical  Study  of  American  Men  of  Science, 
J.  McKeen  Cattell,  especially  Science,  vol.  XXXII,  no.  828, 

PP-  553-555- 

99  :  22.  The  authorities  quoted  by  J.  B.  Bury  in  his 
History  of  Greece  are  complete  and  concise.  In  chap.  I  he 
discusses  the  Dorian  conquest  from  p.  57  forward,  and  the 
Homeric  Mycenaean  period  (1600-1100  B.  C.)  from  p.  20.  A 
very  interesting  instance  of  the  truth  of  the  picture  of  My- 
cenaean culture  as  drawn  by  Homer  occurs  on  p.  50,  where 
it  is  stated  that  much  described  by  the  poet,  even  to  small 
articles,  has  been  unearthed  during  archaeological  investi- 
gations. "Although  the  poets  who  composed  the  Iliad  and 
Odyssey  probably  did  not  live  before  the  ninth  century,  they 
derived  their  matter  from  older  lays." 

99  :  27.  Crete.  For  systems  of  Cretan  writing  see  Sir 
Arthur  J.  Evans,  Cretan  Pictographs  and  Pre-Phcenician 
Script,  Further  Discoveries  of  Cretan  and  Mgean  Script,  Reports 
of  Excavations  at  Cnossus,  Prehistoric  Tombs  of  Knossos,  and 
Scripta  Minoa.  That  the  aboriginal  "Eteocretan"  language 
existed  until  historic  times  is  attested  by  the  discoveries  of 
later  inscriptions  belonging  to  the  fifth  and  succeeding  cen- 
turies B.  C,  which  were  written  in  Greek  letters  at  this  time 
but  in  the  indigenous,  undecipherable  tongue.  They  are 
described  by  Comparetti,  Mon.  Ant.,  IH,  pp.  451  seq.,  and  by 
R.  S.  Conway,  2,  3,  especially  pp.  125  seq.,  in  vol.  VIII.  In 
1908  another  discovery  was  made  by  the  Italian  Mission  at 
Phaestus,  of  a  clay  disk  with  printed  hieroglyphics  which  did 
not  belong  to  the  Cretan  system  of  writing.  It  is  supposed 
to  have  come  from  Asia  Minor. 



For  other  discoveries  in  Crete  and  other  authorities  see 
R.  M.  Burrowes,  C.  H.  and  H.  B.  Dawes.  On  Cretan  pot- 
tery see  Sir  Duncan  Mackenzie,  2,  and  Sir  Arthur  Evans,  2. 
Sir  Duncan  Mackenzie  also  has  a  book  on  the  Cretan  pal- 
aces. Bury,  in  his  History  of  Greece,  pp.  9  seq.,  gives  a  brief 
description  of  Crete  as  revealed  by  archaeologists.  Accord- 
ing to  them,  the  palaces  of  Cnossus  and  Phaestus  were  erected 
before  2100  B.  C,  when  Cretan  civilization  was  well  ad- 
vanced.    See  also  the  note  to  p.  119  :  1  of  this  book. 

99  :  28.    Azilian  period.     See  p.  115  of  this  book. 

100  :  20  seq.  Osborn,  1,  p.  49  seq.,  and  the  note  VII  of 
the  appendix.     See  also  the  notes  to  p.  13  of  this  book. 

100  :  28.  Progressive  dessication.  Ellsworth  Hunting- 
ton, 2. 

101  :  5.  Arboreal  Man.  See  the  work  of  W.  K.  Gregory, 
especially  3,  p.  277;  and  John  C.  Merriam,  pp.  203  and  206- 

101  :  12.  Osborn,  1,  note  VII,  p.  511,  of  the  appendix; 
and  Merriam,  pp.  205-208. 

101  :  15.  J.  Pilgrim,  The  Correlation  of  the  Siwaliks  with 
Mammal  Horizons  of  Europe. 

101:21.  Java  and  the  Pithecanthropus  erectus.  Dubois, 
E.  Fischer,  and  particularly  G.  Schwalbe.  For  the  land  con- 
nection of  Java  with  the  mainland  see  Alfred  Russel  Wal- 
lace's Island  Life,  and  The  Geography  of  Mammals,  by  W.  L. 
and  P.  L.  Sclater. 

101  :  27.  Gunz  glaciation.  See  Osborn's  table  of  Geo- 
logic Time,  in  1,  p.  41.  The  date  given  here  is  that  made 
by  Penck. 

102  :  1.  W.  D.  Matthew,  Revision  of  the  Lower  Eocene 
Primates,  and  W.  K.  Gregory,  The  Evolution  of  the  Pri- 

102  :  13.  Schoetensack,  Der  Unterkiefer  des  Homo  Heidel- 
bergensis  aus  den  Sanden  von  Mauer  bei  Heidelberg  im  Beitrag 
zur  Paldontologie  des  Menschen. 

102  :  21.  At  the  beginning  of  this  Eolithic  period  wood 
was  used  for  clubs  and  probably  as  levers  along  with  the 
chance  flints.  Perhaps  it  was  employed  even  earlier,  but  of 
course  no  remains  would  come  down  to  us. 



For  the  material  in  this  chapter  the  authorities,  such  as 
Cartailhac,  Boule,  Breuil,  Obermaier  and  Rutot  are  all 
given  in  Osborn,  1,  together  with  useful  discussions  of  the 
evidence.  In  special  instances  additional  sources  are  in- 
serted here. 

105  :  17.  Piltdown  Man.  See  Charles  Dawson,  the  dis- 
coverer, 1,  2  and  3.  There  is  a  tremendous  bibliography  on 
the  Piltdown  Man. 

106  :  1.  The  Jaw  of  the  Piltdown  Man,  Gerrit  S.  Miller. 
From  a  later  paper  by  Mr.  Miller  (2)  we  quote  the  following 
from  pp.  43-44: 

"The  combined  characters  of  the  jaw,  molars  and  skull 
were  made  the  basis  of  a  genus  Eoanthropus,  placed  in  the 
family  Hominidae.  .  .  .  While  the  brain  case  is  human  in 
structure,  the  jaw  and  teeth  have  not  yet  been  shown  to 
present  any  character  diagnostic  of  man;  the  recognized 
features  in  which  they  resemble  human  jaws  and  teeth  are 
merely  those  which  men  and  apes  possess  in  common.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  symphyseal  region  of  the  jaw,  the  canine 
tooth  and  the  molars  are  unlike  those  known  to  occur  in  any 
race  of  men.  .  .  .  Until  the  combination  of  a  human  brain 
case  and  nasal  bones  with  an  ape-like  mandible,  ape-like 
lower  molars  and  an  ape-like  upper  canine  has  actually  been 
seen  in  one  animal,  the  ordinary  procedure  of  both  zoology 
and  paleontology  would  refer  each  set  of  fragments  to  a 
member  of  the  family  which  the  characters  indicate.  The 
name  Eoanthropus  dawsoni  has  therefore  been  restricted  to 
the  human  elements  of  the  original  composite  (Family  Ho- 
minidae), and  the  name  Pan  vetus  has  been  proposed  for  the 
animal  represented  by  the  jaw  (Family  Pongidae)." 

See  also  The  Dawn  Man  of  Piltdown,  England,  by  W.  K. 
Gregory.  Ray  Lancaster  has  made  some  interesting  ob- 
servations and  is  the  most  recent  authority  on  this  subject. 

106  :  14.  On  the  Neanderthal  Man  see  Osborn  and  his 

107  :  21.  A  note  on  p.  385  of  Rice  Holmes's  Ancient  Brit- 
ain is  useful  in  this  connection.     "MM.  de  Quatrefages  and 


Hamy  affirm  that  the  Neanderthal  race  has  left  a  perma- 
nent imprint  on  the  population,  and  refer  to  various  skulls 
of  the  Neolithic  and  later  periods  which  resemble  more  or 
less  closely  that  of  Neanderthal.  Moreover,  it  is  generally 
admitted  that  even  at  the  present  day  a  few  individuals  here 
and  there  belong  to  the  same  type.  But  it  does  not  follow 
that  these  persons  to  whom  Dr.  Beddoe  and  M.  Hamy  refer 
were  descended  from  men  who  lived  in  Britain  in  the  Pale- 
olithic age." 

Taylor,  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  mentions  several  famous 
men  who  had  typical  Neanderthal  skulls,  among  them  Robert 

108  :  i  seq.  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  265-266;  Ripley,  pp.  326-334, 
but  especially  pp.  266,  330-331. 

108  :  16.  Ales  Hrdlicka,  The  Most  Ancient  Skeletal  Re- 
mains of  Man,  considers  the  Neanderthal  type  extinct,  as 
do  Keith,  Antiquity  of  Man,  passim,  and  A.  C.  Haddon. 
Consult  Barnard  Davis,  Thesaurus  Craniorum,  especially  p. 
70,  and  Beddoe,  2,  as  well  as  Osborn,  1,  p.  217. 

108  :  18.  Firbolgs.  See  the  note  above  to  line  1;  also 
Taylor,  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  p.  78. 

109  :  8.  Broca,  according  to  Osborn,  is  responsible  for 
this  theory. 

109  :  1 7  seq.    See  pp.  329  seq.  of  Galton's  Hereditary  Genius. 

no  :  8.  In  Dordogne,  France,  there  are  people  who  look 
as  it  is  thought  the  Cro-Magnons  did.  These  modern  people 
may  belong  to  that  type  in  the  same  way  that  here  and  there 
people  resembling  the  Neanderthals  are  still  found.  In 
Dordogne  these  Cro-Magnon  features  are  quite  common, 
and  differ  markedly  from  those  of  other  Frenchmen.  For 
studies  of  this  type  see  Collignon,  1.  For  full  discussions  of 
the  ancient  Cro-Magnons  see  Keith,  1  and  2,  and  Osborn,  1. 

no  :  n.  Dr.  Charles  B.  Davenport,  in  correspondence, 
remarks:  "There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  prolific  shall  in- 
herit the  earth  or  the  proletariat  shall  inherit  the  earth,  which 
is  etymologically  the  same  thing.  We  see  this  law  in  action 
in  Russia  today.  .  .  .  Can  we  build  a  wall  high  enough 
around  this  country,  so  as  to  keep  out  these  cheaper  races, 
or  will  it  be  only  a  feeble  dam  which  will  make  the  flood  all 


the  worse  when  it  breaks?  Or  should  we  admit  the  four 
million  picks  and  shovels  which  many  of  our  capitalists  are 
urging  Congress  to  admit  in  order  to  secure  what  wealth  we 
can  for  the  moment,  leaving  it  for  our  descendants  to  aban- 
don the  country  to  the  blacks,  browns  and  yellows,  and  seek 
an  asylum  in  New  Zealand  ?  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the 
thing  to  do  is  to  make  better  selection  of  immigrants,  admit- 
ting them  in  fairly  large  numbers  so  long  as  we  can  sift  out 
the  defective  strains." 

in  :  20  seq.  £.  Cartailhac  says,  in  La  France  prihisto- 
rique:  "The  race  of  Cro-Magnon  is  well  determined.  There 
is  no  doubt  about  their  high  stature  and  Topinar4  is  not  the 
only  one  who  believes  that  they  were  blonds."  See  also  G. 
Retzius,  3.  But  he  derives  the  Nordics  from  them.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  Dordogne  people  to-day  are  dark,  and 
many  anthropologists  are  inclined  to  the  belief  that  the 
Cro-Magnons  were  brunets,  a  theory  in  which  the  writer 
heartily  concurs. 

112  :  1.  L'Abbe  H.  Breuil,  Les  subdivisions  du  paleolithique 
suptrieur  et  leur  signification,  pp.  203-205.  Other  writers 
such  as  Nilsson  and  Dawkins  have  also  held  this  theory. 

112  :  21.  One  of  the  few  references  to  the  bare  possi- 
bility of  a  Magdalenian  dog  occurs  in  Obermaier's  El  H ombre 
Fdsil,  the  footnote  on  pp.  221  and  223.  From  this  it  ap- 
pears that  certain  conclusions  are  drawn  that  if  the  Alpera 
paintings  are  of  late  Magdalenian  age,  if  certain  nondescript 
animals  in  those  paintings  are  intended  for  dogs  and  if 
those  dogs  are  meant  to  be  in  a  state  of  domestication,  then 
there  can  be  no  doubt  whatever  that  the  dog  was  domesti- 
cated in  Magdalenian  times.  But  Obermaier  does  not  feel 
that  this  furnishes  satisfactory  proof. 

112  :  25-p.  113.  Bow  and  Arrow.  Obermaier,  1,  chap. 
V,  The  Upper  Paleolithic,  p.  112,  says:  "The  coarse  stone 
implements  of  the  lower  Paleolithic  no  longer  exist,  being 
replaced  by  an  industry  of  very  fine  flints  and  .  .  .  certain 
lances  with  points  made  of  bone,  horn  or  ivory,  which  were 
very  generally  used.  The  use  of  the  bow  is  proved  by  cer- 
tain representations  in  mural  pictures  (i.  e.,  the  Archers  of 
Alpera,  etc.,  eastern  Spain,  Magdalenian;  Archer  of  Laussel, 


France,  Aurignacian)."  See  the  corresponding  plates  in 
chap.  VII. 

On  p.  217  of  chap.  VII,  Quaternary  Art,  there  is  a  man 
depicted  in  the  pose  of  an  archer.  On  p.  239  Obermaier 
says:  "Among  .  .  .  [the  paintings  of  Alpera]  are  sketches 
of  more  than  70  human  figures,  ...  13  are  shown  in  the 
act  of  shooting  an  arrow  at  other  men  or  animals."  *  On 
p.  241  he  continues:  "The  paintings  of  eastern  Spain  of 
Quaternary  age  also  show  archers."  A  recent  letter  from 
the  Abbe  Henri  Breuil  says  that  the  bow  and  arrow  did  not 
exist  in  France  in  Paleolithic  times,  and  he  is,  of  course, 
aware  of  the  Laussel  figure  found  by  Lalanne  and  referred 
to  by  Obermaier  as  proof.  Alpera  is  agreed  by  Obermaier 
to  be  of  Tardenoisian  age,  consequently  of  the  transition 
period  to  the  Neolithic.  Beside  Alpera,  the  only  other  in- 
stance of  pictured  bows  and  arrows  noted  occurs  at  Calpata, 
said  to  be  of  Upper  Paleolithic  age  and  Capsian  industry. 

See  Fig.  174,  p.  353,  of  Osborn,  1,  giving  a  large  bison  draw- 
ing in  the  cavern  of  Niaux  on  the  Ariege,  showing  the  sup- 
posed spear  or  arrow-heads,  attached  to  large  shafts,  which 
are  represented  as  having  pierced  its  side.  On  p.  354  Os- 
born says:  "It  is  possible,  although  not  probable,  that  the 
bow  was  introduced  at  this  time  and  that  a  less  perfect  flint 
point,  fastened  to  a  shaft  like  an  arrowhead,  and  projected 
with  great  velocity  and  accuracy,  proved  to  be  far  more 
effective  than  the  spear.  .  .  .  From  these  drawings  and 
symbols  (Fig.  174),  it  would  appear  that  barbed  weapons  of 
some  kind  were  used  in  the  chase,  but  no  barbed  flints  occur 
at  any  time  in  the  Paleolithic,  nor  has  any  trace  been  found 
of  bone  barbed  arrowheads,  or  any  direct  evidence  of  the 
existence  of  the  bow."  On  p.  410:  "Here  [Cavern  of  Niaux] 
for  the  first  time  are  revealed  the  early  Magdalenian  methods 
of  hunting  the  bison,  for  upon  their  flanks  are  clearly  traced 
one  or  more  arrow  or  spear  heads  with  the  shafts  still  at- 
tached; the  most  positive  proof  of  the  use  of  the  arrow  is 

*  If  the  Alpera  paintings  are  of  thi9  (Magdalenian?)  period,  then 
the  bow  certainly  existed  at  this  time,  but  there  is  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  the  paintings  belong  to  a  later  epoch. 


the  apparent  termination  of  the  wooden  shaft  in  the  feathers 
which  are  rudely  represented  in  three  of  the  drawings." 

113  13.  Osborn,  p.  456:  "The  flint  industry  [of  the  Azil- 
ian]  continues  the  degeneration  begun  in  the  Magdalenian 
and  exhibits  a  new  life  and  impulse  only  in  the  fashioning  of 
extremely  small  or  microlithic  tools  and  weapons  known  as 
'Tardenoisian.'"  See  also  pp.  465-475  for  a  more  complete 
discussion  and  their  distribution  as  traced  by  de  Mortillet. 
Also  Breuil,  2,  pp.  2-6,  and  3,  pp.  165-238,  but  especially 
pp.  232-233. 

Osborn  continues,  p.  450:  "If  it  is  true  .  .  .  that  Europe 
at  the  same  time  became  more  densely  forested,  the  chase 
may  have  become  more  difficult  and  the  Cro-Magnons  may 
have  begun  to  depend  more  and  more  upon  the  life  of  the 
streams  and  the  art  of  fishing.  It  is  generally  agreed  that 
the  harpoons  were  chiefly  used  for  fishing,  and  that  many 
of  the  microlithic  flints,  which  now  begin  to  appear  more 
abundantly,  may  have  been  attached  to  a  shaft  for  the 
same  purpose.  We  know  that  similar  microliths  were  used 
as  arrowpoints  in  pre-dynastic  Egypt." 

The  microliths  may  have  been  used  on  darts  for  bird 

113  :  ax.  See  Osborn,  pp.  333  seq.,  and  in  this  book  the 
note  to  p.  143  :  13  on  the  Tripolje  culture. 

115  19.  Compare  what  Rice  Holmes  has  to  say  on  pp. 
99-100  of  his  Ancient  Britain. 

117  :  18.  Maglemose.  This  culture  was  first  found  and 
described  by  G.  F.  L.  Sarauw,  in  a  work  entitled  En  Stenolden 
Boplads:  Maglemose  ved  Mullerup.  The  same  material  is 
given  in  "Trouvaille  fait  dans  le  nord  de  l'Europe  datant 
de  la  periode  de  l'hiatus,"  in  the  Congrbs  prihistorique  de 
France.  A  site  equivalent  to  the  Maglemose  in  culture,  but 
discovered  later,  is  described  in  "Une  trouvaille  de  l'ancien 
age  de  la  pierre"  (Braband),  by  MM.  Thomsen  and  Jessen. 
See  also  Obermaier,  2,  pp.  467-469. 

117  :  23.  The  Abbe  Breuil,  Les  peintures  rupestres  d'Es- 
pagne  (with  Serrano  Gomez  and  Cabre  Aguilo),  IV,  "  Les 
Abris  del  Bosque  a  Alpera  (Albacete)  "  says:  "Other  peoples 
known  at  present  only  from  their  industries,  were  advanciag 


toward  the  close  of  the  Upper  Paleolithic  along  the  northern 
and  southern  shores  of  the  Baltic  and  persisted  for  an  ap- 
preciable time  before  the  arrival  of  the  tribes  introducing  the 
early  Neoh'thic-Campignian  culture  which  accumulated  in  the 
Kitchen  Middens  along  the  same  shores.  Like  the  southern 
races  of  the  Azilian-Tardenoisian  times  these  northerly  tribes 
were  truly  Pre-Neolithic,  ignorant  of  both  agriculture  and 
pottery;  they  brought  with  them  no  domesticated  animals 
excepting  the  dog,  which  is  known  at  Mugem,  at  Tourasse 
and  at  Oban,  in  northwestern  Scotland.'' 


119  :  i.  See  the  Osborn  tables.  As  evidence  of  far  earlier 
dates  of  the  Neolithic  in  the  east  we  may  quote  Sir  A.  J. 
Evans,  2,  p.  721.  He  calculates  that  the  earliest  settlement 
at  Knossos  in  Crete,  which  was  Neolithic,  is  about  12,000 
years  old,  for  he  assumes  that  in  the  western  court  of  the 
palace  the  average  rate  of  deposit  was  fairly  continuous. 
Professor  Montelius,  in  V  Anthropologic,  t.  XVII,  p.  137, 
argues  from  the  stratigraphy  of  finds  at  Susa  that  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Neolithic  Age  in  the  east  may  be  dated  about 
18,000  B.  C. 

119  :  6.     See  the  note  to  p.  147. 

119  :  15.  Balkh.  Balkh,  in  Afghanistan,  was  the  capital 
of  Bactria,  the  ancient  name  of  the  country  between  the 
range  of  the  Hindu  Kush  and  the  Oxus,  and  is  now  for  the 
most  part  a  mass  of  ruins,  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Balkh  River.  The  antiquity  and  greatness  of  the  place  are 
recognized  by  the  native  populations  who  speak  of  it  as  the 
"  Mother  of  Cities,"  and  it  is  certain  that  at  a  very  early 
date  it  was  the  rival  of  Ecbatana,  Nineveh,  and  Babylon. 

Bactria  was  subjugated  by  Cyrus  and  from  then  on  formed 
one  of  the  satrapies  of  the  Persian  Empire.  Zaborowski,  1, 
p.  43,  says:  "After  the  conquests  of  Alexander  there  was 
founded  a  Greco-Bactrian  kingdom  .  .  .  which  embraced 
Sogdiana,  Bactria  and  Afghanistan.  The  Greco-Bactrian 
kings  struck  a  quantity  of  coins.     They  bore  a  double  legend, 


the  one  Greek,  the  other  still  called  Bactrian,  which  is  not 
Zend,  nor  even  the  language  really  spoken  in  Bactria.  It  is 
a  popular  dialect  derived  from  Sanskrit."  Again  on  p.  185: 
"Zend  has  been  called,  and  is  still  called,  Bactrian  or  Old 
Bactrian,  it  may  be  because  Bactria  has  been  conceived  as 
the  original  country  or  an  ancient  place  of  sojourn  of  the 
Persians;  it  may  be  because  Zoroaster,  a  Median  Magus,  had, 
according  to  a  legend,  fled  to  the  Bactrians  where  he  found 
protection  under  Prince  Vishtaspa.  Eulogy  of  this  prince 
is  often  incorporated  in  the  sayings  of  Zoroaster." 

Later  a  new  race  appeared,  tribes  called  Scythians  by 
the  Greeks,  amongst  which  the  Tochari,  identical  with  the 
Yue-Chih  of  the  Chinese,  were  the  most  important.  Ac- 
cording to  Chinese  sources,  they  entered  Sogdiana  in  159 
B.  C;  in  139  they  conquered  Bactria,  and  during  the  next 
generation  they  had  made  an  end  to  the  Greek  rule  in  eastern 
Iran.  In  the  middle  of  the  first  century  B.  C.  the  whole  of 
eastern  Iran  and  western  India  belonged  to  the  great  "  Indo- 
Scythian  "  Empire.  In  the  third  century  the  Kushan  dynasty 
began  to  decline;  about  320  A.  D.  the  Gupta  Empire  was 
founded  in  India.  In  the  fifth  the  Ephtalites,  or  "White 
Huns,"  subjugated  Bactria;  then  the  Turks,  about  A.  D. 
560,  overran  the  country  north  of  the  Oxus.  In  1220  Jenghis 
Khan  sacked  Balkh  and  levelled  all  buildings  capable  of  de- 
fence, while  Timur  repeated  this  treatment  in  the  fourteenth 
century.  Notwithstanding  this,  Marco  Polo  could  still,  in 
the  following  century,  describe  it  as  "a  noble  city  and  a 

See  also  Raphael  Pumpelly,  Explorations  in  Turkestan, 
where  10,000  years  is  said  to  be  the  age  of  the  remains  of 
early  civilization.  More  modern  authorities,  however,  do 
not  accept  these  ancient  dates. 

119  :  21.    Osborn,  1,  p.  479. 

120  :  1  seq.  Osborn,  1,  pp.  493-495;  Ripley,  pp.  486-487, 
and  also  S.  Reinach,  3,  and  G.  Sergi,  2,  pp.  199-220. 

120  :  28  seq.  Oman,  England  before  the  Norman  Conquest, 
pp.  642  seq.,  says:  "The  position  which  he  [Harold]  chose  is 
that  where  the  road  from  London  to  Hastings  emerges  from 
the  forest,  on  the  ground  named  Senlac,  where  the  village  of 


Battle  now  stands.  .  .  .  This  hill  formed  the  battleground. 
...  On  reaching  the  lower  slopes  of  the  English  position 
the  archers  began  to  let  fly  their  shafts,  and  not  without  ef- 
fect, for  as  long  as  the  shooting  was  at  long  range,  there  was 
little  reply,  since  Harold  had  but  few  bowmen  in  his  ranks, 
(the  Fyrd,  it  is  said,  came  to  the  fight  with  no  defensive 
weapons  but  the  shield,  and  were  ill-equipped,  with  javelins 
and  instruments  of  husbandry  turned  to  warlike  uses),  and 
the  abattis,  whatever  its  length  or  height,  would  not  give 
complete  protection  to  the  English.  But  when  the  advance 
reached  closer  quarters,  it  was  met  with  a  furious  hail  of 
missiles  of  all  sorts — darts,  lances,  casting  axes,  and  stone 
clubs  such  as  William  of  Poictiers  describes,  and  the  Bayeux 
Tapestry  portrays — rude  weapons,  more  appropriate  to  the 
neolithic  age.  .  .  .  Many  a  moral  has  been  drawn  from 
this  great  fight.  .  .  .  Neither  desperate  courage,  nor  num- 
bers that  must  have  been  at  least  equal  to  those  of  the  in- 
vader, could  save  from  defeat  an  army  which  was  composed 
in  too  great  a  proportion  of  untrained  troops,  and  which  was 
behind  the  times  in  its  organization.  ...  But  the  English 
stood  by  the  customs  of  their  ancestors,  and,  a  few  years 
before,  Earl  Ralph's  attempt  to  make  the  thegnhood  learn 
cavalry  tactics  (see  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle),  had  been 
met  by  sullen  resistance  and  had  no  effect." 

121:4.     See  the  note  to  p.  128  :  2. 

121  :  15.  F.  Keller,  The  Lake-Dwellings  of  Switzerland  and 
Other  Parts  of  Europe;  Schenck,  La  Suisse  prehistorique,  pp. 
S33-549;  G.  and  A.  de  Mortillet,  Le  Prehistorique,  part  3, 
and  Munro,  The  Lake  Dwellings  of  Europe.  The  lake-dwell- 
ing, known  as  Pont  de  la  Thiele,  between  the  lakes  of  Bienne 
and  Neufchatel,  according  to  Grillieron's  calculations,  is 
dated  5000  B.  C.  See  Keller,  p.  462;  Lyell,  Antiquity  of 
Man,  p.  29;  Avebury,  Prehistoric  Times,  p.  401;  and  De  Mor- 
tillet, Le  Prehistorique,  p.  621. 

121  :  17.  Schenck,  p.  190,  says  concerning  Switzerland: 
"There  were  three  [cultural]  stages,  stone,  bronze,  and  iron. 
...  On  the  other  hand,  from  the  anthropological  point  of 
view,  this  subdivision  can  also  be  made.  In  the  first  stage 
[Neolithic  Lacustrian],  we  find  only  brachy cephalic  crania; 


in  the  second  there  are  an  almost  equal  number  of  brachy- 
cephalic  and  dolichocephalic;  in  the  third  there  is  a  pre- 
dominance of  dolichocephalic "  (that  is,  Schenck  divides  the 
Neolithic  into  three  periods  according  to  skulls,  and  the 
last  runs  into  the  age  transitionary  to  bronze). 

See  also  G.  Herv6,  Les  populations  lacustres,  p.  140;  His 
and  Rlitimeyer,  Crania  Helvetica,  pp.  12,  34,  etc.;  and  the 
note  on  p.  275  of  Rice  Holmes's  Ccesar's  Conquest  of  Gaul. 
Ripley  gives  useful  and  concise  discussions  on  pp.  120,  471, 
488  and  501. 

121  :  19.  See  both  Keller  and  Schenck  for  the  numbers  of 

121  :  22.  There  were,  of  course,  the  caves  and  rock  shelters 
used  during  a  large  part  of  the  year,  but  probably  no  other 
regularly  constructed  dwellings  served  as  permanent,  all-the- 
y  ear -round  places  of  abode  prior  to  the  lake  dwellings,  and  it  is 
doubtful  if  these  were  inhabited  in  winter.  It  is  generally  be- 
lieved that  the  custom  of  building  pile  villages  arose  from  con- 
siderations of  safety.  This  protection  would  be  absent  when 
the  lakes  were  frozen  over,  and  at  the  same  time  the  huts  would 
be  exposed  on  all  sides,  including  the  floor,  to  the  wintry  blasts 
sweeping  the  lakes.  They  would  in  this  way  be  rendered  prac- 
tically uninhabitable  during  the  winter  season. 

Keller  declares  that  the  same  type  of  dwelling  is  found 
in  the  whole  circle  of  countries  which  were  formerly  Celtic. 
(Introduction,  p.  2.)  The  Crannoges  of  Scotland  and  Ireland 
continued  in  use  until  the  age  of  iron  in  those  countries.  In 
Switzerland  the  lake-dwellings  disappeared  about  the  first 
century  (p.  7).  The  population  was  numerous  (p.  432), 
large  enough  to  have  to  depend  upon  cattle  and  agriculture 

(P-  479)- 

This  type  of  dwelling  is  found  from  Ireland  to  Japan,  and 
even  in  South  America.  Many  lake-dwellings  exist  at  the 
present  day.  The  Welsh,  Scotch  and  Irish  Crannoges  are 
related  in  structure  to  the  European  fascine  types  (Keller, 
p.  684  and  Introduction).  Others  are  built  somewhat  dif- 
ferently, and  are,  of  course,  of  independent  origin.  An  an- 
cient site  was  unearthed  at  Finsbury,  on  the  outskirts  of 
London  not  long  since,  where  there  used  to  be  a  marsh. 


The  inhabitants  of  this  lake- dwelling  were  native  outcasts 
during  Romano-British  times. 

121  :  26.  See  Schenck,  and  Keller,  p.  6.  On  p.  140  of 
Keller  we  read:  "The  Pile  Dwellings  of  eastern  Switzerland 
ceased  to  exist  before  the  bronze  age  or  at  its  beginnings; 
those  of  western  Switzerland  came  to  their  full  development 
during  this  period."  On  p.  37,  describing  the  settlement  of 
Mooseedorfsee  Keller  says:  "A  very  striking  circumstance 
ought  to  be  mentioned,  namely,  that  even  heavy  implements, 
such  as  stone  chisels,  grinding  or  sharpening  stones,  etc., 
were  found  quite  high  in  the  relic  bed,  while  lighter  objects, 
such  as  those  made  out  of  bone,  were  met  with  much  deeper." 
It  is  known  that  the  Mooseedorfsee  settlement  is  very  old. 
No  metal  has  been  found  here,  but  a  bone  arrow-head  is 
described  by  Keller  on  p.  38.  He  remarks  that  the  bones  of 
very  large  animals  were  uncommonly  numerous.  It  seems 
as  if  the  earlier  inhabitants  were  users  of  bone  rather  than 
of  stone  implements. 

122  :  1.  Herodotus,  V,  16  describes  them.  He  also  is  the 
source  of  our  information  regarding  the  keeping  of  cattle, 
although  archaeological  finds  have  proved  the  location  of 
stables  out  on  the  platforms  between  the  houses.  His  in- 
teresting account  is  given  herewith:  "Their  manner  of 
living  is  the  following.  Platforms  supported  upon  tall  piles 
stand  in  the  middle  of  the  lake,  which  are  approached  from 
land  by  a  single  narrow  bridge.  At  the  first  the  piles  which 
bear  up  the  platforms  were  fixed  in  their  place  by  the  whole 
body  of  the  citizens,  but  since  that  time  the  custom  which 
has  prevailed  about  fixing  them  is  this:  they  are  brought 
from  a  hill  called  Orbelus,  and  every  man  drives  in  three  for 
each  wife  that  he  marries.  Now  the  men  all  have  many 
wives  apiece;  and  this  is  the  way  in  which  they  live.  Each 
has  his  own  hut,  wherein  he  dwells,  upon  one  of  the  platforms, 
and  each  has  also  a  trap  door  giving  access  to  the  lake  be- 
neath; and  their  wont  is  to  tie  their  baby  children  by  the 
foot  with  a  string,  to  save  them  from  rolling  into  the  water. 
They  feed  their  horses  and  their  other  beasts  upon  fish, 
which  abound  in  the  lake  to  such  a  degree  that  a  man  has 
only  to  open  his  trap  door  and  to  let  down  a  basket  by  a 


rope  into  the  water  and  then  to  wait  a  very  short  time, 
when  he  draws  it  up  quite  full  of  them.  The  fish  are  of  two 
kinds,  which  they  call  the  paprax  and  the  tilon." 

122  13.  In  the  Introduction,  p.  2,  and  elsewhere  Keller 
says  regarding  cattle:  "Cattle  were  kept,  not  on  land,  as  in 
the  Terramara  region,  but  on  the  platforms  themselves, 
out  in  the  lakes.  Many  charred  remains  of  stables  and 
stable  refuse  have  been  taken  from  the  lakes,  but  only  from 
certain  parts  of  the  sites,  between  those  of  the  houses." 
See  also  Schenck,  p.  188. 

Rice  Holmes,  pp.  89-90  of  Ancient  Britain,  says  of  that 
country  that  agriculture  was  limited  in  the  Neolithic,  but 
flourished  in  the  Bronze  Age. 

122  :  14.  The  Terramara  Period.  Keller,  pp.  378  seq. 
As  related  to  Switzerland,  pp.  391,  393.  For  swamp  and 
river  bank  sites,  pp.  391,  397  seq.  For  bronze  in  Terramara 
settlements,  p.  386.  For  the  Upper  Robenhausian,  see 
Schenck,  p.  190,  and  Montelius,  La  civilisation  primitive  en 
Italic  Peet,  The  Stone  and  Bronze  Ages  in  Italy,  and  Munro, 
The  Lake  Dwellings  of  Europe  and  Paleolithic  Man  and  the 
Terramara  Settlements  must  also  be  read  in  this  connection. 
Schwerz,  Volkerschaften  der  Schweiz,  gives,  for  the  average 
cranial  indices  of  the  Lake  Dwellers,  79  during  the  Stone 
Age,  75.5  in  the  Copper  Age,  and  77  in  the  Bronze  Age.  Of 
these  last  14  per  cent  only  were  brachy cephalic,  20  per 
cent  were  extremely  long-headed.  In  the  Iron  Age  46 
per  cent  were  brachycephalic.  Consult  also  Deniker,  2, 
p.  316. 

122  :  21.  Ripley,  pp.  502-503;  Sergi,  2;  Robert  Munro,  2; 
Peet,  2. 

122  :  27-123  :  4.     See  the  note  to  p.  117  :  18. 

123  15.  On  the  Kitchen  Middens,  see  especially  Madsen, 
Sophus  Miiller  and  others  in  Ajfaldsdynger  fra  Stenaldern  i 

123  :  12.  Salomon  Reinach,  3  and  5;  Deniker,  2,  p.  314; 
and  Peake,  2,  p.  156,  where  we  find  the  following:  "Over  the 
greater  part  of  Sweden, — all,  in  fact,  except  a  strip  of  coast- 
line on  the  western  side  of  Scania, — and  all  along  the  shore  of 
the  Baltic  from  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia  southwards  and  west- 


wards  as  far  as  a  point  midway  between  the  Vistula  and  the 
Oder,  there  are  found  abundant  remains  of  a  primitive  civili- 
zation which  dates  from  the  Neolithic  Age,  and  indeed,  from 
early  in  that  age.  This  civilization,  known  as  the  East 
Scandinavian  or  Arctic  culture,  extended,  perhaps  later,  over 
the  whole  of  Norway." 

Consult  the  notes  to  pp.  125  :  4  seq.  for  western  trade. 

123  :  20.  Sergi,  4;  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  26,  29;  Fleure  and  James, 
pp.  122  seq. 

123  :  23.  Paleolithic  Population.  Fleure  and  James, 
Anthropological  Types  in  Wales,  p.  120.  Rice  Holmes,  An- 
cient Britain,  p.  380,  says  they  were  confined  to  the  South. 
No  Paleolithic  implements  were  found  north  of  Lincoln,  or 
at  least  of  the  East  Riding  of  Yorkshire. 

123  :  26.  John  Munro,  The  Story  of  the  British  Race,  p. 
45 ;  Rice  Holmes,  Ancient  Britain,  p.  68;  and  Fleure  and 
James,  pp.  40,  69-74,  122  seq. 

124  14.     For  the  Alpines  see  pp.  134  seq.  of  this  book. 
124  :  9.     Consult  the  note  to  p.  143  on  this  subject. 

124  :  15.  On  the  Nordics  see  pp.  167  seq.  and  213  seq. 
On  the  Scandinavian  blonds  see  the  note  to  p.  20  :  5. 

124  :  20.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  168  seq. 

125  :  1.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  The  Ancient  Egyptians,  especially 
pp.  146  and  149  seq.;  Breasted,  1,  2  and  3;  Keane,  Ethnology, 
pp.  72  seq.;  Sophus  Miiller,  L' Europe  prihistorique,  p.  49; 
Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  3. 

125  :  4.  Deniker,  2,  pp.  314-315:  "The  great  trade  route 
for  amber,  and  perhaps  tin,  between  Denmark  and  the 
Archipelago  is  well  known  at  the  present  day;  it  passes 
through  the  valley  of  the  Elbe,  the  Moldau  and  the  Danube. 
The  commercial  relations  between  the  north  and  the  south 
explain  the  similarities  which  archaeologists  find  between 
Scandinavian  bronze  objects  and  those  of  the  ./Egean  dis- 

See  also  E.  H.  Minns,  Scythians  and  Greeks,  for  trade  in 
the  East,  via  the  Vistula,  Dnieper  and  Danube,  pp.  438-446, 
458,  459,  465,  493,  etc.;  and  Dechellette,  Manuel  d'Archto- 
logie,  t.  I,  p.  626,  and  II,  p.  19.  Herodotus  IV,  23,  gives  the 
trade  route  from  the  Hyperboreans  to  Delos.    F61ix  Sar- 


tiaux,  Troie,  La  Guerre  de  Troie,  pp.  162,  181,  also  discusses 
the  trade  routes  for  amber. 

125  :  7.  Amber.  Tacitus,  Germania:  "They  [the  tribes 
of  the  iEstii]  ransack  the  sea  also  and  are  the  only  people 
who  gather  in  the  shallows  and  on  the  shore  itself  the  amber 
which  they  call  in  their  tongue  'gl^esum.'  Nor  have  they, 
being  barbarians,  inquired  or  learned  what  substance  or 
process  produces  it;  nay,  it  lay  there  long  among  the  rest  of 
the  flotsam  and  jetsam  of  the  sea,  until  Roman  luxury  gave 
it  a  name.  To  the  natives  it  is  useless;  it  is  gathered  crude, 
it  is  forwarded  to  Rome  unshaped;  they  are  astonished  to 
be  paid  for  it.  Yet  you  may  infer  that  it  is  the  exudation 
of  trees:  certain  creeping  and  even  winged  creatures  are  con- 
tinually found  embedded;  they  have  been  entangled  in  its 
liquid  form  and  as  the  material  hardens,  are  imprisoned.  I 
should  suppose,  therefore,  that,  just  as  in  the  secluded  places 
of  the  East,  where  frankincense  and  balsam  are  exuded,  so 
in  the  islands  and  lands  of  the  West,  there  are  groves  and 
glades  more  than  ordinarily  luxuriant,"  etc. 

Amber,  if  rubbed,  has  magnetic  qualities  and  develops  elec- 
tricity. Our  word  "electricity"  is  derived  from  its  Greek 
name,  "electron."  Tacitus  says:  "If  you  try  the  qualities 
of  amber  by  setting  fire  to  it,  it  kindles  like  a  torch  and  soon 
dissolves  into  something  like  pitch  and  resin." 

125  :  13.     Gowland,  Metals  in  Antiquity,  pp.  236,  252  seq. 

125  :  15  seq.  Copper.  Reisner's  opinion  that  the  pre- 
dynastic  Egyptians  invented  the  use  of  copper  (Naga-ed- 
Dtr,  I,  p.  134)  which  is  followed  by  Elliot  Smith  (Ancient 
Egyptians,  p.  3),  is  not  the  view  held  by  all  scholars.  Hall 
believes  that  the  knowledge  of  the  use  of  metal  came  to  the 
prehistoric  southern  Egyptians  (Ancient  History  of  the  Near 
East,  p.  90),  toward  the  end  of  the  pre-dynastic  age  from 
the  north.  But  he  counts  the  Mount  Sinai  and  Cyprus  de- 
posits as  northern  centres  of  origin  from  which  a  knowledge 
of  the  working  of  the  metal  radiated. 

The  mines  of  the  Sinaitic  peninsula  were  worked  for  cop- 
per at  the  time  of  Seneferu,  about  3733  B.  C,  and  probably 
much  earlier  (Gowland,  p.  245,  and  elsewhere),  "but  long 
before  the  actual  mining  operations  were  carried  on,  how 


long  it  is  impossible  to  say,  the  metal  must  have  been  ob- 
tained by  primitive  methods  from  the  surface  ore.  It  is 
hence  not  unreasonable  to  assume  that  at  least  as  early  as 
about  5000  B.  C.  the  metal  copper  was  known  and  in  use  in 
Egypt."  The  same  writer  believes  "that  an  earlier  date 
than  5000  B.  C.  should  be  assigned  to  the  first  use  of  copper 
in  the  Chaldean  region."  In  this  he  bases  himself  on  the 
discovery  of  copper  figures  associated  with  bricks  and  tablets 
bearing  the  name  of  King  Ur-Nina  (about  4500  B.  C),  and 
the  fact  that  the  upper  Tigris  region  is  known  to  contain 
rich  deposits  of  the  mineral.  Jastrow,  Jr.,  assigns  the  date 
of  3000  B.  C.  to  Ur-Nina,  which  may  be  more  correct. 
GowlandMates  copper  in  Cyprus  at  2500  B.  C,  or  even  3000, 
judging  by  the  finds  at  Crete  dated  2500  B.  C.  In  the  Troad 
he  thinks  it  was  used  not  later  than  in  Cyprus.  For  China 
the  date  is  unknown,  but  if  we  accept  2205,  given  in  the 
Chinese  annals  as  the  time  when  the  nine  bronze  caldrons 
were  cast,  which  are  often  mentioned  in  the  historical  records, 
then  copper  may  have  been  in  use  as  early  as  3000,  or  even 
earlier.  De  Morgan  dates  copper  at  4400  B.  C.  in  Egypt, 
where  it  was  found  in  the  supposed  tomb  of  Menes. 

See  also  Lord  Avebury,  Prehistoric  Times,  pp.  71-72,  who 
gives  3730  for  copper-working  in  Sinai,  and  its  first  appear- 
ance about  5000  B.  C.  Montelius,  1,  p.  380,  gives  copper  in 
Cyprus  as  about  2500  B.  C,  hardly  3000;  and  for  Egypt 
5000;  he  regards  it  as  having  been  known  in  Babylon  at 
about  the  same  time.  Breasted,  Ancient  Times,  assigns  the 
date  of  the  earliest  copper  as  at  least  4000  in  Egypt. 

125  :  27.  Eduard  Meyer,  1,  p.  41.  But  cf.  Reisner,  Naga- 
ed-Dtr,  I,  p.  126,  note  3.  Also  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the 
Near  East,  p.  28. 

126  :  1.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  p.  8:  "Most  serious  scholars  who 
concern  themselves  with  the  problems  of  the  ancient  his- 
tory of  Egypt  and  Babylonia  have  now  abandoned  these  in- 
flated estimates  of  the  lengths  of  the  historical  periods  in 
the  two  empires;  and  it  is  now  generally  admitted  that 
Meyer's  estimate  of  34co±ioo  B.  C.  is  a  close  approxima- 
tion to  the  date  of  the  union  of  Upper  and  Lower  Egypt 
and  that  the  blending  of  Semitic  and  Sumerian  cultures  in 


Babylonia  took  place  shortly  after  the  time  of  this  event  in 
the  Nile  valley."  See  also  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near 
East,  p.  3. 

126  :  7.  Bronze.  Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  125:  "The  oldest 
piece  of  bronze  that  has  yet  been  dated  was  found  at  Medum, 
in  Egypt,  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  cast  about  3700  B.  C. 
But  the  metal  may  have  been  worked  even  earlier  in  other 
lands;  for  a  bronze  statuette  and  a  bronze  vase,  which  were 
made  twenty-five  centuries  before  our  era  have  been  ob- 
tained from  Mesopotamia  and  the  craft  must  have  passed 
through  many  stages  before  such  objects  could  have  been 
produced.  Yet  it  would  be  rash  to  infer  that  either  the 
Babylonians  or  the  Egyptians  invented  bronze  for  neither 
in  Egypt  nor  in  Babylonia  is  there  any  tin.  The  old  theory 
that  it  was  a  result  of  Phoenician  commerce  with  Britain  has 
long  been  abandoned  and  British  bronze  implements  are 
so  different  from  those  of  Norway  and  Sweden,  Denmark  and 
Hungary,  that  it  cannot  have  been  derived  from  any  of  these 
countries.  German  influence  was  felt  at  a  comparatively 
late  period,  but  from  first  to  last  British  bronze  culture  was 
closely  connected  with  that  of  Gaul  and  through  Gaul  with 
that  of  Italy." 

126  :  9.  Gowland,  p.  243:  "It  has  been  frequently  stated 
that  the  alloy  used  by  the  men  of  the  Bronze  Age  generally 
consists  of  copper  and  tin  in  the  proportions  of  9  to  1.  I 
have  hence  compared  the  analyses  which  have  been  pub- 
lished with  the  following  results: 


In  25  the  tin  ranges  from  about    8  to  11  per  cent. 

"     6    "     '*        ' 11    "  13 

"  26    "     "        "         "         "        3    "    8 

ti       << 


In  13  the  tin  ranges  from  about  4.3  to  13. 1  per  cent. 
"     2    "     "    was  about  18.3  per  cent. 

In  5  the  tin  ranges  from  about  11.3  to  15.7  per  cent. 



In  14  the  tin  ranges  from  about    8  to  1 1  per  cent. 
"  12    "     "        "         "         "      12    "  18    " 
"     7    "     "   is  less  than  9  per  cent. 

"It  is  obvious,  therefore,  that  these  statements  do  not  ac- 
curately represent  the  facts.  And  if  we  consider  the  differ- 
ent uses  to  which  the  implements  or  weapons  were  put,  it  is 
evident  that  no  single  alloy  could  be  equally  suitable  for 
all.  ...  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  these  proportions  (i.  e., 
different  hardnesses  for  different  implements)  appear  to  have 
been  frequently  attained,  and  for  this  the  men  of  the  later 
Bronze  Age  are  deserving  of  great  credit  as  metallurgists  and 
workers  in  metal." 

On  the  percentages  of  tin  with  copper  for  bronze  see  also 
Montelius,  1,  pp.  448  seq. 

126  :  12.  Schenck,  p.  241,  describes  a  copper  axe  exactly 
like  those  of  polished  stone,  and  another  of  bronze,  of  very 
primitive  pattern,  showing  that  these  were  copied  from  the 
earlier  stone  models. 

Some  authorities  think  that  iron,  in  Egypt  at  least,  came 
in  about  the  same  time  as  bronze,  or  even  earlier.  Certain 
peoples  missed  altogether  one  or  another  of  these  stages,  as 
the  absence  of  remains  indicates.  For  instance,  the  central 
Africans  had,  as  far  as  is  known,  no  bronze  age,  but  passed 
directly  from  the  use  of  stone  to  that  of  iron.  (See  Rice 
Holmes,  Ancient  Britain,  p.  123.)  See  the  notes  to  p.  129 
on  the  value  of  iron.  Occasional  implements  of  any  material 
better  than  that  ordinarily  in  use,  which  had  been  intro- 
duced by  trade  or  acquired  by  fighting,  were  very  highly 
prized.  Any  books  on  primitive  peoples  contain  references 
to  the  value  of  such  "foreign  tools." 

126  :  24.  Diodorus  Siculus,  V.  Consult  Crania  Britan- 
nica,  by  Davis  and  Thurnam,  the  chapter  on  the  "Historical 
Ethnology  of  Britain,"  for  evidence  that  the  Phoenicians  did 
have  intercourse  with  Britain.  For  a  full  discussion  of  this 
disputed  question  see  pp.  483-514  in  Rice  Holmes's  Ancient 
Britain.  Herodotus  and  other  early  writers  allude  to  the 
fleets  of  the  Phoenicians,  and  of  course  the  voyage  of  Pythias 


about  the  last  half  of  the  fourth  century  B.  C.  was  under- 
taken to  discover  the  source  of  the  Phoenician  tin.  See 
Holmes's  Britain,  pp.  217-226;  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  Les 
premiers  habitants  de  V Europe,  vol.  I,  chap.  V;  Hall,  Ancient 
History  of  the  Near  East,  pp.  158,402-403 ;  and  G.Elliot  Smith, 
Ancient  Mariners,  on  the  Phoenicians. 

On  pp.  251-252  of  Ancient  Britain,  Rice  Holmes  makes  the 
suggestion  that  the  export  of  tin  from  Britain  may  have  died 
down  by  Roman  times. 

127  :  9  seq.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  p.  178,  and  map  3.  Deniker, 
2»  P-  3J5>  says:  "It  is  generally  admitted  that  the  ancient 
Bronze  Age  corresponds  with  the  '  iEgean  Civilization '  which 
flourished  among  the  peoples  inhabiting,  between  the  thir- 
tieth and  twentieth  centuries  B.  C,  Switzerland,  the  north 
of  Italy,  the  basin  of  the  Danube,  the  Balkan  peninsula,  a 
part  of  Anatolia,  and  lastly,  Cyprus.  It  gave  rise,  between 
1700  and  1 100  B.  C,  to  the  'Mycenaean  Civilization/  of 
which  the  favorite  ornamental  design  is  the  spiral." 

Myers,  in  Ancient  History,  pp.  134-135,  states  that  in  Crete 
the  metal  development  began  as  early,  at  least,  as  3000 
B.  C,  and  was  at  its  height  in  the  island  about  1600  or  1500 
B.  C.  Articles  of  Cretan  handiwork  found  in  Egypt  point 
to  intercourse  with  that  country  as  early  as  the  sixth  dynasty, 
which  he  makes  about  2500  B.  C.  See  also  G.  Elliot  Smith, 
1,  pp.  147,  179-180,  and  the  authorities  quoted  on  bronze. 

127  :  26-128  :  1  seq.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  pp.  178-180. 
Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  123,  gives  in  a  foot-note  the  sixth  dynasty 
as  about  3200  B.  C.  (cf.  above),  when  Elliot  Smith  says  the 
movement  first  began  (ibid.,  pp.  169,  171).  They  do  not 
agree  on  the  date  of  this  dynasty.  See  also  Rice  Holmes 
(ibid.,  p.  125),  and  Breasted,  3,  p.  108.  Montelius  assigns 
2100  B.  C.  for  the  small  copper  daggers  of  northern  Italy. 

128  :  2.  The  Eneolithic  period.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  pp. 
20  seq.,  37  and  163  seq.  Professor  Orsi  is  responsible  for  the 
introduction  of  this  term.  See  T.  E.  Peet,  The  Stone  and 
Bronze  Ages  in  Italy,  and  G.  Sergi,  Italia,  pp.  240  seq.,  on  the 
Eneolithic  period  in  Italy. 

128  :  13.  Oscar  Montelius,  The  Civilization  of  Sweden  in 
Heathen  Times,  and  Kulturgeschichte  Schwedens  von  den  alte- 


sten  Zeiten;  Sophus  Miiller,  Nordische  Alter thumskunde.  The 
latter  gives  1200  B.  C.  See  also  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  64,  127, 
424-454;  Beddoe,  4,  p.  15;  Haddon,  3,  p.  41.  According  to 
Gjerset,  in  his  History  of  the  Norwegian  People,  the  Bronze 
Age  in  Norway  began  about  1500  B.  C,  the  Iron  Age  at 
500  B.  C.  Lord  Avebury,  pp.  71-72;  Read,  Guide  to  the  An- 
tiquities of  the  Bronze  Age;  and  Deniker,  2,  p.  315,  give  1800 
B.  C.  for  Britain,  and  for  northern  Europe  Avebury  assigns 
2500  B.  C.  1800  is  the  generally  accepted  date  for  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Bronze  Age  in  Britain. 

128  :  16.  Alpines  in  Ireland.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  15;  Fleure 
and  James,  pp.  128-129,  135,  139;  Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  432; 
Ripley,  pp.  302-303;  Abercromby,  pp.  in  seq.;  Crawford, pp. 
184  seq.  But  Fleure  and  James  say,  p.  138,  that  other  Al- 
pines without  brow  ridges  are  to  be  found  at  the  present 
time  in  considerable  numbers  on  the  east  coast  of  Ireland. 
Ripley's  strong  assertion  that  no  Alpines  have  remained  in 
the  British  Isles  has  been  proved  by  more  recent  study  to 
require  modification. 

128  :  17.    See  in  this  connection  Fleure  and  James,  p.  127. 

128  :  26.  Cf.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  pp.  20-21,  163,  181;  Peet, 
2;  Reisner,  Early  Dynastic  Cemeteries  of  Naga-ed-Der;  and 
Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  65  seq. 

129  :  2-8.  The  megaliths  were  not  erected  by  Alpines, 
for  there  are  practically  none  in  central  Europe,  according 
to  Keane,  Ethnology,  pp.  135-136,  and  Dr.  Robert  Munro,  in 
a  discussion  published  in  the  Jour.  Roy.  Anth.  Inst.,  1889- 
1890,  p.  65.  On  the  other  hand,  Peet,  1,  pp.  39,  64,  says 
they  are  being  discovered  in  the  interior — a  few  in  Ger- 
many. He  does  not  mention  bronze  among  the  finds  in  the 
megaliths  of  France,  but  there  was  a  little  gold.  Bronze  was, 
however,  found  in  Spain.  Consult  Fleure  and  James,  pp. 
128  seq.;  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  8-9;  and,  for  an  exhaustive  ar- 
chaeological study,  Dechellette,  Manuel  d'archiologie,  vol.  I, 
chap.  Ill,  especially  paragraph  v,  pp.  393  seq.,  for  dolmens  in 
Brittany.  Concerning  the  contents  of  these  we  may  quote 
the  following: 

"Polished  hatchets,  often  enough  of  rare  stone,  beads  from 
necklaces,  and  pendants  of  Callais  or  of  divers  materials, 


implements  of  flint,  knives,  arrow  points  which  are  wing- 
shaped,  scrapers,  nodules,  grinding  stones,  pottery,  vases, 
grains  of  baked  earth,  some  rare  jewels  of  gold,  collars  and 
bracelets,  such  is,  in  general,  the  composition  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  neolithic  dolmens  of  Brittany,  contents  different, 
as  we  shall  see,  from  those  of  the  sepulchres  of  the  Bronze 
Age  in  the  same  region.  These  vast  Armorican  crypts  be- 
long certainly  to  the  end  of  the  Neolithic  period,  in  spite  of 
the  absence  of  copper,  the  habitual  forerunner  of  bronze  ob- 
jects. The  smallness  of  the  crypt,  the  size  of  the  tumulus, 
the  mixture  of  construction  in  huge  blocks  and  in  walls  seem 
to  indicate,  as  M.  Cartailhac  has  observed,  a  more  recent 
age  than  that  of  ordinary  dolmens.  In  the  pure  Bronze 
Age  the  monolithic  supports  are  replaced  by  the  walls  of 
unmortared  stones. 

"Moreover,  we  shall  see  that  there  have  been  found  in 
certain  covered  alleys  in  Brittany,  pottery  of  a  very  char- 
acteristic type  called  calciform  vases,  pottery  belonging  in 
the  south  of  France  and  southern  Europe  with  the  first  ob- 
jects of  copper  and  bronze.  Jewels  of  gold  confirm,  on  the 
other  hand,  these  chronological  determinations."  On  p. 
397:  "The  dolmen  sepulchres  of  the  Bronze  Age  in  Brittany, 
and  notably  in  Finisterre,  are  distinguished  more  often  by 
the  type  of  their  construction  from  those  of  the  Stone  Age." 

"The  dolmens  of  Normandy  and  Isle  de  France  contain 
some  stone  objects,  fragments  of  vases,  and  numerous  debris 
of  human  skeletons."  The  end  of  the  pure  Neolithic  is  the 
date  of  the  megaliths  in  Armorica,  as  we  read  on  p.  407. 
The  first  metals,  imported  from  the  south,  penetrated  into 
northern  Gaul  a  little  later  than  in  the  southern  provinces. 
That  is  why  certain  typical  objects  of  the  end  of  the  pure 
Neolithic  in  Armorica,  such  as  Callais  and  the  calciform 
vases,  are  associated  with  the  first  objects  of  copper  or  bronze 
in  the  funerary  crypts  of  Provence  and  Portugal. 

G.  Elliot  Smith  and  W.  H.  R.  Rivers  claim  that  there  is  a 
close  connection  throughout  the  eastern  hemisphere  between 
the  distribution  of  megalithic  monuments  and  either  ocean 
or  fresh-water  pearls,  but  this  appears  to  the  author  to  be 
far-fetched.     Two  very  recent  articles  dealing  with  mega- 


liths  are  "Anthropology  and  Our  Older  Histories,"  by  Fleure 
and  Winstanley,  and  "The  Menhirs  of  Madagascar,"  by 
A.  L.  Lewis. 

129  :  8.     Rice  Holmes,  Casar's  Conquest  of  Gaul,  p.  9. 

129  :  12.  Earliest  iron  in  the  north.  See  the  notes  to 
pp.  131  :  1  and  131  :  9  on  the  La  Tene  period.  Also  Mon- 
telius,  2,  and  Sophus  Muller,  2,  pp.  145  and  165  seq. 

129  :  13.  Mound  burials  among  the  Vikings.  Monte- 
lius,  2. 

129  :  15.  Iron  in  Egypt.  Some  authorities  think  that 
iron  in  Egypt  came  in  about  the  same  time  as  bronze,  or 
even  earlier.  A  piece  of  worked  iron  was  found  in  the  Great 
Pyramid,  to  which  a  date  of  about  3500  B.  C.  has  been  as- 
signed. But,  according  to  the  archaeological  investigations 
of  Professor  Flinders  Petrie,  iron  came  into  general  use  only 
about  800  B.  C. 

Myres,  in  The  Dawn  of  History,  is  quoted  from  p.  60  for 
the  following  neat  summary,  although  any  of  the  authorities 
on  Egypt,  such  as  Petrie,  Maspero,  Hall,  Breasted,  Elliot 
Smith,  Reisner,  Meyer,  etc.,  should  be  consulted  as  original 
investigators:  "The  presence  of  iron,  rare  though  it  is,  as 
far  back  as  the  first  dynasty,  puts  Egypt  into  a  position 
which  is  unique  among  metal-using  lands;  for,  apart  from 
these  rare,  but  quite  indisputable  finds,  Egypt  remains  for 
thousands  of  years  a  bronze-using,  and  for  long,  a  merely 
copper-using,  country.  ...  In  Egypt  iron  was  known  as 
a  rarity,  worn  as  a  charm  and  an  ornament,  and  even  used, 
when  it  could  be  gotten  ready  made,  as  an  implement; 
and  it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  worked  in  the  country, 
and  probably  its  source  was  unknown  to  the  Egyptians. 
In  historic  times  they  still  called  it  the  'metal  of  heaven'  as 
if  they  obtained  it  from  meteorites;  and  it  looks  at  present 
as  though  their  earliest  knowledge  of  it  was  from  the  south; 
for  central  Africa  seems  to  have  had  no  bronze  age  but  direct 
and  ancient  transition  from  stone  to  iron  weapons.  Yet 
when  they  conquered  Syria  in  the  sixteenth  century,  they 
found  it  in  regular  use  and  received  it  in  tribute.  At  home, 
however,  they  had  no  real  introduction  to  an  'Age  of  Iron' 
until  they  met  an  Assyrian  army  in  668  B.C.  and  began  to 


be  exploited  by  Greeks  from  over  sea."  In  this  connection 
see  also  Ridgeway,  The  Early  Age  of  Greece,  pp.  613-614. 
The  same  author,  pp.  154  seq.,  discusses  the  value  of  iron  in 
these  early  times. 

Deniker,  p.  315  of  his  Races  of  Man,  says  Italy  had  iron 
as  early  as  1200  B.  C. 

Montelius  assigns  1100  for  iron  in  Etruria. 

129  :  19.  Hallstatt  iron  culture.  See  Baron  von  Sacken, 
Das  Grabfeld  von  Hallstatt;  Dr.  Moritz  Hoernes,  Die  Hallstatt- 
periode;  Bertrand  and  Salomon  Reinach,  Les  Celts  dans  les 
valines  du  P6  et  du  Danube;  and  Ridgeway,  The  Early  Age  of 
Greece,  pp.  407-480  and  594  seq.  There  is  a  brief  summary 
by  Ridgeway  which  it  will  serve  to  quote:  "Everywhere 
else  the  change  from  iron  weapons  to  bronze  is  immediate 
but  at  Hallstatt  iron  is  seen  gradually  superseding  bronze, 
first  for  ornament,  then  for  edging  cutting  implements,  then 
replacing  fully  the  old  bronze  types  and  finally  taking  new 
forms  of  its  own.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  use  of 
iron  first  developed  in  the  Hallstatt  area  and  that  thence  it 
spread  southwards  into  Italy,  Greece,  the  JEgea.11,  Egypt  and 
Asia,  and  northwards  and  westwards  in  Europe.  At  Noreia, 
which  gave  its  name  to  Noricum,  less  than  forty  miles  from 
Hallstatt,  were  the  most  famous  iron  mines  of  antiquity, 
which  produced  the  Noric  swords  so  prized  and  dreaded  by 
the  Romans.  (See  Pliny,  Hist.  Nat.,  XXXIV,  145;  Horace, 
Epod.,  17  :  71.)  This  iron  needed  no  tempering  and  the 
Celts  had  found  it  ready  smelted  by  nature  just  as  the  Eski- 
mos had  learned  of  themselves  to  use  telluric  iron  embedded 
in  basalt.  .  .  .  The  Hallstatt  culture  is  that  of  the  Homeric 
Achaeans  (see  Ridgeway,  Early  Age  of  Greece,  pp.  407  seq.), 
but  as  the  brooch  (along  with  iron,  cremation  of  the  dead, 
the  round  shield  and  the  geometric  ornament),  passed  down 
into  Greece  from  central  Europe,  and  as  brooches  are  found 
in  the  lower  town  at  Mycenae,  1350  B.  C,  they  must  have 
been  invented  long  before  that  date  in  central  Europe.  But 
as  they  are  found  here  in  the  late  bronze  and  early  iron  age, 
the  early  iron  culture  of  Hallstatt  must  have  originated  long 
before  1350  B.  C,  a  conclusion  in  accordance  with  the  ab- 
sence of  silver  at  Hallstatt  itself." 


Keller,  p.  160,  describes  an  iron  sword  modelled  after  the 
same  pattern  as  those  of  bronze;  Schenck,  p.  341,  mentions 
a  copper  axe  exactly  like  those  of  stone,  and  another  of  bronze 
of  very  primitive  pattern.  These  and  numerous  other  ex- 
amples show  the  gradual  growth  of  each  age. 

The  generally  accepted  date  for  Hallstatt  is  about  900  or 
1000  B.  C.  Even  Rice  Holmes  approves  of  this.  (See  2, 
p.  9.)  But  if  we  believe  that  iron  spread  from  Hallstatt, 
and  it  was  in  Etruria  at  1 200-1 100  B.  C,  and  in  Greece,  in 
the  form  of  swords  like  those  of  Hallstatt,  at  1400  B.  C. 
(according  to  Ridge  way),  together  with  pins  and  various 
other  objects  which  originated  in  the  Tyrol,  it  is  certainly 
very  conservative  to  place  the  appearance  of  iron  in  Aus- 
tria at  1500  B.  C.  Iron  weapons  were  found  in  the  re- 
mains of  Troy  from  the  war  of  11 84  B.  C.  See  Ridgeway, 
op.  cit.,  and  Lartiaux,  p.  179. 

We  may  quote  from  Hoernes  as  follows  regarding  the  dates: 
"The  temporal  limits  of  the  Hallstatt  period  are  uncertain, 
according  to  the  districts  which  one  includes  and  the  phe- 
nomena which  one  considers.  It  is  now  known  that  the  Hall- 
statt relics  for  the  most  part  belong  to  the  first  half  of  the 
last  millennium  B.  C.  But  while  some  assign  these  relics  as 
from  the  time  of  perhaps  1200  to  perhaps  500,  others  are 
satisfied  with  the  period  from  900  to  400,  or  bring  them  even 
farther  forward.  It  is  certain  that  one  must  differentiate  in 
these  questions  between  the  west  and  the  east  of  the  Hall- 
statt culture  areas;  in  the  one  the  particular  Hallstatt  forms 
would  come  nearer  to  the  close  than  in  the  other.  One  or 
perhaps  more  centuries  he  between  the  first  appearance  of 
the  La  Tene  forms  in  Western  Germany  and  in  the  eastern 
Alps.  Also  the  beginning  varies  according  to  the  locality 
and  the  criteria  which  one  takes  for  a  guide,  that  is  to  say, 
according  to  whether  the  phenomena  of  the  time  about  1000 
B.  C.  are  considered  as  belonging  still  in  the  pure  Bronze 
Age,  to  a  transition  period,  or  indeed  to  the  first  Iron  Age." 

129  :  26.  Ridgeway,  speaking  of  the  Achaeans,  says: 
"They  brought  with  them  iron  which  they  used  for  their 
long  swords  and  cutting  implements.  .  .  .  The  culture  of 
the  Homeric  Achaeans"  (these  are  dated  about  1000  B.  C, 


about  the  time  of  the  Dorians,  according  to  Bury,  p.  57) 
"corresponds  to  a  large  extent  with  that  of  the  early  Iron 
Age  of  the  Upper  Danube  (Hallstatt)  and  to  the  early  Iron 
Age  of  Upper  Italy  (Villanova)." 

Myres,  Dawn  of  History,  p.  175,  says  that  there  was  a 
gradual  introduction  of  iron,  first  for  tools  and  then  for 
weapons.  It  had  been  known  as  "precious  metal"  in  the 
iEgean  since  the  late  Minoan  third  period,  or  even  the  late 
Minoan  second  period,  which  is  usually  dated  with  the 
XVIIIth  Egyptian  dynasty  as  about  1 500-1350.  Most  other 
writers,  however,  including  Bury,  p.  57,  Myers,  Anc.  Hist., 
p.  136,  and  Deniker,  Races  of  Man,  p.  315,  ascribe  the  gen- 
eral use  of  iron  to  a  much  later  invasion,  namely  that  of  the 
Dorians,  about  1100  B.  C. 

129  :  29.  Iron  swords  of  the  Nordics.  Ridgeway,  1,  pp. 
407  seq. :  "Their  chief  weapon  was  a  long  iron  sword;  with 
trenchant  strokes  delivered  by  these  long  swords  the  Celts 
had  dealt  destruction  to  their  foes  on  many  a  field.  They 
used  not  the  thrust,  as  did  the  Greeks  and  Romans  of  the 
classical  period.  This  is  put  beyond  doubt  by  Polybius 
(II,  30)  who  in  his  account  of  the  great  defeat  suffered  by 
the  combined  tribes  of  Transalpine  Gaesata?,  Insubres,  Boii 
and  Taurisci,  when  they  invaded  Italy  in  225  B.  C,  tells  us 
that  the  Romans  had  the  advantage  in  arms  'for  the  Gallic 
sword  can  only  deliver  a  cut  but  cannot  thrust.'  Again  in 
his  account  of  the  great  victory  gained  over  the  Insubres 
by  the  Romans  in  223  B.  C,  the  same  historian  tells  us  that 
the  defeat  of  the  Celts  was  due  to  the  fact  that  their  long 
iron  swords  easily  bent,  and  could  only  give  one  downward 
cut  with  any  effect,  but  that  after  this  the  edges  got  so 
turned  and  the  blades  so  bent,  that  unless  they  had  time  to 
straighten  them  out  with  the  foot  against  the  ground,  they 
could  not  deliver  a  second  blow. 

"'When  the  Celts  had  rendered  their  swords  useless  by 
the  first  blows  delivered  on  the  spears  the  Romans  closed 
with  them  and  rendered  them  quite  helpless  by  preventing 
them  from  raising  their  hands  to  strike  with  their  swords, 
which  is  their  peculiar  and  only  stroke,  because  their  blade 
has  no  point.    The  Romans,  on  the  contrary,  having  excel- 


lent  points  to  their  swords,  used  them  not  to  cut  but  to  thrust; 
and  by  thus  repeatedly  smiting  the  breasts  and  faces  of  the 
enemy,  they  eventually  killed  the  greater  number  of  them.' 
(II,  33  and  III.)" 

Further  evidence  in  support  of  our  contention  that  iron 
was  in  use  much  earlier  than  is  generally  admitted,  comes 
from  an  unexpected  quarter.  J.  N.  Svoronos,  in  a  recent 
book  on  ancient  Greek  coinage,  entitled  L'HelUnism  primitif 
de  la  Macidoine,  prouve"  par  la  numismatique,  p.  171,  remarks: 
"In  the  first  place,  indeed,  it  is  forgotten  that  some  of  this 
information,  that  which  is  derived  from  people  of  'mythical* 
times,  can  be  referred  not  only  to  the  invention  of  the  first 
money  struck  in  precious  metal  (gold,  electrum,  or  silver), 
but  even  to  obelisks  of  iron,  or  to  cast  plinths  in  the  form  of 
copper  axes,  which,  of  a  determined  weight,  and  legally 
guaranteed  by  the  state,  constituted,  already  before  the 
XVth  century,  as  we  positively  know  at  the  present  time,  the 
first  legal  money." 

130  :  2.  Keary,  The  Vikings  in  Western  Christendom, 
chap.  XIII;  Steenstrup,  N ormannerne. 

130  :  4.  "Furor  Normanorum."  On  account  of  the  suf- 
fering inflicted  by  the  Vikings  and  other  northern  raiders  in 
Europe,  a  special  prayer,  A  furore  Normanorum  libera  nos 
was  inserted  in  some  of  the  litanies  of  the  West. 

130  :  5.  Rome  was  sacked  by  Alaric  in  410  A.  D.,  and 
during  the  forty  years  following  the  German  tribes  seized 
the  greater  part  of  the  Roman  provinces  and  established  in 
them  what  are  known  as  the  Barbarian  Kingdoms.  Consult 
Villari,  The  Barbarian  Invasions  of  Italy. 

130  :  8  seq.    See  chap.  XIII,  pp.  242  seq.,  of  this  book. 

130  :  13  seq.  Ripley,  pp.  125-126.  The  discovery  of  the 
Alpine  type  was  the  work  of  Von  Baer. 

130  :  24.  The  Iron  Age  in  western  Europe.  Deniker,  2, 
p.  315,  says:  "So  also,  according  to  Montelius,  the  introduc- 
tion of  iron  dates  only  from  the  fifth  or  third  century  B.  C. 
in  Sweden,  while  Italy  was  acquainted  with  this  metal  as 
far  back  as  the  twelfth  century  B.  C.  The  civilization  of 
the  'iron  age/  distributed  over  two  periods,  according  to 
the  excavations  made  in  the  stations  of  Hallstatt  (Austria) 


and  La  Tene  (Switzerland),  must  have  been  imported  from 
central  Europe  into  Greece  through  Illyria.  The  importa- 
tion corresponds  perhaps  with  the  Dorian  invasion  of  the 
Peloponnesus.  .  .  .  The  Hallstattian  civilization  flourished 
chiefly  in  Carinthia,  southern  Germany,  Switzerland,  Bo- 
hemia, Silesia,  Bosnia,  the  southeast  of  France  and  southern 
Italy  (the  pre-Etruscan  age  of  Montelius).  The  period  which 
followed,  called  the  second,  or  iron  age  or  the  La  Tene  period, 
was  prolonged  until  the  first  century  B.  C.  in  France,  Bo- 
hemia and  England.  In  Scandinavian  countries  the  first 
iron  age  lasted  until  the  sixth  century,  and  the  second  iron 
age  until  the  tenth  century  A.  D."  Referring  to  the  La  Tene 
period  in  a  footnote,  Deniker  says:  "This  term,  first  used  in 
Germany,  is  accepted  by  almost  all  men  of  science.  The 
La  Tene  period  corresponds  pretty  nearly  with  the  'Age 
Marmien'  of  French  archaeologists  and  the  'Late  Celtic'  of 
English  archaeologists.  Cf.  M.  Hoernes,  Urgeschichte  d. 
Mensch.,  chapters  VIII  and  LX." 

Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  231,  remarks:  "Iron  in  Britain  is  hardly 
older  than  500  B.  C.  (*.  e.  the  earliest  products  of  the  British 
iron  age  were  traded  in.  See  p.  229).  In  Gaul  the  Hallstatt 
period  is  believed  to  have  lasted  from  about  800  to  about 
400  B.  C."  On  p.  126:  "It  is  certain  that  in  the  south- 
eastern districts  iron  tools  began  to  be  used  not  later  than 
the  fourth  century  B.  C." 

See  also  Sir  John  Evans,  Ancient  Bronze  Implements,  pp. 
470-472.  Consult  especially  Dechellette,  Manuel  d'archio- 
logie,  t.  II,  pp.  152  seq.,  on  iron  in  western  Gaul  during  the 
La  Tene  period. 

130  :  28.  La  Tene  Period.  M.  Wavre  and  P.  Vouga, 
Extrait  du  Muste  neuckatelois,  p.  7;  V.  Gross,  La  Tene,  un 
oppidum  helvete;  E.  Vouga,  Les  Helvbtes  a  La  Tene;  and  F. 
Keller,  The  Lake  Dwellings  of  Switzerland. 

131  :  3.  Montelius  suggests  this  date.  Lord  Avebury, 
in  Prehistoric  Times,  even  goes  so  far  as  to  suggest  1000  B.  C. 

131  :  5.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  the  footnote  to  p.  9;  Dechel- 
lette, Manuel  d'archSologie,  t.  II,  p.  552. 

131  :  9.  La  Tene  culture  and  the  Nordic  Cymry.  This 
is  also  in  Britain  termed  the  "Late  Celtic  period."    See  Rice 


Holmes,  2,  p.  318.  For  the  expansion  of  the  Celtic  empire 
and  La  Tene  see  Jean  Bruhnes,  p.  779.  G.  Dottin,  in  his 
Manuel  celtique,  devotes  a  whole  chapter  to  the  Celtic  empire. 

Cymry.  See  the  note  to  p.  174  :  22  of  this  book.  As  to 
the  Nordic  characters  of  these  people,  see  Rice  Holmes,  1, 
p.  234. 

131  :  12.  Nordic  Gauls  and  Goidels  as  users  of  bronze. 
Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  126,  229,  and  elsewhere. 

131  :  15.    Haddon,  Wanderings  of  People,  p.  49. 

131  :  19.  S.  Feist,  Europa  im  Lichte  der  Vorgeschichte, 
p.  9,  etc. 

131  :  23.    Tacitus,  Germania. 

131  :  26.  Tacitus,  Germania,  4:  "Personally  I  associate 
myself  with  the  opinion  of  those  who  hold  that  in  the  peoples 
of  Germany  there  has  been  given  to  the  world  a  race  un- 
tainted by  intermarriage  with  other  races,  a  peculiar  people 
and  pure,  like  no  one  but  themselves;  whence  it  comes  that 
their  physique,  in  spite  of  their  vast  numbers,  is  identical; 
— fierce  blue  eyes,  red  hair,  tall  frames,"  etc. 

See  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  81-82;  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  122,  126, 
151-152;  and  Ripley,  passim,  for  remarks  on  the  increasing 
brunetness  of  Britain  and  other  parts  of  Europe  which  were 
formerly  more  blond. 

The  recent  article  by  Parsons  entitled  "Anthropological 
Observations  on  German  Prisoners  of  War,"  contains  an  in- 
teresting reference,  on  p.  26,  to  the  resurgence  of  Alpine 
types  in  central  Europe. 


134  :  1.  There  seem  to  have  been  at  least  three  distinct 
types  of  Alpines,  one  with  a  broad  head  and  developed  occi- 
put typical  of  western  Europe,  a  second  with  a  flat  occiput 
and  a  high  crown,  represented  by  such  peoples  as  the  Arme- 
noids  of  Asia  Minor,  and  a  third,  of  which  little  notice  has 
been  taken,  except  by  such  men  as  Zaborowski  (2)  and 
Fleure  and  James,  pp.  137  seq.  This  third  type  is  encoun- 
tered here  and  there  in  nests  which  "stretch  at  least  from 
southern  Italy  to  Ireland,  by  way  of  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar 


and  across  France  by  the  dolmen  line."  Fleure  and  James 
may  be  quoted  for  the  following  discussion.  "Questions 
naturally  arise  as  to  the  homologies  of  this  type,  and  its  dis- 
tribution beyond  the  line  here  mentioned.  If  we  had  the 
type  in  Britain,  by  itself,  we  should  be  inclined  to  connect 
it  with  the  general  population  of  Central  Europe,  the  dark, 
broad-headed  Alpine  type.  We  should,  however,  retain  a 
little  hesitation  about  this,  as  our  type  is  sometimes  of  ex- 
traordinary strength  of  build  and,  while  often  fairly  short, 
it  is  occasionally  outstandingly  tall;  moreover,  the  hair  is 
frequently  quite  black,  and  this  is  not  on  the  whole  an 
Alpine  character.  But,  when  we  note  the  coastal  distribu- 
tion of  this  type,  our  hesitation  is  much  increased,  for  the 
Alpine  type  has  spread  typically  along  the  mountain  flanks 
and  its  characteristic  rarity  in  Britain  is  evidence  of  how 
little  it  has  followed  the  sea. 

''We  cannot  but  wonder  also  whether  what  Deniker  calls 
the  Atlanto-Mediterranean  type  is  not  a  result  of  averaging 
these  dark  broad-heads  with  the  true  Mediterranean  type. 

"Seeking  further  distributional  evidence,  we  find  that  the 
dark  broad-heads  are  highly  characteristic  of  Dalmatia  and 
may  be  an  old-established  stock,  but  it  would  appear  that 
this  region  is  famous  for  the  height  of  the  heads  there,  and 
our  type  is  not  specially  high-headed.  Broad-head  brunets 
do,  however,  occur  farther  east  in  Asia  Minor,  the  JEge&n, 
and  Crete,  for  example.  Many  are  certainly  hypsicephalic, 
but  in  others  it  seems  that  the  brow  and  head  are  moderate 
and  the  forehead  rather  rectangular,  as  in  our  type.  .  .  . 

"It  is  interesting  that  there  should  be  evidence  of  our  dark 
broad-heads  beyond  the  Irish  end  of  the  line  now  discussed, 
the  line  of  intercourse  which  Dechellette  thinks  must  be  older 
than  the  Bronze  Age.  The  chief  evidences  for  the  type  be- 
yond Ireland  are: 

"1.  Ripley  (p.  309)  shows  that  a  dark,  broad-headed  ele- 
ment is  present  in  Shetland,  West  Caithness,  and  East 
Sutherland.  This  is  sometimes  called  the  Old  Black 

"2.  Arbo  finds  the  coast  and  external  openings  of  the 
more  southerly  Norwegian  fjords  have  a  broad-headed  pop- 


ulation,  whereas  the  inner  ends  of  the  fjords  and  the  interior 
are  more  dolichocephalic.  The  broad-heads  stretch  from 
Trondhjemsfjord  southward,  and  from  their  exclusively 
coastwise  distribution  he  supposes  them  to  have  come  across 
from  the  British  Isles. 

"The  population  is  darker  than  the  rest  of  Norway  and 
its  area  of  distribution,  as  Dr.  Stuart  Mackintosh  has  kindly 
pointed  out  to  us,  is,  like  that  of  the  same  type  in  the  British 
Isles,  characterized  by  a  pelagic  climate." 

Von  Luschan  has  fully  discussed  the  Armenoid  type  in 
his  Early  Inhabitants  of  Western  Asia,  and  with  E.  Petersen, 
in  Reisen  in  Lykien,  Milyas,  und  Kibyratis.  A  special  study 
was  made  by  Chantre  in  his  Recherches  anthropologiques  dans 
I'Asie  occidentale. 

The  first  type,  then,  the  western  European,  has  a  short, 
thick  stature,  round  head,  and  rather  light  pigmentation; 
the  second,  Armenoid,  a  rather  tall  stature,  square,  high 
head,  flat  occiput,  and  dark  pigmentation.  The  third,  the 
Old  Black  Breed,  is  rather  small  and  dark. 

In  addition  to  these  we  have  a  fourth  type,  which  has  been 
called  the  Bronze  Age  race,  or,  better,  the  Beaker  Maker 
type  (Borreby).  This  has  been  discussed  by  Greenwell  and 
Rolleston,  Beddoe,  and  Keith,  especially  as  to  their  possible 
survivors  at  the  present  day;  by  Abercromby,  in  Bronze  Age 
Pottery;  by  Crawford,  The  Distribution  of  Early  Bronze  Age 
Settlements  in  Britain;  and  by  Peake,  in  a  discussion  of  the 
last  work  in  the  same  number  of  the  Geographical  Journal. 
Fleure  and  James  describe  it  also.  See  the  note  to  p.  138  :  1 
of  this  book. 

Further  anthropological  studies  may  simplify  the  prob- 
lem somewhat,  but  the  author  is  now  inclined  to  believe 
that  the  above-mentioned  third  brachycephalic  type,  the 
"Old  Black  Breed,"  represents  the  survivors  of  the  earliest 
waves  of  the  round-head  invasion — in  Britain  antedating  the 
arrival  of  the  Neolithic  Mediterraneans,  while  the  first  type 
mentioned  above  represents  the  descendants  of  the  last 
great  Alpine  expansion.  This  type  in  southern  Germany 
has  been  so  thoroughly  Nordicized  in  pigmentation  that  these 
blond  South  Germans  are  sometimes  discussed  as  though 


they  were  a  distinct  Alpine  sub-species.  The  type  is  scantily 
represented  in  England,  and  when  found  may  be  partly  at- 
tributed to  ecclesiastics  and  other  retainers  brought  over 
by  the  Normans. 

The  second  of  the  above  types,  the  Armenoids,  are  virtually 
absent  from  Europe,  and  seem  to  be  characteristic  of  eastern 
Anatolia  and  the  immediately  adjacent  regions. 

The  author  regards  the  fourth,  Borreby  or  Beaker  Maker 
type  of  tall,  round  heads  as  distinct  from  the  three  pre- 
ceding types.  The  distribution  of  their  remains  would  in- 
dicate they  they  entered  Britain  from  the  northeast.  We 
have  no  clew  as  to  their  origin.  A  similar  type  is  found  in 
the  so-called  Dinaric  race  of  Deniker  (which  Fleure  and  James 
mention  in  connection  with  the  third  type  but  hesitate  to 
class  with  it),  which  extends  from  the  Tyrol  along  the  moun- 
tainous east  coast  of  the  Adriatic  into  Albania.  Further 
study  of  the  Tripolje  culture  (see  note  to  p.  143  :  15)  and  the 
mixture  of  population  north  of  the  Carpathians,  where  the 
early  Nordics  and  early  Alpines  came  in  contact,  may  throw 
light  on  this  question,  as  well  as  upon  the  problem  of  the 
acquisition  of  Aryan  languages  by  the  Alpines. 

All  these  four  round-skulled  types  seem  to  have  been  of 
West  Asiatic  origin,  but  their  relationship  to  each  other  and 
to  the  true  Mongols  of  central  Asia  is  as  yet  undetermined. 
One  thing  is  certain,  that  the  Alpine  Slavs  north  and  east  of 
the  Carpathians,  and,  to  a  less  degree,  the  inhabitants  of 
Hungary  and  Bulgaria,  have  in  their  midst  a  very  consider- 
able Mongoloid  element,  which  has  entered  Europe  since  the 
beginning  of  our  era. 

134  :  12  seq.  For  further  characters  of  the  Alpines  see 
Ripley,  pp.  123-128,  416  seq.,  and  p.  139  of  this  book. 

135  :  1.  Haddon,  Races  of  Man,  pp.  15-16;  Deniker, 
Races  of  Man,  pp.  325-326. 

135  :  14  seq.    Zaborowski,  Les  peuples  aryens,  p.  no. 

135  :  17.  See  the  authorities  given  in  Ripley;  for  the 
Wurtemburgers,  pp.  233-234;  for  Bavaria  and  Austria,  p. 
228;  for  Switzerland,  pp.  282-286;  and  for  the  Tyrolese,  p. 

135  :  22.    Beddoe,  4,  chap.  VI,  is  particularly  good  on  the 


physical  anthropology  of  the  Swiss,  while  His  and  Riitimeyer, 
Crania  Helvetica,  are  classic  authorities. 

135  :  23.  The  Historical  Geography  of  Europe,  by  Free- 
man; and  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  75  seq. 

135  :  25  seq.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  81,  says:  "As  Switzerland, 
especially  its  central  region,  was  for  ages  the  great  recruiting 
ground  of  mercenary  soldiers,  it  is  probable  that  the  tall, 
blond,  long-headed  element  would  emigrate  at  a  more  rapid 
rate  than  the  brown,  short-headed  one.  In  this  way  may 
also  be  accounted  for  the  apparent  decline  in  the  stature  of 
the  modern  Swiss,  who  certainly  do  not,  as  a  rule,  now  justify 
the  descriptions  given  of  their  huge  physical  development 
in  earlier  days,  the  days  of  halberds,  morgensterns  and  two- 
handed  swords. "  These  mercenaries  were  Teutonic,  but  their 
Celtic  predecessors  were  addicted  to  the  same  habit  as  G. 
Dottin  has  shown  on  p.  257  of  his  Manuel  Celtique:  "When 
the  Celts  could  not  battle  on  their  own  account  or  against 
their  neighbors,  they  offered  their  services  for  the  price  of 
silver  to  foreign  kings.  There  is  hardly  a  country  that  was 
not  overrun  with  Celtic  mercenaries,  nor  struggles  in  which 
they  had  not  taken  part.  As  far  back  as  368  B.  C.  an  army 
sent  by  Denys,  the  Ancient,  to  Corinth  to  aid  the  Spartiates, 
was  in  part  formed  of  Celtic  foot-soldiers." 

"Pas  d'argent,  pas  de  Suisses,"  as  the  old  saying  has  it. 

See  also  Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire, 
chap.  LV,  where  are  described  the  Teutonic  Varangians  in 
Constantinople,  who  became  the  body-guard  of  the  Greek 

136  :  5.  Osborn,  1,  pp.  458  and  479  seq.  See  p.  116  of 
this  book. 

136  :  7.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  p.  179;  Haddon,  3;  Peake,  2, 
pp.  160-163;  Deniker,  2,  p.  313;  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  172  seq.; 
Herve,  1,  IV,  p.  393,  and  V,  p.  18;  and  the  authorities  quoted 
in  Osborn. 

136  :  14.  Russian  brachycephaly.  See  Ripley,  pp.  358 
seq.,  and  the  authorities  quoted. 

136  :  16.    See  p.  143  :  13  of  this  book,  and  notes. 

136  :  19-26.  Brachycephalic  colonies  in  Scandinavia. 
See  p.  211  :  6  and  notes. 


136  :  29.    Ripley,  p.  472. 

137  :  2.    See  the  notes  to  p.  128  :  13. 

137  :  8.    See  pp.  138  :  1,  and  163  :  26  of  this  book. 
137  :  21.    See  the  notes  to  p.  128  :  16. 

137  :  29  seq.     Beddoe,  4,  pp.  231-232. 

138  :  1  seq.  Beddoe,  4,pp.  15,17,  231-233;  Davis  and  Thur- 
nam;  Keane,  1,  p.  150;  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  194,  441;  Ripley, 
pp.  308-309.  Holmes  suggests  that  the  Beaker  Makers  may 
have  come  from  Denmark.  Compare  this  theory  with  that 
expressed  by  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  128  seq.  and  135;  and 
by  Abercromby,  Crawford  and  Peake  as  given  there.  The 
Beaker  Makers  are  quite  fully  discussed  on  pp.  86-88,  117, 
1 28  seq.,  and  135-137,  in  the  article  by  Fleure  and  James.  See 
also  Greenwell,  British  Barrows,  pp.  627-718,  and  J.  P.  Har- 
rison, On  the  Survival  of  Certain  Racial  Features  in  the  Popu- 
lation of  the  British  Isles.  Fleure  and  James  describe  the 
type  as  follows  on  p.  136:  "With  the  beakers  have  long  been 
associated  the  broad-headed,  strong-browed  type,  long  known 
to  archaeologists  as  the  Bronze  Age  race,  but  better  called 
the  'Beaker  Makers,'  or  Borreby  type,  for  we  now  think  that 
these  people  reached  Britain  without  a  knowledge  of  bronze. 
.  .  .  The  general  description  of  them  is  that  they  must 
have  been  taller  than  the  Neolithic  British,  averaging  5 
feet  7  inches,  rather  strongly  built,  with  long  forearms  and 
inclined  to  roughness  of  feature.  The  head  was  broad 
(skull  index  over  80,  often  82  or  more)  and  the  supraciliary 
arches  strong,  but  very  distinctly  separated  in  most  cases 
by  a  median  depression,  and  thus  strongly  contrasted  with 
the  continuous  supraciliary  ridges  of  e.  g.,  Neanderthal 
man.  .  .  .  Keith  .  .  .  thinks  it  [the  type]  was  usually 
brown  to  fair  in  colouring  at  all  periods,  and  this  seems  to 
be  a  very  general  opinion." 

138  :  3.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  16:  "On  the  whole,  however,  we 
cannot  be  far  wrong  in  describing  the  British  skulls  of  the 
bronze  period  as  distinctly  brachycephalic;  and  this  seems 
to  have  been  the  case  in  Scotland  as  well  as  in  England  (see 
D.  Wilson,  Archaeological  and  Prehistoric  Annals,  pp.  168- 
171).  Whencesoever  they  came,  the  men  of  the  British 
bronze  race  were  richly  endowed,  physically.    They  were,  as 


a  rule,  tall  and  stalwart,  their  brains  were  large  and  their 
features,  if  somewhat  harsh  and  coarse,  must  have  been 
manly  and  even  commanding.  The  chieftain  of  Gristhorpe, 
whose  remains  are  in  the  Museum  of  York,  must  have  looked 
a  true  king  of  men  with  his  athletic  frame,  his  broad  forehead, 
beetling  brows,  strong  jaws  and  aquiline  profile." 

138  :  14.    Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  425. 

138  :  17.  Dinaric  Race.  Deniker,  1,  pp.  113-133;  also 
2>  P*  333-  For  allusions  to  this  and  descriptions  see  Ripley, 
pp.  350,  412,  597,  601-602. 

138  :  18.  Remains  of  Alpines.  Fleure  and  James,  pp. 
117,  no.  3,  and  pp.  137-142. 

138  :  22.  See  the  notes  to  p.  122  :  3.  Also  Jean  Bruhnes 
in  Le  Correspondant  for  September,  191 7,  p.  774. 

139  :  3.    See  p.  121  :  16. 

139  :  6  seq.  Sergi,  Africa,  p.  65 ;  Studer  and  Bannwarth, 
Crania  Helvetica  Antiqua,  pp.  13  seq.;  His  and  Rutimeyer, 
Crania  Helvetica,  p.  41. 

139  :  16.    See  p.  144  of  this  book. 

139  :  22  seq.     See  p.  130. 

140  :  1  seg.  See  DeLapouge,  passim;  Ripley,  p.  352; 
Johannes  Ranke,  Der  Mensch,  vol.  II,  pp.  296  seq.;  part  II 
of  Topinard's  V anthropologic  generate,  and  the  note  to  p. 
131  :  26. 

140  :  4  seq.  Alpines  in  the  Cantabrian  Alps.  See  Ripley, 
p.  272,  and  Oloriz,  Distribucion  geogrdfica  del  Indice  cephalica. 

140  :  9.  Basques  and  the  Basque  language.  See  the  notes 
to  p.  234  :  24  seq. 

140  :  15.  Aquitanian.  See  p.  248  :  14.  Ligurian.  See 
the  notes  to  p.  235  :  17. 

140  :  17.  Round  skulls  on  North  African  coast.  See  pp. 

140  :  22  seq.  See  the  authorities  quoted  in  Ripley,  chap. 
VH.  For  the  Walloons  see  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  323-325,  334; 
Deniker,  2,  p.  335;  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  2,  pp.  87-95; 
G.  Kurth,  La  frontUre  linguistique  en  Belgique;  L.  Funel, 
Les  parlers  poptdaires  du  dipartement  des  Alpes-Maritimes, 
pp.  298-303. 

The  dialects  or  patois  spoken  to-day  in  France  all  fall 


under  one  of  these  two  languages.     They  can  be  classified 
as  follows: 


Patois  Spoken  in  the  Departments  of 

Languedocian Gard,  Herault,  Pyr6n6es-Orientales,  Aude, 

Ariege,  Haute- Garonne,  Lot -et- Ga- 
ronne, Tarn,  Aveyron,  Lot,  Tarn-et- 

Provencal Drome,  Vaucluse,  Bouches-du-Rhdne, 

Hautes-  and  Basses-Alpes,  Var. 

Dauphinois Isere. 

Lyonnais Rh6ne,  Ain,  Sa6ne-et-Loire. 

Auvergnat Allier,  Loire,  Haute- Loire,  Ardeche,  Lo- 

zere,  Puy-de-D6me,  Cantal. 

Limousin Correze,    Haute- Vienne,    Creuse,    Indre, 

Cher,  Vienne,  Dordogne,  Charente, 
Charente-Inferieure,  Indre-et-Loire. 

Gascon Gironde,  Landes,  Hautes- Pyrenees,  Bas- 
ses-Pyrenees, Gers. 


Norman Normandie,    Bretagne,    Perche,    Maine, 

Anjou,  Poitou,  Saintonge. 

Picard  (modern  French) .  .  Picardie,  lle-de-France,  Artois,  Flandre, 
Hainault,  Basse  Maine,  Thierache, 

Burgundian Nivernais,  Berry,  Orl6anais,  lower  Bour- 

bonnais,  part  of  Ile-de-France,  Cham- 
pagne, Lorraine,  Franche-Comte\ 

140  :  28  seq.  For  the  distribution  of  the  Alpines  see  Rip- 
ley, p.  157. 

141  :  6.  Austria  and  the  Slavs.  See  Ripley's  authorities 
mentioned  on  pp.  352  seq. 

141  :  9.     See  p.  143  of  this  book. 

141  :  13.     See  the  notes  to  chap.  LX. 

141  :  23-142  :  4.  Introduction  of  the  Slavs  into  eastern 
Germany.  See  Jordanes,  History  of  the  Goths,  V,  34,  35,  and 
XXIII,  119;  Freeman,  Historical  Geography  of  Europe,  pp. 
113  seq. 

141  :  25.  Wends,  Antes  and  Sclaveni.  See  the  notes  to 
p.  143  :  13  seq. 

142  :  4.    Haddon,  3,  p.  43. 


142  :  9.  Ripley,  p.  355  and  the  authorities  quoted.  The 
word  Slave  originally  signified  illustrious  or  renowned  in 
Slavic  language,  but  in  Europe  was  a  word  of  disdain  for  the 
backward  Slavs.  See  T.  Peisker,  The  Expansion  of  the 
Slavs,  Hist.,  vol.  II,  p.  421,  n.  2. 

142  :  13.    See  pp.  143-144  of  this  book. 

142  :  23.  Russian  populations.  Ripley,  based  on  Anut- 
schin,  Taranetzki,  Niederle,  Zakrewski,  Talko-Hyrncewicz, 
Olechnowicz,  Matiezka,  Kharuzin,  Retzius,  Bonsdorff,  etc. 
Consult  his  chap.  XIII,  especially  pp.  343-346  and  352. 
Olechnowicz  and  Talko-Hyrncewicz  both  remark  on  the 
dolichocephaly  and  blondness  of  the  upper  classes  of 

143  :  1.  Keane,  2,  pp.  345-346;  Beddoe,  1,  p.  35;  Freeman, 
1,  pp.  107,  113-116,  155-158- 

143  : 3.  Avars.  See  the  authorities  just  given;  also 
Eginhard,  The  Life  of  Charlemagne;  Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall 
of  the  Roman  Empire,  chaps.  XLII,  XLV  and  XL VI. 

143  : 4.  Hungarians.  That  the  Hungarians  as  such 
were  known  earlier  than  this  date  appears  from  a  passage  in 
Jordanes,  written  about  550  A.  D.  See  the  History  of  the 
Goths,  V,  37,  where  he  says:  "Farther  away  and  above  the 
sea  of  Pontus  are  the  abodes  of  the  Bulgares,  well  known  from 
the  disaster  our  neglect  has  brought  upon  us.  From  this 
region,  the  Huns,  like  a  fruitful  root  of  bravest  races,  sprouted 
into  two  hordes  of  people.  Some  of  these  are  called  Alt- 
ziagiri,  others,  Sabiri;  and  they  have  different  dwelling  places. 
The  Altziagiri  are  near  Cherson,  where  the  avaricious  traders 
bring  in  the  goods  of  Asia.  In  summer  they  range  the 
plains,  their  broad  domains,  wherever  the  pasturage  for  their 
cattle  invites  them,  and  betake  themselves  in  winter  beyond 
the  sea  of  Pontus.  Now  the  Hunuguri  are  known  to  us 
from  the  fact  that  they  trade  in  marten  skins.  But  they 
have  been  cowed  by  their  bolder  neighbors."  Also  on  the 
Hunuguri  see  Zeuss,  p.  712. 

143  :  5  seq.  The  invasion  of  the  Avars  and  the  Magyars. 
See  Freeman,  1,  pp.  107,  113, 115-116;  Beddoe,  i,p.  35;  and 
Ripley,  p.  432. 

*43  '  13  seq.    Haddon,  3,  chap.  Ill,  Europe,  especially  p. 


40;  and  A.  Lefevre,  Germains  et  Slavs,  p.  156.  Minns,  in  an 
article  on  the  Slavs,  says:  "Pliny  (N.  H.,  IV,  97)  is  the  first 
to  give  the  Slavs  a  name  which  can  leave  us  in  no  doubt. 
He  speaks  of  the  Venedi  (cf.  Tacitus,  Germania,  46,  Veneti) ; 
Ptolemy  (Geog.,  Ill,  5,  7,  8)  calls  them  Venedae  and  puts 
them  along  the  Vistula  and  by  the  Venedic  Gulf,  by  which 
he  seems  to  mean  the  Gulf  of  Danzig;  he  also  speaks  of  the 
Venedic  mountains  to  the  south  of  the  sources  of  the  Vis- 
tula, that  is,  probably  the  northern  Carpathians.  The  name 
Venedae  is  clearly  Wend,  the  name  that  the  Germans  have 
always  applied  to  the  Slavs.  Its  meaning  is  unknown.  It 
has  been  the  cause  of  much  confusion  because  of  the  Armori- 
can  Veneti,  the  Paphlagonian  Enetae,  and  above  all  the 
Enetae-Venetae  at  the  head  of  the  Adriatic.  .  .  .  Other 
names  in  Ptolemy  which  almost  certainly  denote  Slavic 
tribes  are  the  Veltae  on  the  Baltic.  The  name  Slav  first  oc- 
curs in  Pseudo-Caesarius  (Dialogues,  II,  no;  Migne,  P.  G., 
XXXVIII,  985,  early  6th  century),  but  the  earliest  definite 
account  of  them  under  that  name  is  given  by  Jordanes 
(Getica  [History  of  the  Goths],  V,  34,  35),  about  550  A.  D.: 
'Within  these  rivers  lies  Dacia,  encircled  by  the  Alps  as  by 
a  crown.  Near  their  left  ridge,  which  inclines  toward  the 
north,  and  beginning  at  the  source  of  the  Vistula,  the  pop- 
ulous race  of  the  Venethi  dwell,  occupying  a  great  expanse 
of  land.  Though  their  names  are  now  dispersed  amid  vari- 
ous clans  and  places,  yet  they  are  chiefly  called  Sclaveni  and 
Antes.  The  abode  of  the  Sclaveni  extends  from  the  city  of 
Noviodunum  and  the  lake  called  Mursianus,  to  the  Dnaster, 
and  northward  as  far  as  the  Vistula.  They  have  swamps 
and  forests  for  their  cities.  The  Antes,  who  are  the  bravest 
of  these  peoples  dwelling  in  the  curve  of  the  sea  of  Pontus, 
spread  from  the  Dnaster  to  the  Dnaper,  rivers  that  are 
many  days'  journey  apart.'"  See  also  Zaborowski,  1,  pp. 
272  seq. 

The  name  Wends,  as  has  been  said,  was  used  by  the  Ger- 
mans to  designate  the  Slavs.  It  is  now  used  for  the  German- 
ized Polaks,  and  especially  for  the  Lusatian  Wends  or  Sorbs. 
It  is  first  found  in  English  used  by  Alfred.  Canon  I.  Taylor, 
in  Words  and  Places,  p.  42,  says:  "The  Sclavonians  call  them- 


selves  either  Slowjane,  'the  intelligible  men,'  or  else  Srb 
which  means  'kinsmen/  while  the  Germans  call  them 

Haddon,  3,  p.  47,  says:  "The  Slavs,  who  belong  to  the 
Alpine  race,  seem  to  have  had  their  area  of  characterization 
in  Poland  and  the  country  between  the  Carpathians  and  the 
Dnieper;  they  may  be  identified  with  the  Venedi." 

In  the  author's  opinion  these  people  have,  so  far  as  is 
known,  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  tribe  of  Veneti  at 
the  head  of  the  Adriatic,  nor  with  the  Veneti  in  western 
Europe  in  what  is  now  Brittany.  Of  the  former  Ripley,  p. 
258,  says  that  they  have  been  generally  accepted  as  of  II- 
lyrian  derivation  and  cites  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  Von 
Duhn,  Pigorini,  Sergi,  Pull6,  Moschen  and  Tedeschi  as 

The  Veneti  in  Italy  are  tall,  broad-headed  and  some 
are  blond,  having  mixed  with  the  Teutons.  They  possessed 
some  eastern  habits,  such  as  their  marriage  customs,  as  set 
forth  in  Herodotus.  They  were  flourishing,  wealthy  and 
peaceful.    Later  they  were  driven  to  what  is  now  Venice. 

The  Veneti  in  Gaul  were  a  powerful  maritime  people,  who 
carried  on  a  sea  trade  with  Britain.  Strangely,  perhaps,  the 
ancient  name  of  northern  Wales  was  Venedotia.  The  name 
Veneto,  however,  has  nothing  to  do  with  that  of  Vandal. 
For  some  theories  as  to  the  relationships  of  some  of  these 
Veneti,  see  Zaborowski,  3. 

143  :  15.  Gallicia  and  the  Tripolje  Culture.  Cf.  pp. 
113-114.  Gallicia  is  not  far  from  the  known  location  of  the 
Briinn-Pre'dmost  race,  which  was  dolichocephalic  with  a  long 
face.  This  early  appearance  of  a  dolichocephalic  race  at  the 
point  where  the  dolichocephalic  Nordics  later  came  in  con- 
tact with  the  Alpines  is  very  significant. 

The  locality  is  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Tripolje  area  in 
southern  Russia,  for  which  see  Minns,  Scythians  and  Greeks, 
pp.  130-142,  and  Peake,  2,  p.  164. 

Minns  says:  "The  first  finds  of  Neolithic  settlements  in 
Russia  were  made  near  the  village  of  Tripolje,  on  the  Dnepr, 
forty  miles  below  Kiev,  and  this  name  has  since  been  extended 
to  the  culture  of  a  large  area  in  southern  Russia.    The  re- 


mains  consist  of  so-called  'areas'  with  buildings  which  had 
wattled,  clay-covered  walls  which  were  fired  when  dry  to 
give  them  greater  hardness.  Pottery  is  present  in  great 
abundance  and  variety  of  forms.  These  bear  painted  deco- 
rations which  are  very  artistic.  There  are  a  few  figurines. 
The  buildings  were  not  dwellings  but  probably  chapels. 
The  homes  were  probably  pit  dwellings.  Bodies  of  the  dead 
were  incinerated  and  deposited  in  urns. 

"The  theory  has  been  abandoned  that  this  was  an  autoch- 
thonous development,  typical  of  the  Indo-Europeans  [Nor- 
dics] before  they  differentiated  (cf.  Chvojka,  the  first  dis- 
coverer). Although  similar  to  JEgean  art  this  was  earlier 
(see  Von  Stern,  Prehistoric  Greek  Culture  in  the  South  of 
Russia).  It  came  suddenly  to  an  end  and  had  no  successor 
in  that  region.  The  people  were  agriculturalists  long  before 
the  Scythians,  but  the  next  people  who  lived  there  were  thor- 
ough nomads.  Niederle  (Slav.  Ant.,  I)  dates  them  2000 
B.  C.  The  Tripolje  people  either  moved  south  or  were 
overwhelmed  by  new  comers."  As  Peake  says,  2,  pp.  164-165, 
here  was  a  very  likely  point  of  contact  between  the  Nordic 
and  Alpine  stocks,  a  mixture  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the 
author,  may  ultimately  throw  some  light  on  the  origin  of 
the  Dinaric  and  Beaker  Maker  types.  Through  this  region 
both  Alpines  and  Nordics  must  have  passed  many  times  in 
their  wanderings.  Here  perhaps  the  Alpines  became  partly 
Nordicized,  especially  as  to  their  language. 

143  :  21.  Sarmatians.  There  has  been  considerable  con- 
fusion over  these  people,  owing  to  the  various  ways  in  which 
the  name  has  been  spelled  by  early  and  later  writers,  and  to 
the  fact  that  they  dwelt  in  the  region  where  both  Alpines 
and  Nordics  must  have  existed  side  by  side.  The  name  Sar- 
matians has  been  applied  at  one  time  to  Nordics,  at  another 
to  Alpines  or  even  Mongolians,  depending  on  the  dates  when 
they  were  discussed  and  the  bias  of  various  writers.  We 
have  no  generic  name  for  the  Alpine  peoples  who  must  have 
been  in  this  region  in  early  times,  except  that  of  Sarmatians 
or  Scythians.  As  the  Scythians  are  apparently  strongly 
Nordic  in  character,  the  name  Sarmatians  seemed  more  fit- 
ting to  apply  to  the  Alpine  tribes  who  were  certainly  there. 


Not  all  authorities  are  agreed  as  to  their  affiliations,  however, 
as  has  been  said. 

Jordanes  declares  that  the  Sarmatians  and  the  Sauromatae 
were  the  same  people.  Stephanus  Byzantius  states  that 
the  Syrmatae  were  identical  with  the  Sauromatae.  They  are 
first  mentioned  by  Polybius  as  being  in  Europe  in  179  B.  C. 
(XXV,  II;  XXVI,  VI,  12).  But  in  Asia  we  hear  of  them  as 
early  as  325  B.  C,  according  to  Minns,  p.  38,  who  says  that 
they  gradually  shifted  westward,  until  in  50  A.  D.  they 
were  in  the  Danube  valley.  Jordanes  later  speaks  of  the 
Carpathian  mountains  as  the  Sarmatian  range.  Mierow, 
in  the  notes  to  his  translation  of  Jordanes,  makes  the  Sar- 
matians a  great  Slavic  people  dwelling  from  the  Vistula  to 
the  Don,  in  what  is  now  Poland  and  Russia.  (See  also 
Hodgkin,  Italy,  vol.  I,  part  I,  p.  71.)  According  to  Jordanes, 
the  Sarmatians  were  beyond  Dacia  (the  ancient  Gothic  land) 
and  to  the  north  (XII,  74).  It  is  with  these  statements  in 
mind  that  the  author  has  designated  them  as  Alpines. 

Minns  describes  the  Sarmatians  as  nomads  of  the  Cas- 
pian steppes  who  wore  armor  like  the  Hiung-nu.  About 
325  B.  C.  there  was  a  decline  of  the  Scyths  and  they  appear. 
During  the  second  and  third  centuries  A.  D.  was  the  time 
when  they  spread  over  the  vast  regions  from  Hungary  to  the 
Caspian.  Minns,  however,  is  firm  in  the  belief  that  they 
were  Iranians  [Nordics],  like  the  Alans,  Ossetes,  Jasy,  etc. 
In  the  second  half  of  the  fourth  century  B.  C.  they  were  still 
east  of  the  Don  or  just  crossing;  for  the  next  century  and  a 
half  we  have  very  scanty  knowledge  of  what  was  happen- 
ing in  the  steppes.  Procopius,  III,  II,  also  makes  them 
Goths.  (See  the  note  to  p.  66  :  16.)  Feist,  5,  p.  391,  quotes 
Tacitus  as  to  their  being  horse-loving  nomads  of  south 
Russia.  See  also  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  4,  t.  I,  and  Gib- 
bon, chaps.  XVIII,  XXV,  etc.,  for  further  discussions. 

144  :  n  seq.  See  the  authorities  quot*4  in  Ripley,  pp. 
361-362.  The  Bashkirs,  however,  are  partly  Finn,  partly 
Tatar  as  well. 

144  :  26-145  :  1.    Ripley,  pp.  416  seq.  and  434. 

145  :  3-    Ripley,  p.  434- 

145  :  7.    Freeman,  1,  pp.  113-115;  Haddon,  3,  p.  45. 


145  :  10.  Ripley,  p.  421.  These  are  the  Volga  Finns. 
Old  Bulgaria,  according  to  Pruner-Bey,  2,  t.  I,  pp.  390-433, 
P.  F.  Kanitz  and  others,  seems  to  have  been  between  the 
Ural  mountains  and  the  Volga.  The  old  Bulgarians  were  a 
Finnic  tribe  (just  which  is  a  matter  of  much  dispute).  They 
crossed  the  Danube  toward  the  end  of  the  seventh  century. 
See  Freeman,  1,  pp.  17,  155. 

145  :  11  seq.    Ripley,  p.  426,  based  on  Bassanovic,  p.  30. 

145  :  16.    Ripley,  p.  421. 

145  :  19.  Of  the  numerous  tribes  who,  since  the  Christian 
Era,  have  entered  Europe  and  Anatolia  from  western  Asia 
some  were  undoubtedly  pure  Mongoloids,  like  the  Huns  of 
Attila,  or  the  hordes  of  Genghis  Khan.  Others  were  prob- 
ably under  Mongoloid  leaders,  and  included  a  large  proportion 
of  West  Asiatic  Alpines  (i.  e.,  Turcomans),  while  still  others 
may  have  been  substantially  Alpines.  The  Mongols  in  their 
sweep  into  Europe  would  naturally  gather  up  and  carry  with 
them  many  of  the  tribes  of  western  Asia,  or  perhaps  more 
often  would  drive  the  latter  ahead  of  them. 

146  :  3  seq.  Ripley,  p.  139;  Taylor,  1,  p.  119;  Peake,  2, 
p.  162. 

146  :  8.  Ripley,  p.  136.  These  primitive  nests  occur  also 
in  Norway. 

146  :  12.    See  the  note  to  p.  131  :  26. 

146  :  19-147  :  6.    See  pp.  122  and  138  of  this  book. 

147  :  7  seq.  Accad  and  Sumer.  Prince,  and  Zaborowski 
(after  de  Sarzec)  give  the  earliest  date  of  Accad  as  about 
3800  B.  C,  but  Prince  thinks  this  date  too  old  by  700-1000 
years.  See  also  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  118-125.  H.  R.  Hall,  in 
The  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  reviews^the  entire  work 
in  this  field  in  his  first  chapter.  According  to  him,  dates  in 
Babylonia  can  be  traced  as  far  back  as  those  of  Egypt, 
without  coming  to  a  time  when  there  was  no  writing  or  metal, 
while  Egyptian  records  begin  in  a  Neolithic  culture.  The 
earliest  dates  so  far  established  are  in  the  fourth  millennium 
B.  C,  but  already  a  high  degree  of  civilization  had  been 
reached  there  or  elsewhere  by  people  who  brought  it  to 
Babylonia.  Hall,  p.  176,  says:  "The  most  ancient  remains 
that  we  find  in  the  city  mounds  are  Sumerian.    The  site  of 


the  ancient  Shurripak,  at  Farah  in  Southern  Babylonia,  has 
lately  been  excavated.  The  culture  revealed  by  this  excava- 
tion is  Sumerian,  and  metal-using,  even  at  the  lowest  levels. 
The  Sumerians  apparently  knew  the  use  of  copper  at  the 
beginning  of  their  occupation  of  Babylonia,  and  no  doubt 
brought  this  knowledge  with  them."  See  chap.  V  of  Hall's 
book,  and  the  two  great  works  of  King,  the  Chronicles  Con- 
cerning the  Early  Babylonian  Kings,  and  The  History  of  Sumer 
and  Akkad,  as  well  as  Rogers's  History  of  Babylonia  and  As- 
syria. In  his  preface  to  the  first-mentioned  of  his  two  works 
King  states  that  the  new  researches  are  resulting  in  a  tendency 
to  reduce  the  dates  of  these  ancient  empires  very  consider- 
ably, especially  for  the  dynasties.  Thus  for  Su-abu,  the 
founder  of  the  first  dynasty,  a  date  not  earlier  than  2100 
B.  C.  is  now  given,  and  for  Hammurabi  one  not  earlier  than 
the  twentieth  century  B.  C.  Accad  is  by  many  authors,  in- 
cluding Breasted,  considered  to  have  been  Semitic  from  the 
beginning,  and  to  have  been  established  about  2800  B.  C. 
But  Zaborowski  claims  that  it  was  not  originally  Semitic,  but 
Semitized  at  a  very  early  date.  He  makes  both  city-king- 
doms originally  Turanian  [by  which  he  means  Alpine  and 
pre-Aryan]  with  an  agglutinative  language  related  to  the 
Altaic.  See  also  Zaborowski,  2.  He  dates  the  cuneiform  in- 
scriptions between  3700  and  4000  B.  C,  after  de  Sarzec  and 
de  Morgan.  Hall  draws  attention  to  the  remarkable  re- 
semblance of  the  Sumerians  to  the  Dravidians,  and  is  in- 
clined to  believe  that  they  may  have  come  from  India. 
Both  G.  Elliot  Smith  and  Breasted  claim  the  Babylonians 
derived  their  culture  from  Egypt,  but  the  weight  of  evi- 
dence is  gradually  accumulating  against  them.  See  Hall, 
chap.  V.  The  relations  of  the  two  regions  and  Egyptian 
dates  are  treated  in  Reisner's  Early  Dynastic  Cemeteries  of 
Naga-ed-Der;  and  Eduard  Meyer,  Geschichte  des  Alter  turns, 
should  also  be  consulted.  Against  these  Egyptologists  are 
most  of  the  later  writers,  such  as  Hall  and  King  and  many 
others.  The  location  of  Babylonia  is  a  fact  distinctly  in 
favor  of  its  earlier  beginnings.  There  is  no  denying  the  very 
remote  origin  of  Egyptian  culture,  which  in  its  isolation  for 
so  many  centuries  had  ample  time  to  develop  its  own  peculiar 


features  and  to  become  sufficiently  strong  to  later  extend  a 
very  wide  influence.  There  is  an  interesting  study  of  the 
fauna  of  Egypt  by  Lortet  and  Gaillard,  which  proves  that 
much  of  it  was  originally  African,  not  Asiatic,  as  those  who 
wish  to  prove  the  opposite  theory,  that  Egyptian  culture  was 
derived  from  the  east  in  very  remote  times,  have  endeavored 
to  establish.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  Egyptians  were 
sufficiently  plastic  and  adaptable  in  the  earlier  centuries  of 
their  development,  wherever  they  may  have  come  from,  to 
make  use  of  what  the  continent  of  Africa  contributed  in  the 
way  of  resources.  (See  also  Gaillard,  Les  Talonnements  des 
Egyptiens,  etc.,  and  H.  H.  Johnston,  On  North  African  An- 
imals.) To  claim  that  the  civilization  of  Sumer  was  derived 
directly  from  Elam,  which  in  turn  obtained  its  earliest  cul- 
ture from  Egypt,  is,  in  the  opinion  of  the  author,  to  reverse 
the  truth.  Some  authorities  believe  that  Elam  was  the 
origin  from  which  came  the  civilization  found  by  Pumpelly 
in  Turkestan,  and  believed  by  him  to  have  been  not  earlier 
than  the  end  of  the  third  millennium  B.  C.  (For  a  further 
reference  to  this  see  the  note  to  p.  119  :  15  of  this  book,  on 

See  Hall  as  to  the  relationship  of  the  Accadians  and  Sume- 
rians  with  Elam.  Zaborowski  says  they  were  all  of  the  same 
Alpine  stock,  that  is,  the  very  early  Sumerians  and  Accadians 
and  Elamites.  See  2,  p.  411.  For  Susa,  Elam  and  Media, 
see  Les  peuples  Aryens,  pp.  125-138,  and  Hall,  chap.  V. 
For  the  Persians,  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  134  seq.  Ripley,  pp. 
417,  449-450,  discusses  some  of  the  eastern  tribes,  among 
them  the  Tadjiks,  whom  general  opinion  makes  round- 
skulled.  These,  according  to  Zaborowski,  are  the  living 
prototypes  of  the  Susians,  Elamites  and  Medes.  Many 
writers  consider  the  Medes  to  have  been  Nordics  and  related 
to  the  Persians.  The  author,  however,  follows  Zaborowski 
in  classing  them  as  the  early  brachycephalic  population  of 
Elam  or  its  highlands  or  plateau,  which  was  conquered  by 
the  Persians.  On  the  Medes  and  Media  see  the  notes  to 
P-  254  :  13- 



148  :  1.  The  Mediterranean  Race.  Sergi,  4;  Ripley;  and 
Elliot  Smith,  1. 

148  :  14.     Deniker,  2,  pp.  408  seq.;  Ripley,  pp.  450-451. 

148  :  15.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  257-261. 

148  :  18.  Dravidians.  Bishop  R.  Caldwell,  Comparative 
Grammar  of  the  Dravidian  or  South  Indian  Family  of  Lan- 
guages; G.  A.  Grierson,  Linguistic  Survey  of  India,  vol.  IV, 
Munda  and  Dravidian  Languages;  Friedrich  Miiller,  Reise  der 
osterreichischen  Fregatte  Novara  um  die  Erde  in  den  Jahren 
1 85 7-1 85 9,  etc.,  pp.  73  seq.;  Grundriss  der  Sprachwissenschaft, 
vol.  Ill,  pp.  106  seq.     See  also  Haddon,  3,  p.  18. 

148  :  22  seq.  Deniker,  2,  p.  397;  Haddon,  1,  3,  but  Haddon 
has  pointed  out  that  the  Andamanese  are  not  racially  of  the 
same  stock  as  the  Sakai,  Veddahs,  etc. 

149  :  6.  Haddon,  3,  and  Sergi,  4,  p.  158;  Ripley;  Fleure 
and  James;  Peake;  etc. 

149  :  12.     Peake,  2,  p.  158. 

149  :  21.  On  this  point,  Ripley,  pp.  465  seq.,  quotes  Von 
Dueben,  Retzius,  Arbo,  Montelius,  Barth,  Zograf,  Lebon, 
Olechnowicz,  etc. 

150  :  8.     See  the  notes  to  p.  149. 
150  :  12.     See  the  notes  to  p.  257. 

150  :  21.  Beddoe,  4,  and  3,  pp.  384  seq.,  and  Ripley,  pp. 
326,  328  seq. 

150  :  24  seq.     See  the  notes  to  p.  149. 

150  :  29-151  :  3.  A.  Retzius,  1,  2;  G.  Retzius,  1,  2;  Peake, 
2,  p.  158.  Taylor,  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  p.  101,  says  the 
Iberian  type  is  not  found  in  northern  Europe  east  of  Namur. 
In  the  British  Isles,  however,  it  extends  to  Caithness. 

151  :  3  seq.  See  the  notes  to  p.  149;  Ripley,  pp.  461-465; 
Sergi,  4,  p.  252;  Osborn,  1,  p.  458. 

151  :  18.  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  passim;  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1, 
pp.  18,  30,  31,  and  chap.  V. 

151  :  22  seq.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  p.  30.  For  a  contrary 
opinion  see  Sergi,  4. 

152  :  3.     W.  L.  and  P.  L.  Sclater,  The  Geography  of  Mam- 


mals,  pp.  177  seq.;  Flower  and  Lydekker,  Mammals,  Living 
and  Extinct,  pp.  96-97. 

152  :  6.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  chap.  IV  and  elsewhere;  Sergi, 
4,  chap.  III. 

152  :  12.  Negroes  seem  to  have  been  unknown  in  Egypt 
and  Nubia  in  pre-dynastic  days  and  only  appear  in  small 
numbers  in  the  third  and  fourth  dynasties,  in  the  South. 
The  great  ruins  on  the  Zambezi  at  Zimbabwe  were  probably 
the  work  of  the  Mediterranean  race  and  are  to  be  dated 
about  1000  B.  C.  In  other  words,  all  northeast  Africa,  in- 
cluding Nubia,  the  northern  Sudan,  the  ancient  Kingdom  of 
Meroe  at  the  junction  of  the  Blue  and  White  Niles,  Abys- 
sinia and  the  adjoining  coast  were  originally  part  of  the  do- 
main of  the  Mediterranean  race. 

In  the  recent  kingdom  of  the  Mahdi,  the  predominant  ele- 
ment was  not  Negro  but  Arab  more  or  less  mixed. 

152  :  16.  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  passim;  Ripley,  pp.  387, 
390;  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East. 

152  :  27.  Sardinia.  See  Ripley  and  Von  Luschan.  A 
recent  article  by  V.  Giuffrida-Ruggeri,  entitled  "A  Sketch 
of  the  Anthropology  of  Italy,"  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal 
Anthropological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  is  well 
worth  consideration.  On  pp.  91-92  the  author  gives  a 
short  sketch  of  the  Sardinians  and  his  authorities  are  to  be 
found  in  a  footnote  on  p.  91. 

153  :  4.    Albanians.    See  the  notes  to  p.  163  :  19. 

153  :  6  seq.  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  122  seq.,  149;  Beddoe, 
4,  pp.  25-26;  Davis  and  Thurnam,  especially  p.  212;  Boyd 
Dawkins,  Early  Man  in  Britain. 

153  :  10.  Scotland.  See  the  notes  to  pp.  150  :  10  and 
204  :  5. 

153  :  14  seq.    See  the  notes  to  p.  229  : 5-12. 

153  :  24  seq.  The  Mediterranean  Race  in  Rome.  Mon- 
telius,  La  Civilisation  primitive  en  Italie;  Peet,  The  Stone  and 
Bronze  Ages  in  Italy;  Munro,  Palceolithic  Man  and  the  Terra- 
mar  a  Settlements ;  Modesto v,  Introduction  d,  Vhistoire  romain; 
Frank,  Roman  Imperialism.  Giuffrida-Ruggeri,  in  A  Sketch 
of  the  Anthropology  of  Italy,  p.  10 1,  says  of  the  composition 
of  the  population  of  Rome: "  The  three  fundamental  European 


races,  H.  mediterraneus,  H.  alpinus,  and  H.  nordicus,  had  their 
representatives  among  the  ancient  Romans,  although  the 
skeletal  remains  of  the  Mediterraneans  and  the  Northerners 
are  difficult  to  distinguish  from  each  other.  It  is  also  pos- 
sible that  the  Northerners  belonged  to  the  aristocrats  who 
preferred  to  burn  their  dead.  In  the  calm  tenacity  and  quiet 
growth  of  the  Roman  people  perhaps  the  descendants  of  H. 
nordicus  represented  the  turbulent  restlessness  of  violent  and 
bold  individuals  which,  even  in  Roman  history,  one  is  able 
to  discern  from  time  to  time." 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  what  Charles 
W.  Gould  has  said  on  p.  117,  in  America,  a  Family  Matter, 
concerning  Sulla.  He  describes  him  as  follows:  "Even  dur- 
ing the  terror  Sulla  found  time  for  enjoyment.  Tawny  hair, 
piercing  blue  eyes,  fair  complexion  readily  suffused  with  color 
as  emotion  and  red  blood  surged  within,  Norseman  that  he 
was,  he  presided  over  constant  and  splendid  entertainments, 
taking  more  pleasure  in  a  witty  actor  than  in  the  degenerate 
men  and  women  of  the  old  nobility  who  elbowed  their  way 
in."    Also  see  the  notes  to  p.  215  :  21. 

1S4  :  5-  Quarrels  between  the  Patricians  and  the  Plebs. 
See  Tenney  Frank,  Roman  Imperialism,  pp.  5  seq.,  for  a  dis- 
cussion of  the  mixture  of  races,  "only  we  cannot  agree  that 
a  social  state  can  accomplish  race  amalgamation.  The  two 
races  are  still  there."  Boni,  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  vol.  Ill,  p. 
401,  believes  that  the  Patricians  were  the  descendants  of  the 
immigrant  Aryans,  while  the  Plebeians  were  the  offspring  of 
the  aboriginal  Non-Aryan  stock.  Compare  this  with  the 
statements  of  early  writers  concerning  the  conditions  in 
Gaul,  especially  as  summed  up  by  Dottin  in  his  Manuel 

Frank  says,  concerning  the  quarrels,  in  chap.  II,  op.  cit.: 
"  Roman  tradition  preserved  in  the  first  book  of  Livy  presents 
a  very  circumstantial  account  of  the  several  battles  by  which 
Rome  supposedly  razed  the  Latin  cities  one  after  another. 
.  .  .  Needless  to  say,  if  the  Latin  tribe  had  lived  in  such 
civil  discord  as  the  legend  assumes,  it  would  quickly  have 
succumbed  to  the  inroads  of  the  mountain  tribes."  Thus 
probably  the  quarrels  between  Latin  and  Etruscan  have 
been  overrated.    See  again,  p.  14,  for  the  oriental  origin  of 


some  intruding  people.  He  says,  in  a  note  at  the  end  of 
the  chapter:  "Ridgeway,  in  Who  were  the  Romans,  1908, 
has  ably,  though  not  convincingly  developed  the  view  that 
the  Patricians  were  Sabine  conquerors.  Cuno,  Vorgeschichte 
Roms,  I,  14,  held  that  they  were  Etruscans.  Fustel  de  Cou- 
langes,  in  his  well-known  work,  La  cite  antique,  proposed  the 
view  that  a  religious  caste  system  alone  could  explain  the 
division.  Eduard  Meyer,  the  article  on  the  Plebs  in  Hand- 
w'drterbuch  der  Staatswissenschaften,  and  Botsford,  Roman 
Assemblies,  p.  16,  have  presented  various  arguments  in  favor 
of  the  economic  theory.  See  Binder,  Die  Plebs,  1909,  for  a 
summary  of  many  other  discussions." 

Breasted,  Ancient  Times,  pp.  495  seq.,  and  Sir  Harry  John- 
ston, Views  and  Reviews,  p.  97,  are  two  who  have  touched 
upon  these  questions. 

On  Etruria  see  the  note  to  p.  157  :  14. 

154  :  11.  An  allusion  to  the  short  stature  of  the  Roman 
legions  of  Caesar  in  Gaul  may  be  found  in  Rice  Holmes,  2, 
p.  81.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  Les  Celts  en  Espagne,  XIV, 
p.  369,  says  in  describing  a  combat  between  P.  Cornelius 
Scipio  and  a  Gallic  warrior:  "Scipio  was  of  very  small  stature, 
the  Celtiberian  warrior  with  the  high  stature  which  in  all 
times  in  the  tales  of  the  Roman  historians  characterizes  the 
Celtic  race;  and  the  beginning  of  the  struggle  gave  him  the 
advantage."  Taylor,  Origin  of  the  Aryans,  p.  76,  says: 
"The  stature  of  the  Celts  struck  the  Romans  with  astonish- 
ment. Caesar  speaks  of  their  mirifica  corpora  and  contrasts 
the  short  stature  of  the  Romans  with  the  magnitudo  corporum 
of  the  Gauls.  Strabo,  also,  speaking  of  the  Coritavi,  a 
British  tribe  in  Lincolnshire,  after  mentioning  their  yellow 
hair,  says:  'To  show  how  tall  they  are,  I  saw  myself  some  of 
their  young  men  at  Rome  and  they  were  taller  by  six  inches 
than  anyone  else  in  the  city.'"  See  also  Elton,  Origins, 
p.  240. 

154  :  18  seq.  Nordic  Aristocracy  in  Rome.  Tenney 
Frank,  Race  Mixture  in  the  Roman  Empire.  But  he  also 
makes  Gauls  and  Germans  on  the  same  level  as  other  con- 
quered people,  as  legionaries,  etc.  See  also  Giuffrida-Rug- 
geri,  p.  101. 

155:5  seq.     G.  Elliot  Smith,   1;  Peet,   2,  pp.   164  seq. 


Fleure  and  James  use  the  terms  Neolithic  and  Mediter- 
ranean interchangeably.  Recent  study  is  giving  a  some- 
what different  interpretation  to  the  significance  of  the  mega- 
liths. See  the  article  by  H.  J.  Fleure  and  L.  Winstanley 
in  the  191 8  Journal  of  the  Royal  Anthropological  Institute  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  On  the  megaliths  see  also  the 
note  to  p.  129  :  2  seq. 

155  :  22  seq.     See  the  notes  to  p.  233  seq. 

155  :  27-156  :  4.     See  the  notes  to  p.  192. 

156  :  4.     See  the  notes  to  p.  244  :  6. 
156  :  8.     Sergi,  4,  p.  70. 

156  :  10.  Gauls.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  1,  XIV,  p. 
364,  says:  "Hannibal  left  Spain  for  Italy  in  218,  but  he  left 
there  a  Carthaginian  army  in  the  ranks  of  which  marched 
auxiliaries  furnished  by  the  Celtic  peoples  of  Spain;  Roman 
troops  came  to  combat  this  army  and  four  years  after  the 
departure  of  Hannibal,  (i.  e.  in  214),  they  gave  many  battles 
to  the  Carthaginian  generals  where  the  Celts  were  van- 
quished. In  the  booty  there  were  found  abundant  Gallic 
trappings,  especially  a  great  number  of  collars  and  bracelets 
of  gold;  among  the  dead  of  the  Carthaginian  army  left  upon 
the  plain  were  two  petty  Gallic  kings,  Moencapitus  and  Vis- 
marus.  Livy,  who  tells  us  these  things,  says  distinctly  that 
the  trappings  were  Gallic  (Gallica)  and  that  the  kings  were 
Gallic.    See  Livy,  I,  XXIV,  c.  42." 

156  :  13.     See  the  note  to  p.  192. 

156  :  16.  Feist,  5,  p.  365,  is  one  of  the  authors  who  notes 
the  fact  that  classic  writers  spoke  of  light  and  dark  types  in 

156  :  18.  This  of  course  means  racial  evidence.  See 
Mommsen,  History  of  the  Roman  Provinces,  I,  chap.  II,  and 
Burke,  History  of  Spain,  p.  2. 

156  :  25-157  :  3.  On  the  history  of  the  Albigenses  the 
most  important  authority  is  C.  Schmidt,  Histoire  de  la  secte 
des  Cathares  on  Albigeois,  Paris,  1849.  The  Albigenses  were 
deeply  indebted  to  the  Arabic  culture  of  Saracenic  Spain, 
which  was  the  medium  through  which  much  of  the  ancient 
Greek  science  and  learning  was  preserved  to  modern  times. 

157  : 4.    Ripley,  pp.  260  seq.    For  an  exhaustive  resume 


of  the  subject  see  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  277-287.  Also  con- 
sult the  notes  to  p.  235  :  17  of  this  book. 

157  :  6.  See  p.  122  for  the  predominance  of  the  Mediter- 

157  :  10.  Umbrians  and  Oscans.  It  is  fair  to  assume  that 
some  people  brought  the  Aryan  languages  into  Italy  from  the 
north,  and  this  introduction  is  credited  to  the  Umbrians  and 
Oscans.  (See  Helbig,  Die  Italiker  in  der  Poebene,  pp.  29-41 ; 
Ridgeway,£ar/y^4ge  of  Greece;  Conway,  Early  Italic  Dialects.) 
The  Umbrians  and  Oscans  were  closely  allied  in  regard  to 
their  language,  whatever  may  have  been  their  ethnic  affini- 
ties. In  a  remoter  degree  they  were  connected  with  the 
Latins.  From  the  time  and  starting-point  of  their  migra- 
tions, as  well  as  from  their  type  of  culture,  it  would  appear 
that  they  were  cognate  with  the  early  Nordic  invaders  of 
Greece.  Whether  they  were  wholly  Nordic,  or  were  thor- 
oughly Nordicized  Alpines,  or  merely  Alpines  with  Nordic 
leaders  is  not  of  particular  moment  in  this  connection,  but 
if  they  were  the  carriers  of  Aryan  language  and  culture  they 
were  Nordicized  in  a  degree  comparable  to  the  genuine  Nor- 
dics who  invaded  Greece.  Giuffrida-Ruggeri,  in  one  of  the 
latest  papers  on  Italy,  as  well  as  many  earlier  authorities, 
regards  the  Umbrians  as  Alpines,  but  he  says  they  were  not 
all  round-skulled.  "The  Osci,  the  Sabines,  the  Samnites, 
and  other  Sabellic  peoples  were  Aryans  or  Aryanized,  al- 
though they  inhumated  their  dead  instead  of  burning  them. 
It  is  possible  that  the  founders  of  Rome  consisted  of  both 
families,  as  we  find  both  rites  in  ancient  Rome"  (p.  100). 

157  :  14.  Etruscans.  The  author  is  familiar  with  the 
persistent  theory  that  the  Etruscans  came  from  Asia  Minor 
by  sea,  but  he  nevertheless  regards  them  as  indigenous  in- 
habitants of  Italy,  that  is,  the  Pre-Aryan,  Pre-Nordic  Medi- 
terraneans, who,  as  part  of  a  large  and  extended  group,  were 
spread  over  a  great  part  of  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean, 
and  were  at  that  time  the  Italian  exponents  of  the  prevailing 
yEgean  culture.  During  the  second  millennium  in  which  this 
culture  flourished,  they  were  much  influenced  by  Crete,  al- 
though they  developed  their  civilization  along  special  lines. 
The  Etruscan  language,  excluding  the  borrowed  elements 


from  later  Italic  dialects,  is  apparently  in  no  sense  Aryan. 
Cf.  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  pp.  53-54. 

157  :  16.    The  date  800  is  given  by  Feist,  5,  p.  370. 

157  :  18.  Livy,  V,  33  seq.,  is  the  authority  for  the  date  of 
the  sixth  century.  See  also  Polybius,  1,  II,  c.  XVII,  §  1. 
Myers,  Ancient  History,  makes  the  settlement  of  the  Gauls 
in  Italy  about  the  fifth  century  B.  C.  Most  authorities  fol- 
low Livy. 

157  :  21.  To  show  how  approximate  the  authorities  are 
on  this  date,  Rice  Holmes,  2,  p.  1,  and  Myers,  Ancient  His- 
tory, make  it  390,  while  Breasted  gives  382. 

157  :  23.  Livy,  V,  35-49,  treats  of  the  taking  of  Rome  by 
the  Gauls.  The  name  Brennus  means  raven;  it  is  from  the 
Celtic  bran,  raven,  crow. 

157  :  26.  There  is  a  considerable  Frankish  element  there 
also,  among  the  aristocracy. 

158  :  1  seq.  An  interesting  discussion  of  this  event  is 
given  by  Salomon  Reinach,  2.  The  invasion  was  resisted 
first  at  Thermopylae  and  later  at  Delphi.  On  p.  81  Reinach 
says:  "In  the  detailed  recital  which  Pausanius  has  left  us 
of  the  invasion  of  the  Galatic  bands  in  Greece,  dealing  with 
the  glorious  part  which  the  Athenians  played  in  the  de- 
fence of  the  Pass  of  Thermopylae.  But,  when  the  defile  had 
been  forced,  the  Athenians  departed  and  Pausanius  makes 
no  more  mention  of  them  in  relating  the  defence  of  Delphi, 
where  only  the  Phocians,  four  hundred  Locrians  and  two 
hundred  ^Etolians  figured.  It  is  only  after  the  defeat  of  the 
Gauls  that  the  Athenians,  according  to  Pausanius,  came  back, 
together  with  the  Boeotians,  to  harass  the  barbarians  in 
their  retreat.  .  .  ."  On  p.  83  he  says:  "The  barbarians  are 
incontestably  the  Galatians."  See  also  by  the  same  author, 
The  Gauls  in  Antique  Art.  G.  Dottin,  pp.  461-462  gives  us  the 
following:  "Hannibal,  traversing  southern  Gaul,  found  on 
liis  passage  only  Gauls.  On  the  other  hand,  Livy  mentions 
the  arrival  of  Gauls  in  Provence  at  the  same  time  as  their 
first  descent  into  Italy,  and  Justinius  places  the  wars  of  the 
Greeks  of  Marseilles  against  the  Gauls  and  Ligurians  before 
the  taking  of  Rome  by  the  Gauls.  The  invasion  of  the 
Belgae  is  placed  then  in  the  third  century.    It  is  doubtless 


contemporaneous  with  the  Celtic  invasion  of  Greece  which 
was  perhaps  caused  by  it."  See  also  the  notes  to  p.  174  :  21 
of  this  book.  According  to  Myers,  Ancient  History,  where 
the  account  of  these  events  is  briefly  given  on  pp.  269-270, 
the  year  was  278  B.  C.    Breasted,  1,  p.  449,  gives  280  B.  C. 

As  late  as  the  fourth  century  of  our  era,  Celtic  forms  of 
speech  prevailed  among  the  Galatians  of  Asia  Minor.  Ac- 
cording to  Jerome  (Fraser's  Golden  Bough,  II,  p.  126,  foot- 
note), the  language  spoken  then  in  Anatolia  was  very  sim- 
ilar to  the  dialect  of  the  Treveri,  a  Celtic  tribe  on  the  Moselle, 
of  whose  name  Treves  is  the  perpetuator.  "It  was  to  these 
people  that  St.  Paul  addressed  one  of  his  epistles." 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  at  the  present  time  the  finest 
soldiers  of  the  Turkish  army  are  recruited  in  the  district  of 
Angora  which  includes  the  territory  of  ancient  Galatia. 

158  :  13.  Procopius,  IV,  13,  says  that  a  number  of  Moors 
and  their  wives  took  refuge  in  Sicily  and  also  in  Sardinia 
where  they  established  colonies.  The  recent  article  by 
Giuffrida-Ruggeri  sums  up  the  data  for  Sicily,  Sardinia  and 
Corsica.     See  also  Gibbon,  passim,  and  Ripley,  pp.  115-116. 

158  :  16.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  1,  pp.  94  seq.,  and  the  notes  to 
pp.  127  :  26  and  128. 

158  :  21.  Pelasgians.  Sergi,  4,  followed  by  many  an- 
thropologists, describes  as  Pelasgian  one  branch  of  the  Medi- 
terranean or  Eurafrican  race  of  mankind  and  one  group  of 
skull  types  within  that  race.  Ripley,  pp.  407,  448,  considers 
them  Mediterraneans  in  all  probability,  as  this  is  the  oldest 
layer  of  population  in  these  regions.  So  also  do  Myres, 
Dawn  of  History,  p.  171,  and  most  of  the  other  authorities. 
In  his  History  of  the  Pelasgian  Theory,  Myres  sums  up  all 
that  was  written  up  to  that  time.  Homer  and  other  early 
writers  make  them  the  ancient  inhabitants  of  Greece,  who 
were  subdued  by  the  Hellenes.  It  is  generally  agreed  that 
a  people  resembling  in  its  prevailing  skull  forms  the  Mediter- 
ranean race  of  north  Africa  was  settled  in  the  ^Egean  area 
from  a  remote  Neolithic  antiquity.  D'Arbois  de  Jubain- 
ville,  4,  t.  I,  devotes  a  chapter  or  more  to  them,  and  declares 
on  p.  no:  "In  fact  the  Pelasgians  and  the  Hellenes  are  of 
different  origin;  the  first  are  one  of  the  races  which  preceded 


the  Indo-Europeans  in  Europe,  the  others  are  Indo-Euro- 

Another  recent  writer  who  deals  with  this  puzzling  prob- 
lem is  Sartiaux,  in  his  Troie,  pp.  140-143.  Finally,  Sir  Wil- 
liam Ridgeway  says:  "The  Achaeans  found  the  land  occupied 
by  a  people  known  by  the  ancients  as  Pelasgians  who  contin- 
ued down  to  classical  times  the  main  element  in  the  popula- 
tion, even  in  the  states  under  Achaean,  and  later,  under  Dorian 
rule.  In  some  cases  the  Pelasgians  formed  a  serf  class,  e.  g. 
in  Penestas,  in  Thessaly,  the  Helots  in  Laconia  and  the  Gym- 
nesii  at  Argos;  whilst  they  practically  composed  the  whole 
population  of  Arcadia  and  Attica  which  never  came  under 
either  Achaean  or  Dorian  rule.  This  people  had  dwelt  in  the 
vEgean  from  the  Stone  Age,  and  though  still  in  the  Bronze 
Age  at  the  Achaean  conquest,  had  made  great  advances  in 
the  useful  and  ornamental  arts.  They  were  of  short  stature, 
with  dark  hair  and  eyes,  and  generally  dolichocephalic. 
Their  chief  centers  were  at  Cnossus,  Crete,  in  Argolis,  La- 
conia and  Attica,  in  each  being  ruled  by  ancient  lines  of 
kings.  In  Argolis,  Prcetus  built  Tiryns  but  later  under 
Perseus,  Mycenae  took  the  lead  until  the  Achaean  conquest. 
All  the  ancient  dynasties  traced  their  descent  from  Poseidon, 
who  at  the  time  of  the  Achaean  conquest  was  the  chief  male 
divinity  of  Greece  and  the  islands." 

As  to  the  Pelasgian  being  a  Non- Aryan  tongue,  the  ancient 
script  at  Crete  has  not  yet  been  deciphered.  Since  the  an- 
cient Cretans  were  presumably  Pelasgians,  it  is  safe  to  iden- 
tify them  with  this  Non-Aryan  language,  although  Conway, 
2,  pp.  141-142,  is  inclined  to  believe  that  it  is  related  to  the 
Aryan  family.  See  also  Sweet,  The  History  of  Language,  p. 

158  :  22.  Nordic  Achaeans.  Ridgeway,  1,  p.  683,  says: 
"We  found  that  a  fair-haired  race  greater  in  stature  than  the 
melanochrous  ^Egean  people  had  there  [in  Greece  and  the 
yEgean]  been  domiciled  for  long  ages,  and  that  fresh  bodies 
of  tall,  fair-haired  people  from  the  shores  of  the  northern 
ocean  continually  through  the  ages  had  kept  pressing  down 
into  the  southern  peninsulas.  From  this  it  followed  that  the 
Achaeans  of  Homer  were  one  of  these  bodies  of  Celts  [i.  e., 


Nordics],  who  had  made  their  way  down  into  Greece  and 
had  become  the  masters  of  the  indigenous  race. 

"This  conclusion  we  further  tested  by  an  examination  of 
the  distribution  of  the  round  shield,  the  practise  of  cremation, 
the  use  of  the  brooch  and  buckle,  and  finally  the  diffusion  of 
iron  in  Europe,  North  Africa  and  western  Asia.  Our  induc- 
tions showed  that  all  four  had  made  their  way  into  Greece 
and  the  JEgean  from  Central  Europe.  Accordingly  as  they 
all  appeared  in  Greece  along  with  the  Homeric  Achseans,  we 
inferred  that  the  latter  had  brought  them  with  them  from 
central  Europe."  Elsewhere,  in  the  same  book,  Ridgeway 
identifies  the  Homeric  age  with  the  Achaean  and  Post- 
Mycenaean,  the  Mycenaean  with  the  Pre-Achaean  and  Pelas- 

Bury,  The  History  of  Greece,  p.  44,  says:  "The  Achseans 
were  a  people  of  blond  complexion,  of  Indo-European  speech. 
Among  the  later  Greeks,  there  were  two  marked  types,  dis- 
tinguished by  light  and  dark  hair.  The  blond  complexion 
was  rarer  and  more  prized.  This  is  illustrated  by  the  fact 
that  women  and  fops  used  sometimes  to  dye  their  hair  yellow 
or  red,  the  KOfir)?  ^avdur/xara  mentioned  in  the  Danae  of  Eu- 

159  :  4-5.  Date  of  the  siege  of  Troy.  Hall,  Ancient  His- 
tory of  the  Near  East,  p.  69,  and  many  other  authorities  ac- 
cept the  Parian  Chronicle,  which  makes  it  1194-1184  B.  C. 
For  the  whole  question  of  the  Trojan  War  see  Felix  Sartiaux, 
Troie,  La  Guerre  de  Troie. 

159  :  6  seq.     See  the  notes  to  p.  225  :  XX. 

159  :  10  seq.  Bury,  History  of  Greece,  p.  44;  DeLapouge, 
Les  selections  sociales.  Beddoe  noted  in  his  Anthropological 
History  of  Europe  that  almost  all  of  Homer's  heroes  were 
blond  or  chestnut-haired  as  well  as  large  and  tall.  There  are 
many  passages  in  the  Iliad  which  refer  to  the  blondness  and 
size  of  the  more  important  personages. 

159  :  19  seq.  Bury,  History  of  Greece,  pp.  57,  59,  describes 
the  Greek  tribes  which  moved  down  before  the  Dorians,  con- 
quering the  Achaeans — the  Thessalians,  Boeotians,  etc.  But 
see  Peake,  2,  for  Thessalians.  Also  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville, 
4,  t.  II,  p.  297,  and  Myers,  Anc.  Hist.,  pp.  127,  136  seq. 


159  :  23.  Dorians.  See  the  authorities  quoted  above; 
also  Ridgeway,  Von  Luschan,  Deniker,  2,  pp.  320-321,  and 

160  :  1.  C.  H.  Hawes,  p.  258  of  the  Annal  of  the  British 
School  at  Athens,  vol.  XVI,  "Some  Dorian  Descendants," 
says  the  Dorians  were  Alpines,  and  this  view  is  shared  by 
many  others,  among  them  Von  Luschan.  See  also  Myres, 
The  Dawn  of  History,  pp.  173  seg.  and  213.  While  this  may 
be  partially  true  even  of  the  bulk  of  the  population,  all  the 
tribes  to  the  north  of  the  Mediterranean  fringe  carried  a 
large  Nordic  element,  which  practically  always  assumed  the 

160  :  17.  For  the  character  of  the  Dorians,  see  Bury, 
p.  62. 

161  :  20.  The  philosopher  Xenophanes,  a  contemporary 
of  both  Philip  and  his  son,  in  discussing  man's  notion  of 
God,  insists  that  each  race  represents  the  Great  Supreme  un- 
der its  own  shape :  the  Negro  with  a  flat  nose  and  black  face, 
the  Thracian  with  blue  eyes  and  a  ruddy  complexion. 

161  :  27.  Loss  of  Nordic  blood  among  the  Persians.  See 
the  note  to  p.  254  :  n. 

162  :  8.  Barbarous  Macedonia.  Bury,  The  History  of 
Greece,  pp.  681-731. 

162  :  14.  Alexander  the  Great.  Descriptions  of  Alex- 
ander are  found  in  Plutarch,  who  quotes  the  memoirs  of 
Aristoxenus,  a  contemporary  of  Alexander,  regarding  the 
agreeable  odor  exhaled  from  his  skin;  Plutarch  also  says, 
without  giving  his  authority,  who  was  probably  the  same, 
that  Alexander  was  "fair  and  of  a  light  color,  passing  to 
ruddiness  in  his  face  and  upon  his  breast."  An  authority 
for  the  statement  of  blue  and  black  eyes  is  Quintus  Curtius 
Rufus,  a  Roman  historian  of  the  first  century  A.  D.,  in  His- 
toriarum  Alexandri  Magni,  Libri  Decern.  This  was  written 
three  and  one-half  centuries  after  the  death  of  Alexander. 
The  quotation,  from  North's  translation  of  Plutarch,  reads: 
"But  when  Appeles  painted  Alexander  holding  lightning  in 
his  hand  he  did  not  shew  his  fresh  color,  but  made  him  some- 
what blacke  and  swarter  than  his  face  in  deede  was;  for 
naturally  he  had  a  very  fayre  white  colour,  mingled  also 


with  red  which  chiefly  appeared  in  his  face  and  in  his 

In  Galton's  Inquiries  into  the  Human  Faculty,  original  Eng- 
lish edition,  frontispiece,  is  a  composite  photograph  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great  from  six  different  medals  selected  by  the 
curator  in  the  British  Museum.  The  curly  hair  and  Greek 
profile  are  significant  features.  The  sarcophagus  of  Alex- 
ander in  the  Constantinople  Museum  called  the  Sidonian, 
throws  some  light  on  this  point,  although  there  is  some  uncer- 
tainty among  archaeologists  as  to  whether  or  not  it  is  Alex- 
ander's sarcophagus. 

162  :  19.  See  Von  Luschan,  The  Early  Inhabitants  of 
Western  Asia,  the  section  on  Greece. 

163  :  7.  Grceculus,  -a,  -um.  According  to  the  Latin  dic- 
tionaries, the  diminutive  adjective,  understood  mostly  in  a 
depreciating,  contemptuous  sense — a  paltry  Greek. 

163  :  10.  Physical  types  in  early  Greece.  Ripley,  pp. 
407-408,  quotes  Nicolucci,  Zaborowski,  Virchow,  DeLapouge 
and  Sergi.     Cf.  Peake,  2,  pp.  158-159,  also  Ripley,  p.  411. 

163  :  14.  Physical  types  of  modern  Greeks.  See  the  au- 
thorities given  on  p.  409  of  Ripley's  book,  and  Von  Luschan, 
pp.  221  seq.  Von  Luschan  and  most  other  observers  say  that 
the  modern  Greeks,  at  least  in  Asia  Minor,  are  a  very  mixed 
people.     See  his  curve  for  head  form. 

163  :  16.  Von  Luschan,  p.  239:  "As  in  ancient  Greece  a 
great  number  of  individuals  seem  to  have  been  fair,  with 
blue  eyes,  I  took  great  care  to  state  whether  this  were  the 
case  with  the  modern  'Greeks'  in  Asia.  I  have  notes  for 
580  adults,  males  and  females.  In  this  number  there  were 
8  with  blue  and  29  with  gray  or  greenish  eyes;  all  the  rest 
had  brown  eyes.  There  was  not  one  case  of  really  light- 
colored  hair,  but  in  nearly  all  the  cases  of  lighter  eyes  the 
hair  also  was  less  dark  than  with  the  other  Greeks."  See 
Ripley  for  European  Greeks. 

163  :  19.  Albanians.  Deniker,  2,  pp.  333-334;  Von  Lu- 
schan, p.  224;  Ripley,  p.  410.  Most  Albanians  are  tall  and 
dark.  C.  H.  Hawes,  Some  Dorian  Descendants,  p.  258  seq., 
says  that  the  percentage  of  light  eyes  over  light  hair  is  nearly 
ten  times  as  great,  i.  e.,  there  is  3  per  cent  of  light  hair  to 


30-38  per  cent  light  eyes  among  Albanians  and  selected 
Greeks  and  Cretans.  Also  Gliick,  Zur  Physischen  Anthro- 
pologic der  Albanesen,  pp.  375-376,  and  the  note  to  p.  25  :  25 
of  this  book.  Hall  gives  some  interesting  data  on  p.  522  of 
his  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East. 

163  :  26.     See  the  note  to  p.  138  :  1  seq. 

164  :  4  seq.  Dinaric  type  identified  with  the  Spartans. 
See  C.  H.  Hawes,  op.  cit.,  pp.  250  seq.,  where  he  discusses  the 
Spartans  and  the  Dinaric  type,  and  Hall,  Ancient  History  of 
the  Near  East,  pp.  74  and  572. 

164  :  12.  On  p.  57  of  his  History  of  Greece  Bury  inclines 
to  the  belief  that  the  Dorians  came  through  Epirus,  and  at- 
tributes the  cause  of  their  invasion  to  the  pressure  of  the 
Illyrians,  to  whom  the  Dorians  were  probably  related.  It  is 
known  that  the  Illyrians  were  round-headed.  Finally  they 
left  the  regions  of  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  and  sailed  around  the 
Peloponnesus  to  southeast  Greece,  where  they  settled,  leaving 
only  a  few  Dorians  behind,  who  gave  their  name  to  the 
country  they  occupied,  but  ever  afterward  were  of  no  con- 
sequence in  Greek  history.  Some  bands  went  to  Crete, 
others  on  other  islands  and  some  to  Asia  Minor. 

164  :  15.  Character  of  the  Spartans.  See  Bury,  History 
of  Greece,  pp.  62,  120,  130-135. 

164  :  22.     See  p.  153  of  this  book. 

165  :  6  seq.    Cf.  the  note  to  p.  119  :  1  and  that  to  p.  223  :  1. 
165  :  10.     G.  Elliot  Smith,  Ancient  Mariners. 

165  :  14.     See  the  note  to  p.  242  :  5  on  languages. 

166  :  3.     Gibbon,  chap.  XLVIII. 


167  :  1  seq.  Cf.  Peake,  2,  p.  162,  and  numerous  other 
authorities.     Peake's  summary  is  brief,  clear  and  up  to  date. 

167  :  13  seq.  R.  G.  Latham  was  the  first  to  propound  the 
theory  of  the  European  origin  of  the  Indo-Europeans.  He 
says  that  there  is  "a  tacit  assumption  that  as  the  east  is  the 
probable  quarter  in  which  either  the  human  species  or  the 
greater  part  of  our  civilization  originated,  everything  came 
from  it.     But  surely  in  this  there  is  a  confusion  between  the 


primary  diffusion  of  mankind  over  the  world  at  large  and 
those  secondary  movements  by  which,  according  to  even 
the  ordinary  hypothesis,  the  Lithuanians,  etc.,  came  from 
Asia  into  Europe." 

167  :  17.  See  The  So-Called  North  European  Race  of  Man- 
kind, by  G.  Retzius.  Linnaeus  and  DeLapouge  were  the 
first  to  use  this  term,  homo  Europceus.  See  Ripley,  pp.  103 
and  121. 

168  :  13.    See  the  notes  to  pp.  31  :  16  and  224  :  19. 

168  :  19  seq.  Ripley,  chap.  IX,  p.  205,  based  on  Arbo, 
Hultkranz  and  others.  G.  Retzius,  in  the  article  mentioned 
above,  pp.  303-306,  and  also  Crania  Suecica;  L.  Wilser;  K. 
Penka;  O.  Schrader,  2  and  3;  Feist,  5;  Mathaeus  Much;  Hirt, 
1;  and  Peake,  2,  pp.  162-163,  are  other  authorities.  There 
are  many  more. 

169  :  1  seq.  G.  Retzius,  3,  p.  303.  See  also  1,  for  the 
racial  homogeneity  of  Sweden. 

169  :  9.     Osborn,  1,  pp.  457-458,  and  authorities  given. 
169  :  14.     Gerard  de  Geer,  A  Geochronology  of  the  Last 
12,000  Years. 

169  :  20  seq.    See  the  note  to  p.  117  :  18. 

170  :  3  seq.  Cuno,  Forschungen  im  Gebiete  der  alien  V  biker- 
kunde;  Posche,  Der  Arier. 

170  :  10  seq.  Peake,  2;  Woodruff,  1,  2;  and  Myres,  1,  p. 
15.  See  also  the  notes  to  pp.  168  :  19  and  Chap.  LX  of  this 

170  :  21.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  213  seq. 

170  :  29-171  :  12.    See  Osborn's  map,  1,  p.  189. 

171  :  12.    Cf.  Ellsworth  Huntington,  The  Pulse  of  Asia. 

171  :  25.  Peake,  2,  and  Montelius,  Sweden  in  Heathen 
Times,  and  most  of  the  authors  already  given  on  the  subject 
of  the  Nordics. 

172  :  1-25.  Ripley,  pp.  346-348,  and  pp.  352  seq.,  together 
with  the  authorities  quoted.  Also  Feist,  5,  and  Zaborowski, 
1,  pp.  274-278.  Marco  Polo,  about  1298,  in  chap.  XLVI,  of 
his  travels,  says  that  the  Russian  men  were  extremely  well 
favored,  tall  and  with  fair  complexions.  The  women  were 
also  fair  and  of  a  good  size,  with  light  hair  which  they  were 
accustomed  to  wear  long. 


173  :  9.  See  Bury,  History  of Greece,  pp.  111-112,  and  the 
notes  to  Chap.  XIV  of  this  book. 

173  :  11.     Saka  or  Sacae.     See  the  notes  to  p.  259  :  21. 

173  :  11.  Cimmerians.  For  an  interesting  summary  see 
Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  137-138.  For  a  lengthy  discussion  of  them 
and  of  their  migrations,  and  of  their  possible  affiliations  with 
the  Cimbri,  see  Ridgeway,  1,  pp.  387-397.  According  to  the 
best  Assyriologists  the  Cimmerians  are  the  same  people  who, 
known  as  the  Gimiri  or  Gimirrai,  according  to  cuneiform  in- 
scriptions, were  in  Armenia  in  the  eighth  century  B.  C. 
See  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  495.  Bury, 
History  of  Greece,  also  touches  on  their  raids  in  Asia  Minor. 
Minns,  p.  115,  believes  them  to  have  been  Scythians.  G. 
Dottin,  p.  23  and  elsewhere,  speaking  of  the  Cimmerians  and 
Cimbri,  says:  "The  latter  are  without  doubt  Germans,  there- 
fore the  Cimmerians  who  are  the  same  people  are  not  an- 
cestors of  the  Celts."  The  Cimmerians  were  first  spoken 
of  by  Homer  (Odyssey,  XI,  12-19)  who  describes  them  as 
living  in  perpetual  darkness  in  the  far  North.  Herodotus 
(IV,  n-13)  in  his  account  of  Scythia,  regards  them  as  the 
early  inhabitants  of  south  Russia,  after  whom  the  Bosphorus 
Cimmerius  and  other  places  were  named,  and  who  were 
driven  by  the  Scyths  along  the  Caucasus  into  Asia  Minor, 
where  they  maintained  themselves  for  a  century.  The 
Cimmerii  are  often  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  Thra- 
cian  Treres  who  made  their  raids  across  the  Hellespont, 
and  possibly  some  of  them  took  this  route,  having  been  cut 
off  by  the  Scyths  as  the  Alani  were  by  the  Huns.  Certain 
it  is  that  in  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century  B.  C,  Asia 
Minor  was  ravaged  by  northern  nomads  (Herodotus,  IV,  12), 
one  body  of  whom  is  called  in  Assyrian  sources  Gimirrai 
and  is  represented  as  coming  through  the  Caucasus.  They 
were  Aryan-speaking,  to  judge  by  the  few  proper  names  pre- 
served. To  the  north  of  the  Euxine  their  main  body  was 
merged  finally  with  the  Scyths.  Later  writers  have  often 
confused  them  with  the  Cimbri  of  Jutland.  There  is  no  re- 
lation between  the  Cimbri  and  the  Cymbry  or  Cymry,  a 
word  derived  from  the  Welsh  Combrox  and  used  by  them  to 
denote  their  own  people.    See  the  note  to  p.  174  :  26. 


173  :  14.    Medes.    See  the  notes  to  p.  254  :  13. 

173  :  14.  Achaeans  and  Phrygians.  See  Peake,  2,  who 
dates  them  at  2000  B.  C.  Bury  says,  pp.  5  and  44  seq.: 
"after  the  middle  of  the  second  millennium  B.  C,  but  there 
were  previous  and  long-forgotten  invasions."  Consult  also 
Ridgeway,  x,  and  the  notes  to  pp.  158-161  and  225  :  11  of 
this  book. 

173  :  16.    See  the  note  to  p.  157  :  10. 

173  :  18.  The  Nordics  cross  the  Rhine  into  Gaul.  Rice 
Holmes,  2,  pp.  11-12,  gives  the  seventh  century  B.  C.  as  the 
date  when  tall  fair  Celts  first  crossed  the  Rhine  west- 
ward, "but  it  is  unlikely  that  they  were  homogeneous.  .  .  . 
Physically  they  resembled  the  tall  fair  Germans  whom  Caesar 
and  Tacitus  describe,  but  they  differed  from  them  in  char- 
acter and  customs  as  well  as  in  speech."  See  also  p.  336,  at 
the  bottom,  where  he  remarks:  "Early  in  the  Hallstatt  period 
a  tall  dolichocephalic  race  appeared  in  the  Jura  and  the  Doubs, 
who  may  have  been  the  advanced  guard  of  the  Celts."  1000 
B.  C.  for  the  appearance  of  the  Celts  on  the  Rhine  is  a  very 
moderate  estimate  of  the  date  at  which  these  Nordics  ap- 
pear in  western  Europe,  as  that  would  be  nearly  four  cen- 
turies after  the  appearance  of  the  Achaeans  in  Greece  and 
fully  two  centuries  after  the  appearance  of  Nordics  who  spoke 
Aryan  in  Italy.  The  Hallstatt  culture  (see  p.  1 29)  with  which 
the  invasion  of  these  Nordics  is  generally  associated  had 
been  in  full  development  for  four  or  five  centuries  before  the 
date  here  given  for  the  crossing  of  the  Rhine.  700  B.  C, 
given  by  many  authorities,  seems  to  the  author  too  late  by 
several  centuries. 

173  :  18  seq.  G.  Dottin,  Manuel  Celtique,  pp.  453  seq., 
says:  "If  the  Celts  originated  in  Gaul,  it  is  likely  that  their 
language  would  have  left  in  our  nomenclature  more  traces 
than  we  find,  and  above  all,  that  the  Celtic  denominations 
would  be  applied  as  well  to  mountains  and  water  courses  as 
to  inhabited  places.  .  .  .  According  to  D'Arbois  de  Jubain- 
ville,  these  names  were  Ligurian.  Thus  the  Celts  would  have 
named  only  fortresses,  and  the  names  properly  geographic 
would  be  due  to  the  populations  which  preceded  them.  .  .  . 
These  constituted  for  the  most  part  the  plebs,  reduced  almost 


to  the  state  of  slavery,  which  the  Celtic  aristocracy  of  Druids 
and  Equites  dominated.  ...  On  the  other  hand,  if  one 
derives  the  Celts  from  central  Europe,  one  explains  better 
both  the  presence  in  central  Europe  of  numerous  place  names, 
proving  the  establishment  of  dwellings  of  the  Celts,  and  their 
invasions  into  southeastern  Europe,  more  difficult  to  con- 
ceive if  they  had  had  to  traverse  the  German  forests.  The 
migration  of  a  people  to  a  more  fertile  country  is  natural 
enough;  the  departure  of  the  Celts  from  a  fertile  country  like 
Gaul  to  a  less  fertile  country  like  Germany  would  be  very 
unlikely."  And  it  must  be  remembered  that  Tacitus  won- 
dered why  anyone  should  want  to  live  in  Germany,  with  its 
disagreeable  climate,  trackless  forests  and  endless  swamps. 

Dottin  adds  the  interesting  bit  of  information,  on  p.  197, 
that  the  Gauls,  mixed  with  the  Illyrians  (Alpines)  were  the 
farmers  of  old  Gaul.  The  real  Gauls  were  warriors  and 

173  :  22.    Teutons.    Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  546  seq. 

173  :  26  seq.  Deniker,  2,  p.  321;  Oman,  England  Before 
the  Norman  Conquest,  pp.  13  seq.  For  Celts  and  Teutons 
consult  also  G.  de  Mortillet,  La  formation  de  la  nation  fran- 
caise,  pp.  114  seq. 

174  :  1.  Goidels.  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  229,  409-410,  and 
2,  pp.  319-320,  says  not  earlier  than  the  sixth  or  seventh 
centuries  B.  C,  but  Montelius  and  others  give  800.  G.  Dot- 
tin,  pp.  457-460,  and  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  4,  t.  I,  pp. 
342-343,  contend  that  there  is  no  historical  record  of  it.  The 
date  depends  upon  whether  the  word  /cacro-iTepos,  which  des- 
ignates "tin"  in  the  Iliad,  is  a  Celtic  word.  See  also  Oman, 
2,  pp.  13-14,  and  Rhys  and  Jones,  The  Welsh  People,  pp.  1,  2. 

174  :  7.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  308  seq.  and  325  seq.;  Dot- 
tin,  pp.  1  and  2,  and  his  Conclusion.  Also  numerous  other 
writers,  especially  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  in  various  vol- 
umes of  the  Revue  Celtique. 

174  :  10.  Nordicized  Alpines.  Dottin,  p.  237:  "Caesar 
tells  us  that  the  Plebs  of  Gaul  was  in  a  state  bordering  on 
slavery.  It  did  not  dare  by  itself  to  do  anything  and  was 
never  consulted."    Cf.  note  to  p.  173  :  20. 

174  :  11.     Gauls  in  the  Crimea.     Ridgeway,  Early  Age  of 


Greece,  p.  387,  quotes  Strabo  (309  and  507)  and  the  long  Pro- 
togenes  inscription  from  Olbia  {Corp.  Inscr.  Grcec,  II,  no. 

174  :  15.  Migration  of  Nordics  from  Germany.  It  oc- 
curred about  the  eighth  century  B.  C,  according  to  many 
authors,  among  them  G.  Dottin,  pp.  241,  457-458.  "Caesar, 
Livy,  Justinius,  summing  up  Pompeius  Trogus,  Appian  and 
Plutarch,  without  doubt  following  a  common  source,  even 
think  that  excess  population  is  the  cause  of  the  Gallic  migra- 
tions. It  is  one  of  the  reasons  to  which  Caesar  attributes  the 
emigration  of  the  Helvetii.  Cisalpine  Gaul  nourished  an 
immense  population." 

174  :  21.  Cymry  move  westward.  See  Rice  Holmes,  2, 
pp.  319-321;  Oman,  2,  pp.  13  seq.  and  especially  p.  16; 
Deniker,  2,  pp.  320-322 ;  Dottin,  pp.  460  seq.  Both  Rhys  and 
Jones,  in  the  Welsh  People,  and  G.  Dottin,  suggest  that  this 
movement  was  only  part  of  one  great  migration  which  dis- 
persed the  Nordics  from  a  central  home.  Their  appearance 
in  Greece  as  Galatians  at  about  the  same  time  may  be  ascribed 
to  this  migration.     See  the  notes  to  p.  158  :  1  seq. 

Oman  and  many  other  authorities  think  the  movement 
occurred  some  time  before  325  B.  C. 

174  :  21  seq.  Cymry  and  Belgae.  The  Cymry  or  Belgae 
were  "P  Celtic"  in  speech.  They  first  appeared  in  history 
about  300  B.  C,  equipped  with  a  culture  of  the  second  iron 
period  called  La  Tene.  The  classic  authors  were  apparently 
uncertain  as  to  whether  or  not  they  were  Germans  (or  Teu- 
tons), but  they  appear  to  have  been  largely  composed  of  this 
element,  and  to  have  arrived  previously  from  Scandinavia 
and  to  have  adopted  the  Celtic  tongue.  These  Belgae  drove 
out  the  earlier  "Q  Celts"  or  Goidels,  and  the  pressure  they 
exerted  caused  many  of  the  later  migrations  of  the  Goidels 
or  Gauls. 

The  groups  of  tribes  which  in  Caesar's  time  occupied  the 
part  of  France  to  the  north  and  east  of  the  Seine  were  known 
as  Belgae,  while  the  same  people  who  had  crossed  to  the  north 
of  the  channel  were  called  Brythons.  To  avoid  designating 
these  groups  separately  the  author  has  called  all  these  tribes 
Cymry,  although  the  term  can  properly  be  applied  only  to 


the  "P  Celts"  of  Wales,  who  adopted  this  designation  for 
themselves  about  the  sixth  century  A.  D.,  according  to  Rhys 
and  Jones,  p.  26,  where  we  read:  "The  singular  is  Cymro, 
the  plural  Cymry.  The  word  Cymro,  is  derived  from  the 
earlier  Cumbrox  or  Combrox,  which  is  parallel  to  the  Gaulish 
Allobrox  (plural  Allobroges)  a  name  applied  by  the  Gauls  to 
certain  Ligurians  whose  country  they  conquered.  ...  As 
the  word  is  to  be  traced  to  Cumbra-land  (Cumberland),  its 
use  must  have  extended  to  the  Brythons"  (see  Rice  Holmes, 
2,  p.  15,  where  he  says  the  Brythons  spread  the  La  Tene 
culture).  "But  as  the  name  Cymry  seems  to  have  been  un- 
known, not  only  in  Brittany,  but  also  in  Cornwall,  it  may  be 
conjectured  that  it  cannot  have  acquired  anything  like  na- 
tional significance  for  any  length  of  time  before  the  battle 
of  Deorham  in  the  year  577,  when  the  West  Saxons  perma- 
nently severed  the  Celts  west  of  the  Severn  from  their  kins- 
men (of  Gloucester,  Somerset,  etc.,  as  now  known). 

"Thus  it  is  probable  that  the  national  significance  of  the 
term  Cymro  may  date  from  the  sixth  century  and  is  to  be 
regarded  as  the  exponent  of  the  amalgamation  of  the  Goidelic 
and  Brythonic  populations  under  high  pressure  from  without 
by  the  Saxons  and  Angles."  Therefore  it  is  a  purely  Welsh 
term,  properly  speaking.  Broca,  in  the  Memoires  d'anthro- 
pologie,  I,  871,  p.  395,  is  responsible  for  the  word  as  applied 
to  the  invaders  of  Gaul  who  spoke  Celtic.  He  called  them 
Kimris.  See  also  his  remarks  in  the  Bulletin  de  la  societi 
d?  Anthropologic,  XI,  1861,  pp.  308-309,  and  the  article  by  L. 
Wilser  in  U  Anthropologic,  XIV,  1903,  pp.  496-497. 

175  :  12  seq.  See  the  notes  to  p.  32  :  8;  also  Rice  Holmes, 
2>  P-  3375  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  118  seq.  Taylor,  1,  p.  109, 
says  that  there  is  a  superficial  resemblance  between  the  Teu- 
tons and  Celts,  but  a  radical  difference  in  skulls,  the  Teu- 
tonic being  more  dolichocephalic.  Both  are  tall,  large- 
limbed  and  fair.  The  Teuton  is  distinguished  by  a  pink 
and  white  skin,  the  Celt  is  more  florid  and  inclined  to  freckle. 
The  Teuton  eye  is  blue,  that  of  the  Celt  gray,  green,  or  gray- 
ish blue. 

175  :  21  seq.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  p.  326  seq.,  gives  a  summary 
of   the   descriptions   of   various   classic   authors.     Salomon 


Reinach,  2,  pp.  80  seq.,  discusses  Pausanias'  detailed  recital 
of  the  event.  For  the  original  see  Pausanias,  X,  22.  Cf. 
also  the  note  to  p.  158  :  1. 

176  :  15-177  :  27.  The  series  of  notes  which  were  col- 
lected by  the  author  on  the  wanderings  of  these  Germanic 
tribes  proved  so  lengthy,  and  the  relationships  of  the  peoples 
under  discussion  so  intricate,  that  they  grew  beyond  all 
reasonable  proportions  as  notes,  and  carried  the  subject  far 
afield.  Hence  it  has  seemed  best  to  omit  them  in  this  con- 
nection and  to  embody  them  in  another  work. 

Perhaps  it  will  therefore  be  sufficient  to  say  here  that  the 
results  of  the  research  have  made  it  clear  that  all  of  these 
tribes  were  related  by  blood  and  by  language,  and  came 
originally  from  Scandinavia  and  the  neighborhood  of  the 
Baltic  Sea.  For  some  unknown  reason,  such  as  pressure  of 
population,  they  began,  one  after  another,  a  southward 
movement  in  the  centuries  immediately  before  the  Christian 
Era,  which  brought  them  within  the  knowledge  of  the  Medi- 
terranean world.  Their  wanderings  were  very  extensive 
and  covered  Europe  from  southern  Russia  and  the  Crimea 
to  Spain,  and  even  to  Africa.  Many  of  these  tribes  broke 
up  into  smaller  groups  under  distinct  names,  or  united  with 
others  to  form  large  confederacies.  Not  only  did  some  of 
them  clash  with  each  other  almost  to  the  point  of  extermina- 
tion in  their  efforts  to  obtain  lands,  but  in  attempting  to 
avoid  the  Huns  came  into  contact  with  the  Romans,  and 
broke  through  the  frontier  of  the  Empire  at  various  points. 
From  the  Romans  they  gained  many  of  the  ideas  which  were 
later  incorporated  by  them  in  the  various  European  nations 
which  they  founded.  The  result  of  their  conquests  was  to 
establish  a  Nordic  nobility  and  upper  class  in  practically 
every  country  of  Europe, — a  condition  which  has  remained 
to  the  present  day. 

177  :  12.  Varangians.  See  the  note  on  the  Varangians, 
to  p.  189  :  24. 

177  :  18.     See  Jordanes,  History  of  the  Goths. 

177  :  27.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  2,  pp.  92-93;  Taylor, 
Words  and  Places,  p.  45;  and  G.  Dottin,  Manuel  Celtique,  p. 
28.    This  word  came  from  Volcce,  the  name  of  a  Celtic  tribe 


of  the  upper  Rhine.  Their  name,  to  the  neighboring  Teu- 
tons, came  to  designate  a  foreigner.  The  Volcae  were  sepa- 
rated into  two  branches,  the  Arecomici,  established  between 
the  Rhone  and  the  Garonne,  and  the  Tectosages,  in  the  region 
of  the  upper  Garonne.  The  term  Volcae  has  become  among 
the  Germans  Walah,  then  Walch,  from  which  is  derived 
Welsch,  which  designates  the  people  of  Romance  language, 
such  as  the  Italians  and  French.  Among  the  Anglo-Saxons 
it  has  become  Wealh,  from  which  the  derivation  Welsh,  which 
designates  the  Gauls,  and  nowadays  their  former  compa- 
triots who  migrated  to  England  and  settled  in  Wales. 


179  :  10.  Mikklegard.  "The  Great  City."  This  was 
the  name  given  to  Byzantium  by  the  Goths. 

180  :  2-1 1.  Procopius,  Vandalic  War;  Gibbon,  chaps. 
XXXI-XXXVIII;  Freeman,  Historical  Geography  of  Europe. 

181  :  14.     Gibbon,  chaps.  XXXVII  and  XXXVIII. 

182  :  1.     Eginhard,  The  Life  of  Charlemagne. 

183  :  24.  The  Political  History  of  England,  vol.  V,  by  H. 
A.  L.  Fisher,  p.  205:  "While  the  sovereigns  of  Europe  were 
collecting  tithes  from  their  clergy  for  the  Holy  War,  and 
papal  collectors  were  selling  indulgences  to  the  scandal  of 
some  scrupulous  minds,  the  empire  became  vacant  by  the 
death  of  Maximilian  on  January  19,  15 19.  For  a  few  months 
diplomacy  was  busy  with  the  choice  of  a  successor.  The  king 
of  France  (Francis  I)  poured  money  into  Germany,  and  was 
supported  in  his  candidature  by  the  pope;  the  king  of  Eng- 
land (Henry  VIII)  sent  Pace  to  counteract  French  designs 
with  the  electors;  but  the  issue  was  never  really  in  doubt. 
Germany  would  not  tolerate  a  French  ruler;  and  on  June  28, 
15 19,  Charles  of  Spain  was  elected  king  of  the  Romans." 

184  : 8.  Depopulation.  (Thirty  Years'  War.)  Cam- 
bridge Modem  History,  vol.  IV,  p.  418,  says  that  Germany 
was  particularly  afflicted.  The  data  are  unreliable,  but  the 
population  of  the  empire  was  probably  reduced  by  two- 
thirds,  or  from  16,000,000  to  less  than  6,000,000.  Bavaria, 
Franconia  and  Swabia  suffered  most.    W.   Menzel  says: 


"Germany  is  reckoned  by  some  to  have  lost  one-half,  by 
others,  two-thirds,  of  her  entire  population  during  the  Thirty 
Years'  War.  In  Saxony  900,000  men  had  fallen  within  ten 
years;  in  Bohemia  the  number  of  inhabitants  at  the  demise 
of  Frederick  II,  before  the  last  deplorable  inroads  made  by 
Barier  and  Torstenson,  had  sunk  to  one-fourth.  Augsburg, 
instead  of  80,000  had  18,000  inhabitants.  Every  province, 
every  town  throughout  the  Empire  had  suffered  at  an  equal 
ratio,  with  the  exception  of  Tyrol.  .  .  .  The  working  class 
had  almost  totally  disappeared.  In  Franconia  the  misery 
and  depopulation  had  reached  such  an  extent  that  the  Fran- 
conian  estates,  with  the  assent  of  the  ecclesiastical  princes, 
abolished  in  1650  the  celibacy  of  the  Catholic  clergy  and  per- 
mitted each  man  to  have  two  wives.  .  .  .  The  nobility  were 
compelled  by  necessity  to  enter  the  services  of  the  princes, 
the  citizens  were  impoverished  and  powerless,  the  peasantry 
had  been  utterly  demoralized  by  military  rule  and  reduced 
to  servitude."  It  has  been  said  that  the  city  of  Berlin  con- 
tained but  300  citizens;  the  Palatinate  of  the  Rhine  but  200 
farmers.  In  character,  intelligence  and  in  morality,  the 
German  people  were  set  back  two  hundred  years.  There 
are,  in  addition  to  the  authorities  quoted  here,  numerous 
others  who  make  the  same  observations,  in  fact,  this  de- 
population is  one  of  the  outstanding  results  of  the  Thirty 
Years'  War. 

See  also  Anton  Gindely,  History  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War, 
p.  398. 

184  :  22  seq.  The  British  Medical  Journal  for  April  8, 
1 91 6;  and  Parsons,  Anthropological  Observations  on  German 
Prisoners  of  War. 

185  :  6.     See  the  note  to  p.  196  :  27. 


188  :  5.    Beddoe,  4;  Ripley,  chap.  VI. 
188  :  11.    British  Medical  Journal  for  April  8,  1916. 
188  :  15.    Ripley,  pp.  221  and  469,  and  the  authorities 


188  :  24-189  :  6.  P.  Kretschmer;  and,  on  the  history  of 
High  and  Low  German,  see  Herman  Paul,  Grundriss  der 
Germanischen  Philologie;  The  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  under 
German  Language,  gives  a  good  summary. 

189  :  7.     Ripley,  p.  256. 

189  :  12.  Villari,  The  Barbarian  Invasions  of  Italy;  Thos. 
Hodgkin,  Italy  and  Her  Invaders. 

189  :  15.  Brenner  Pass.  See  Rice  Holmes,  Ccesar's  Con- 
quest of  Gaul,  p.  37;  Ripley,  p.  290;  and  most  histories  of  the 
incursions  of  the  barbarians  into  Italy. 

189  :  24.  Varangians.  Most  of  the  early  historians  of 
Russia  and  Germany  and  the  monk  Nestor,  who  was  the 
earliest  annalist  of  the  Russians,  agree  in  deriving  the  Varan- 
gians or  Varegnes  from  Scandinavia.  They  probably  were 
more  of  the  same  people  whom  we  find  as  Varini  on  the  con- 
tinental shores  of  the  North  Sea.  The  names  of  the  first 
founders  of  the  Russian  monarchy  are  Scandinavian  or 
Northman.  Their  language,  according  to  Constantine  Por- 
phyrogenitus,  differed  essentially  from  the  Sclavonian.  The 
author  of  the  annals  of  St.  Bertin,  who  first  names  the  Rus- 
sians (Rhos)  in  the  year  939  of  his  annals,  assigns  them  Sweden 
for  their  country.  Luitprand  calls  them  the  same  as  the 
Normans.  The  Finns,  Laplanders  and  Esthonians  speak  of 
the  Swedes  to  the  present  day  as  Roots,  Rootsi,  Ruorzi, 
Rootslane  or  Rudersman,  meaning  rowers.  See  Schlozer,  in 
his  Nestor,  p.  60;  and  Malte  Brun,  p.  378,  as  well  as  Kluchevsky, 
vol.  I,  pp.  56-76  and  92.  The  Varangians,  according  to 
Gibbon,  formed  the  body-guard  of  the  Greek  Emperor  at 
Byzantium.  These  were  the  Russian  Varangians,  who  made 
their  way  to  that  city  by  the  eastern  routes.  Canon  Isaac 
Taylor,  in  Words  and  Places,  p.  no,  remarks  that  "for  cen- 
turies the  Varangian  Guard  upheld  the  tottering  throne  of 
the  Byzantine  emperors."  This  Varangian  Guard  was  very 
largely  reinforced  by  Saxons  fleeing  from  the  Norman  Con- 
quest of  England.  The  name  Varangi  is  undoubtedly  iden- 
tical with  Frank,  and  is  the  term  used  in  the  Levant  to  des- 
ignate Christians  of  the  western  rite,  from  the  days  of  the 
Crusades  down  to  the  present  time.  Cf.  Ferangistan — land 
of  the  Franks,  or,  as  it  is  now  interpreted, "  Europe,"  especially 


:  1. 




•  13 




:  19, 

,6  :  i 



western  Europe.  E.  B.  Soane,  To  Mesopotamia  and  Kurdi- 
stan in  Disguise,  uses  the  phrase  d  la  ferangi  as  describing 
anything  imported  from  western  Europe. 

Deniker,  2,  pp.  333-334;  Ripley. 
Deniker,  the  same. 
Ripley,  pp.  281-283. 
Ripley,  pp.  343  seq. 
See  the  notes  to  pp.  131  :  26,  140  :  1  seq.  and 

190  :  26.     See  p.  140  of  this  book. 

192  :  1  seq.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  1,  t.  XIV,  pp.  357— 
395;  Feist,  5,  p.  365.  Col.  W.  R.  Livermore,  in  correspon- 
dence, says  that  practically  all  students  on  the  Celtiberian 
question  agree  upon  the  point  where  the  Celts  entered  Spain, 
namely,  that  designated  by  de  Jubainville.  They  passed 
along  the  Atlantic  coast,  across  the  Pyrenees,  where  the  rail- 
road from  Paris  to  Madrid  now  crosses,  about  500  B.  C, 
between  the  time  of  Avienus,  ±525  and  Herodotus,  ±  443. 
In  the  time  of  Avienus  the  Ligurians  had  both  ends  of  the 
Pyrenees  from  Ampurias  to  Bayonne,  and  controlled  the 
sources  of  the  Batis.  In  the  time  of  Herodotus,  the  Gauls 
had  the  country  up  to  the  Curretes.  See  also  Miillenhoff , 
Deutsche  A  Iter  turns  kunde,  II,  p.  238,  and  Deniker,  2,  p.  321. 
D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  op.  cit.,  especially  pp.  363-364,  says: 
"The  name  Celtiberian  was  adopted  at  the  time  of  Hannibal, 
who  entered  Spain,  married  a  Celt,  and  thus  won  the  assis- 
tance of  the  Celts  in  his  march  on  Rome.  .  .  .  The  name 
Celtiberian  is  the  generic  term  for  designating  the  Celts  es- 
tablished in  the  center  of  Spain,  but  the  word  is  sometimes 
taken  in  a  less  extended  sense  to  designate  only  one  part  of 
this  important  group." 

192  :  8.    Sergi,  4,  p.  70.    See  also  p.  156  of  this  book. 

192  :  14.  See  the  note  to  p.  156,  or  Ridgeway,  The  Early 
Age  of  Greece,  p.  375. 

192  :  18.  Ridgeway,  op.  cit.,  p.  375.  This  may  refer  to 
the  veins  showing  blue  through  the  fair  Nordic  skin. 

192  :  18.  Ridgeway,  op.  cit.,  p.  375.  Here  he  says:  "The 
Visigoths  became  the  master  race,  and  from  them  the  Span- 
ish Grandees,  among  whom  fair  hair  is  a  common  feature, 


derive  their  sangre  azul.  After  a  glorious  struggle  against 
the  Saracens,  which  served  to  keep  alive  their  martial  ardor 
and  thus  brace  up  the  ancient  vigor  of  the  race,  from  the 
1 6th  century  onward  the  Visigothic  wave  seems  to  have  ex- 
hausted its  initial  energy,  and  the  aboriginal  stratum  has 
more  and  more  come  to  the  surface  and  has  thus  left  Spain 
sapless  and  supine." 

192  :  22.  Taylor,  2,  pp.  308-309,  says:  "From  the  name  of 
the  same  nation, — the  Goths  of  Spain, — are  derived  curiously 
enough,  two  names,  one  implying  extreme  honor,  the  other 
extreme  contempt.  The  Spanish  noble,  who  boasts  that  the 
sangre  azul  of  the  Goths  runs  in  his  veins  with  no  admixture, 
calls  himself  an  hidalgo,  that  is,  a  son  of  the  Goth,  as  his 
proudest  title."  A  footnote  to  this  reads:  "The  old  etymol- 
ogy Hijo  d'algo,  son  of  someone,  has  been  universally  given 
up  in  favor  of  hi'  d'al  Go,  son  of  the  Goth.  (More  correctly 
hi' del  Go'.)  See  a  paper  'On  Oc  and  Oyl'  translated  by 
Bishop  Thirlwall,  for  the  Philological  Museum,  vol.  II,  p. 
337."  Taylor  goes  on  to  say,  however,  that  the  version 
hi'  d'  algo,  son  of  someone,  is  still  given  as  the  origin  of  this 
word  in  R.  Barcia's  Primer  Diccionaria  General  Etimologico 
de  la  Lengua  Espanol. 

Concerning  some  other  derivations  Taylor  continues:  "Of 
Gothic  blood  scarcely  less  pure  than  that  of  the  Spanish 
Hidalgos,  are  the  Cagots  of  Southern  France,  a  race  of  out- 
cast pariahs,  who  in  every  village  live  apart,  executing  every 
vile  or  disgraceful  kind  of  toil,  and  with  whom  the  poorest 
peasant  refuses  to  associate.  These  Cagots  are  the  descen- 
dants of  those  Spanish  Goths,  who,  on  the  invasion  of  the 
Moors,  fled  to  Aquitaine,  where  they  were  protected  by 
Charles  Martel.  But  the  reproach  of  Arianism  clung  to 
them,  and  religious  bigotry  branded  them  with  the  name 
cd  gots  or  •  Gothic  Dogs,'  a  name  which  still  clings  to  them, 
and  keeps  them  apart  from  their  fellow-men." 

Elsewhere  we  find  the  following:  "The  fierce  and  intoler- 
ant Arianism  of  the  Visigothic  conquerors  of  Spain  has  given 
us  another  word.  The  word  Visigoth  has  become  Bigot, 
and  thus  on  the  imperishable  tablets  of  language  the  Catholics 
have  handed  down  to  perpetual  infamy  the  name  and  nation 
of  their  persecutors." 


193  :  14  seq.  Cf.  DeLapouge,  UAryen,  p.  343,  where  he 
says  that  the  exodus  of  the  Conquistadores  was  fatal  to 

193  :  17.  Rice  Holmes,  2;  and  the  note  to  p.  69  of  this 

194  :  1.    See  the  note  to  p.  173. 

194  :  8.  Ridgeway,  I,  p.  372,  says:  "  We  know  from  Strabo 
and  other  writers  that  the  Aquitani  were  distinctly  Iberian." 
Consult  also  Rice  Holmes,  2,  p.  12,  where  he  quotes  Caesar. 

194  :  14  seq.  Ridgeway,  op.  cit.,  pp.  372  and  395;  Ripley, 
chap.  VII,  pp.  137  seq. 

194  :  19  seq.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  under  Belgae,  pp.  5,  12,  257, 
259.  304-305,  308-309,  311,  315,  318-325;  and  Ancient  Brit- 
ain, p.  445.  The  modern  composition  of  the  French  popula- 
tion has  been  investigated  by  Edmond  Bayle  and  Dr.  Leon 
MacAuliffe,  who  find  that  there  is  decided  race  mixture,  with 
chestnut  pigmentation  of  hair  and  eyes  predominating. 
Blond  traits  were  found  to  be  almost  confined  to  the  north 
and  east,  while  brunet  characters  prevail  in  the  south.  Pure 
black  hair  is  exceedingly  rare. 

195  :  14.  Vanderkindere,  Recherches  sur  VEthnologie  de 
la  Belgique,  pp.  569-574;  Rice  Holmes,  2,  p.  323;  Beddoe,  4, 
pp.  21  seq.  and  72. 

195  :  18.  Ridgeway,  1,  p.  373;  Ripley,  p.  127;  Rice 
Holmes,  2;  and  Feist,  5,  p.  14. 

195  :  25  seq.  Franks  of  the  lower  Rhine.  Eginhard,  in 
his  Life  of  Charlemagne,  p.  7,  states  the  following:  "There 
were  two  great  divisions  or  tribes  of  the  Franks,  the  Salians, 
deriving  their  name  probably  from  the  river  Isala,  the  Yssel, 
who  dwelt  on  the  lower  Rhine,  and  the  Ripuarians,  probably 
from  Ripa,  a  bank,  who  dwelt  about  the  banks  of  the  middle 
Rhine.  The  latter  were  by  far  the  most  numerous,  and 
spread  over  a  greater  extent  of  country;  but  to  the  Salians 
belongs  the  glory  of  founding  the  great  Frankish  kingdom 
under  the  royal  line  of  the  Merwings"  (Merovingians). 

196  :  2  seq.    Ripley,  p.  157;  DeLapouge,  passim. 

196  :  7  seq.  Oman,  2,  pp.  499  seq.;  Beddoe,  4,  p.  94  and 
chap.  VII;  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  121,  129;  Taylor,  2,  p.  129; 
Ripley,  pp.  151-153,  Z^-^l- 


196  :  18  seq.     DeLapouge,  passim;  Ripley,  pp.  150-155. 

197  :  3.  See  David  Starr  Jordan,  War  and  the  Breed,  pp. 
61  seq.  This  stature  has  somewhat  recovered  in  recent  years. 
It  is  now,  in  Correze,  only  2  cm.  below  the  average  for  the 
whole  of  France.  See  Grilliere,  pp.  392  seq.  W.  R.  Inge, 
Outspoken  Essays,  pp.  41-42:  "The  notion  that  frequent  war 
is  a  healthy  tonic  for  a  nation  is  scarcely  tenable.  Its  dys- 
genic  effect,  by  eliminating  the  strongest  and  healthiest  of 
the  population  while  leaving  the  weaklings  at  home  to  be 
the  fathers  of  the  next  generation,  is  no  new  discovery.  It 
has  been  supported  by  a  succession  of  men,  such  as  Tenon, 
Dufau,  Foissac,  DeLapouge  and  Richet  in  France;  Tiede- 
mann  and  Seeck  in  Germany;  Guerrini  in  Italy;  Kellogg  and 
Starr  Jordan  in  America.  The  case  is  indeed  overwhelming. 
The  lives  destroyed  in  war  are  nearly  all  males,  thus  dis- 
turbing the  sex  equilibrium  of  the  population.  They  are  in 
the  prime  of  life,  at  the  age  of  greatest  fecundity;  and  they 
are  picked  from  a  list  out  of  which  from  20  to  30  per  cent 
have  been  rejected  for  physical  unfitness.  It  seems  to  be 
proved  that  the  children  born  in  France  during  the  Napoleonic 
wars  were  poor  and  undersized,  30  millimeters  below  the 
normal  height." 

197  :  11.    DeLapouge,  passim;  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  306  seq. 

197  :  29-198  :  10.  R.  Collignon,  Anthropologie  de  la 
France,  pp.  3  seq.;  DeLapouge,  Les  Selections  sociales;  Rip- 
ley, pp.  87-89;  Inge,  p.  41;  Jordan,  passim. 

198  :  22.  Conscript  Armies.  Two  interesting  letters  bear- 
ing on  the  racial  differences  composing  conscript  and  volun- 
teer armies  in  the  recent  World  War  may  here  be  quoted. 

The  first,  from  Mr.  T.  Rice  Holmes,  relates  to  the  English 
army  of  Kitchener  in  1915.  " Perhaps  it  may  interest  you 
to  know  that  in  1915  when  recruits  belonging  to  Kitchener's 
army  were  training  near  Rochampton,  I  noticed  that  almost 
every  man  was  fair, — not,  of  course,  with  the  pronounced 
fairness  of  the  men  of  the  north  of  Scotland,  who  are  descended 
from  Scandinavians,  but  with  such  fairness  as  is  to  be  seen 
in  England.     These  men,  as  you  know,  were  volunteers." 

The  second,  from  DeLapouge,  concerns  our  American 
army  in  France.     "I  have  been  able  to  verify  for  myself 


your  observations  on  the  American  army.  The  first  to  ar- 
rive were  all  volunteers,  all  dolicho-blonds;  but  the  draft 
afterwards  brought  in  inferior  elements.  At  St.  Nazaire,  at 
Tours,  and  at  Poictiers,  I  have  been  able  to  examine  American 
soldiers  by  the  tens  of  thousands  and  I  have  been  able  to 
formulate  for  myself  a  very  definite  conception  of  the  types." 

199  :  9.  H.  Belloc,  The  Old  Road;  Peake,  Memorials  of 
Old  Leicestershire,  pp.  34-41;  Fleure  and  James,  p.  127. 

199  :  23.  See  the  notes  to  pp.  174  :  21  and  247  :  3  of  this 

199  :  29-200  :  11.  See  p.  131  of  this  book;  also  Rice 
Holmes,  1,  pp.  231-236,  434,  455"456;  and  2,  P-  I5- 

200  :  10.  Cf.  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  446,  449  and  the  note 
on  451;  also  Oman,  2,  p.  16. 

200  :  12.  Inferred  from  Rice  Holmes,  1,  p.  232;  also  Bed- 
doe,  4,  p.  31. 

200  :  18.  Oman,  2,  pp.  174-175  and  chap.  Ill  seq.,  treats 
specially  of  these  times.  See  also  Beddoe,  4,  pp.  36,  37  and 
chap.  V. 

200  :  24.     Oman,  2,  pp.  215-219. 

201  :  1.     Villari,  vol  I,  or  Hodgkin. 

201  :6  seq.  Oman,  2;  Ripley,  pp.  154,  156;  Beddoe,  4, 
p.  94;  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  121,  129;  Taylor,  2. 

201  :  11  seq.  Beddoe,  4,  chap.  VII  and  the  notes  to  p. 
196  :  7  of  this  book. 

201  :  18  seq.    See  pp.  63,  64. 

201  :  23  seq.  See  the  notes  to  p.  247.  Decline  of  the 
Nordic  type  in  England.  Beddoe,  H.;  Fleure  and  James; 
Peake  and  Horton,  A  Saxon  Graveyard  at  East  Shejjord,  Berks, 
p.  103. 

202  :  4.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  148. 

202  :  13.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  92  and  also  chap.  XII. 
202  :  17.     Ripley,  under  Ireland. 

202  :  23  seq.     See  the  notes  to  p.  108  :  1. 

203  :  5  seq.  The  intellectual  inferiority  of  the  Irish.  If 
there  is  any  indication  of  the  intellectual  rating  of  various 
foreign  countries  to  be  derived  from  the  draft  examinations 
of  our  foreign-born,  grouped  according  to  place  of  nativity, 
a  paper  by  Major  Bingham  of  Washington,  in  regard  to  "The 


Relation  of  Intelligence  Ratings  to  Nativity  "  may  be  quoted. 
The  total  number  of  foreign-born  examined,  which  formed 
the  basis  of  this  report,  was  12,407,  while  the  total  number  of 
native-born  whites  was  93,973.  Only  countries  were  con- 
sidered which  were  represented  by  more  than  100  men  in  the 
examinations.  The  tests  were  divided  into  those  for  literates 
and  those  for  illiterates,  so  that  even  men  not  speaking  Eng- 
lish could  be  graded.  In  these  examinations  the  Irish  made 
a  surprisingly  poor  showing,  falling  far  below  the  English 
and  Scotch,  who  stood  very  high,  as  well  as  below  the  Ger- 
mans, Austrians,  French-Canadians,  Danes,  Dutch,  Bel- 
gians, Swedes  and  Norwegians,  being  about  on  a  par  with 
the  Russians,  Poles  and  Italians.  Therefore,  if  these  tests 
are  any  criterion  of  intellectual  ability,  the  Irish  are  notice- 
ably inferior. 

203  :  18.    See  p.  123  of  this  book. 

203  :  24.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  139  and  chap.  XIV. 

204  :  1.    See  the  note  to  p.  150  :  21. 

204  :  5.  There  is  an  amusing  discussion  in  Rice  Holmes, 
1,  on  the  Pictish  question.  See  pp.  409-424.  Rice  Holmes 
contends  that  the  Picts  were  not  pure  remnants  of  the  Pre- 
Celtic  inhabitants,  but  a  mixture  of  these  with  Celts.  The 
term  Picts  has  been  very  widely  accepted  as  a  designation  for 
those  Pre-Celtic  inhabitants,  who  were  certainly  there.  No 
other  name  has  been  given  for  them  and  it  is  in  this  sense 
that  it  is  used  here,  and  that  Rice  Holmes  himself  is  obliged 
to  use  it  on  p.  456.  It  will  be  useful  to  the  reader  to  peruse 
pp.  13-16  of  Rhys  and  Jones,  The  Welsh  People.  Appendix 
B,  of  that  volume  (pp.  617  seq.),  written  by  Sir  J.  Morris 
Jones,  entitled  "Pre- Aryan  Syntax  in  Insular  Celtic,"  shows 
the  Anaryan  survivals  in  Welsh  and  Irish  to  be  remarkably 
similar  to  ancient  Egyptian,  which,  with  the  Berber  of  inter- 
mediate situation,  belongs  to  the  great  Hamitic  family  of 
languages  and  was  the  tongue  of  the  primitive  Mediter- 
raneans. For  Beddoe's  opinion  see  4,  p.  36.  On  p.  247  he 
says,  speaking  of  the  Highland  people:  "  Every  here  and  there 
a  decidedly  Iberian  physiognomy  appears,  which  makes  one 
think  Professor  Rhys  right  in  supposing  that  the  Picts  were 
in  part,  at  least,  of  that  stock."     See  Hector  McLean,  1, 


p.  170,  where  he  suggests  that  the  Picts  were  originally  the 
Pictones  from  the  south  bank  of  the  Loire  in  Gaul. 

The  name  Pixie,  met  with  so  frequently  in  Irish  legends, 
and  relating  to  little  people  similar  to  dwarfs,  may  have  some 
connection  with  these  shy  little  Mediterraneans  whom  the 
Nordics  found  on  their  arrival  and  who  were  forced  back  by 
them  into  inaccessible  districts. 

204  :  19.  See  the  article  on  "Pre-Aryan  Syntax  in  In- 
sular Celtic,"  just  mentioned,  and  Beddoe,  4,  p.  46,  quoting 
Elton,  p.  167.  For  other  Non-Aryan  remnants,  especially  in 
names,  see  Hector  McLean,  1,  passim. 

205  :  3.  See  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  62,  73,  1 19-128,  and 
especially  pp.  125  and  151. 

205  :  10.    The  same,  pp.  38-39,  75  and  elsewhere. 
205  :  16.    This  is  intimated  by  Rhys  and  Jones,  in  The 
Welsh  People ,  p.  33. 

205  :  20  seq.  The  same,  chap.  I,  especially  p.  35  and  pp. 
502  seq.;  Fleure  and  James,  p.  143. 

206  :  3.  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  38,  75,  119,  152.  These 
gentlemen  say,  on  p.  38,  that  they  believe  that  certain  types, 
without  any  intervening  social  or  linguistic  barrier  for  cen- 
turies, have  apparently  persisted  side  by  side  in  very  marked 
fashion  in  certain  parts  of  Wales. 

A  letter  from  Mr.  Baring  Gould  confirms  this:  "In  Wales 
there  are  two  types,  the  dark  Siluric  and  the  light  Norman. 
Here  in  the  west  of  England  we  have  the  same  two  types. 
In  this  neighborhood  one  village  is  fair,  the  next  dark  and 
sallow.  It  is  the  same  in  Cornwall;  in  certain  villages  the 
type  is  dark  and  sallow,  in  others  fair.  There  is  no  com- 
parison between  the  capabilities  moral  and  physical  be- 
tween the  two  types.  The  dark  is  tricky,  unreliable  and  goes 
under,  and  the  fair  type  predominates  in  trade,  in  business, 
in  farming  and  in  every  department." 

Beddoe,  Fleure  and  James,  and  also  Hector  McLean  re- 
mark on  the  various  moral  and  mental  capabilities  of  the 
different  physical  types. 

206  :  13.     Beddoe,  4,  chap.  VIII. 

206  :  16  seq.  Taylor,  2,  p.  129;  Keary,  pp.  486  seq.  On 
the  Normans  see  Beddoe,  chaps.  VIII,  IX  and  X. 


207  :  2.    Beddoe,  the  same. 

207  :  11.     Gibbon,  chap.  LVI;  Taylor,  2,  p.  133. 

207  :  15.    Beddoe,  chap.  VIII. 

208  :  8.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  95.  The  breadth  of  skull  "of  the 
Norman  aristocracy  may  probably  have  been  smaller,  but 
the  ecclesiastics  of  Norman  or  French  nationality,  who 
abounded  in  England  for  centuries  after  the  conquest  and 
who,  in  many  cases,  rose  from  the  subjugated  Celtic  [Alpine] 
layer  of  population,  have  left  us  a  good  many  broad  and  round 
skulls.  Thus  the  crania  of  three  bishops  of  Durham  .  .  . 
yield  an  index  of  85.6,  while  those  of  eight  Anglican  canons 
dating  from  before  the  conquest  yield  one  of  74.9.  So  far, 
however,  as  the  actual  conquest  and  armed  occupation  of 
England  was  concerned,  the  aristocracy  and  military  caste, 
who  were  largely  of  Scandinavian  type,  came  over  in  much 
larger  proportion  than  the  more  Belgic  or  Celtic  lower  ranks, 
insomuch  that  it  has  been  said  that  more  of  the  Norman 
noblesse  came  over  to  England  than  were  left  behind." 

During  the  Middle  Ages  the  church  was  a  very  democratic 
institution,  and  it  was  only  through  its  offices  that  the  lower 
ranks  succeeded  in  working  their  way  up.  This  was  partly 
because  the  older  peoples  possessed  the  Roman  learning,  and 
because  the  northern  invaders  were  more  addicted  to  martial 
than  to  priestly  pursuits.  The  conquered  people  had  no 
chance  to  rise  in  political,  aristocratic  or  military  circles,  and 
contented  themselves  with  the  church.  At  the  present  time, 
in  many  Catholic  countries,  notably  Ireland,  the  priests  are 
derived  from  the  lowest  stratum  of  the  population,  as  may 
be  clearly  recognized  in  their  portraits. 

208  :  14.     Beddoe,  passim. 

208  :  20.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  270;  G.  Retzius,  3;  Ripley;  Fleure 
and  James,  p.  152;  Alphonse  de  Candolle,  Histoire  des  sciences 
et  des  savants  depuis  deux  siecles,  p.  576;  Peake  and  Horton, 
p.  103;  and  the  note  to  p.  201  :  23  of  this  book. 

208  :  26.     Beddoe,  4,  p.  148. 

210  :  5.     Cf.  Beddoe,  p.  94. 

210  :  20.     Ripley,  pp.  228,  283,  345. 

210  :  24.  Holland  and  Flanders.  Ripley,  pp.  157  and 
293  seq. 


210  :  25.  Flemings  and  Franks.  See  Sir  Harry  Johnston, 
Views  and  Reviews,  p.  101. 

211  :  6.  The  authorities  quoted  in  Ripley,  p.  207.  See 
also  Fleure  and  James,  p.  140;  Zaborowski,  2;  and  C.  O. 
Arbo,  Yner,  p.  25. 

211  :  26.  Ripley,  pp.  363-365;  Feist,  5;  and  Dr.  Wester- 
lund  as  quoted  in  "The  Finns,"  by  Van  Cleef. 

212  :  1.    Ripley,  p.  341. 

212  :  4.     See  the  note  to  p.  242  :  16. 


213  :  1-23.  Cf.  O.  Schrader,  2  and  3;  Mathaeus  Much; 
Hirt,  1,  2;  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  100-110;  Peake,  2, pp.  163-167; 
Feist,  1,  p.  14;  Taylor,  1;  Ripley,  p.  127;  Ridgeway,  1,  p. 
373  and  the  notes  to  pp.  239  :  16  seq.,  and  253  :  19  of  this 
book.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  4,  t.  I,  pp.  ix  and  214,  gives 
the  date  when  the  Indo-Europeans  were  united  as  2500  B.  C. 
Feist,  5,  believes  the  Nordics  were  still  in  their  homeland 
between  2500  and  2000  B.  C.  This  was  the  transition  period 
from  Stone  to  Bronze  in  north-middle  and  eastern  Europe. 
Breasted,  Ancient  Times,  says:  "It  has  recently  been  scien- 
tifically demonstrated  on  the  basis,  chiefly,  of  the  Amarna 
tablets  and  other  cuneiform  evidence,  that  the  Aryans  had 
by  2000  or  1800  B.  C.  begun  to  leave  a  home  on  the  east  or 
southeast  of  the  Caspian,  where  they  divided  into  two 
branches,  one  going  southeast  into  India,  the  other  south- 
west into  Babylon."  "  The  first  occurrence  of  Indo-European 
names  is  in  the  Tell-el-Amarna  (Egyptian)  correspondence," 
says  Myres,  Dawn  of  History,  p.  153,  "which  gives  so  vivid 
a  picture  of  Syrian  affairs  in  the  years  immediately  after 
1400.  They  represent  chieftains  scattered  up  and  down 
Syria  and  Palestine,  and  they  include  the  name  of  Tushratta, 
king  of  the  large  district  of  Mitanni  beyond  Euphrates.  .  .  . 
But  this  is  a  minor  matter;  nothing  is  commoner  in  the  his- 
tory of  migatory  peoples  than  to  find  a  very  small  leaven  of 
energetic  intruders  ruling  and  organizing  large  native  popu- 
lations without  either  learning  their  subjects'  language  or 
improving  their  own  until  considerably  later,  if  at  all.    The 


Norman  princes,  for  example,  bear  Teutonic  names,  Robert, 
William,  Henry;  but  it  is  Norman  French  in  which  they 
govern  Normandy  and  correspond  with  the  king  of  France. 
All  these  Indo-European  names  (mentioned  in  the  tablets), 
belong  to  the  Iranian  group  of  languages,  which  is  later  found 
widely  spread  over  the  whole  plateau  of  Persia." 

214  :  1  seq.     See  pp.  158-159  of  this  book. 

214  :  7  seq.  Herodotus,  IV,  17,  18,  33,  53,  65,  74,  etc.,  for 
notes  on  the  Scythians.  Wheat  was  cultivated  in  the  south- 
ern part  of  Scythia.  Corn  was  an  article  of  trade,  and  the 
loom  was  used.     See  also  Zaborowski,  1;  Ripley;  Feist,  5. 

214  :  10.  Scythians.  According  to  Zaborowski,  1,  the 
Scythians  were  the  earliest  known  Nordic  nomads  of  Scythia, 
or  southern  Russia,  from  whom  no  doubt  came  the  Achaeans, 
Cimmerians,  etc.,  and  later  the  Persian  conquerors,  the  lead- 
ers of  the  Kassites  and  Mitanni,  etc.  The  Sacae  were  an 
eastern  branch  of  the  Scythians  (and  likewise  the  Massa- 
getae),  who  threw  off  branches  into  India.  Possibly  the  Wu- 
Suns  and  the  Epthalites,  or  White  Huns,  were  eastern  off- 
shoots. Owing  to  the  fact  that  Scythia  has  been  swept  time 
and  again  by  various  hordes  moving  east  and  west,  and  has 
served  no  doubt  as  a  meeting-ground  for  Alpines,  Nordics 
and  Mongols,  these  may  all,  at  some  period  or  another,  have 
been  called  Scythians  because  they  inhabited  this  little- 
known  territory.  But  the  indications  are  strongly  in  favor 
of  the  original  Scythians  being  Nordics.  It  is  in  this  sense 
that  the  name  is  here  applied.  Minns,  Scythians  and  Greeks, 
and  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  4,  t.  I,  are  two  other  authori- 
ties who  have  discussed  the  Scythians  at  length. 

214  :  11.  Cimmerians.  See  the  note  to  p.  173.  On  the 
Persians,  see  the  notes  to  p.  254.  For  the  Sacae,  the  note  to 
p.  259  :  21;  for  the  Massagetae,  the  same;  for  the  Kassites, 
that  to  p.  239  :  13.  These  last  are  Non-Aryan,  according 
to  some  authors,  including  Prince,  but  Hall,  The  Ancient 
History  of  the  Near  East,  says  they  are  undeniably  Aryans. 
For  the  Mitanni  see  the  note  to  p.  239  :  16. 

214  :  26-215  :  3.    See  p.  161  of  this  book. 

215  :  15.     See  p.  160  of  this  book. 

215  :  25.    Dante  Alighieri.    It  is  interesting  to  know  that 


the  name  Aligheri  is  Gothic,  a  corruption  of  Aldiger.  It  be- 
longs to  such  German  names  as  those  which  include  the  word 
"ger,"  spear,  as  in  Gerhard,  Gertrude,  etc.  This  name  came 
into  the  family  through  Dante's  grandmother  on  the  father's 
side,  a  Goth  from  Ferrara,  whose  name  was  Aldigero.  With 
regard  to  the  origin  of  his  grandfather  and  mother,  the  at- 
tempt to  connect  him  with  Roman  families  is  known  to  be 
a  pure  fiction  on  the  part  of  the  Italian  biographers,  who 
thought  it  more  glorious  to  be  a  Roman  than  anything  else; 
but  his  descent  from  pure  Germanic  parentage  is  practically 
proved,  since  the  grandfather  was  a  warrior,  knighted  by  the 
emperor  Conrad,  and  Dante  himself  declares  that  he  be- 
longed to  the  petty  nobility.  Even  to  the  beginning  of  the 
fifteenth  century  many  Italians  are  described  in  old  docu- 
ments as  Alemanni,  Langobardi,  etc.,  ex  alamanorum  genere, 
legibus  vivens  Langobardorum,  etc.  Though  the  majority  of 
them  had  adopted  Roman  law,  whereby  the  documentary 
evidence  of  their  descent  usually  disappeared,  they  were 
thoroughly  Germanic  in  blood,  especially  those  to  whom 
Rome  owes  much.  See  Franz  Xaver  Kraus,  Dante,  pp. 
21-25,  and  Savigny,  Geschichte  des  rbmischen  Rechte  im  Mittel- 
alter,  I,  chap.  III. 

216  :  1.    See  the  notes  to  p.  254  :  13-15. 

216  :  4.     Nordic  Sacae.     See  the  notes  to  p.  259  :  21. 

216  :  9.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  70  and  242  :  5. 

216  :  12.  Gibbon,  especially  vols.  Ill  and  IV,  which  con- 
tain numerous  references,  and  the  note  to  p.  135  :  25. 

216  :  17.  Tenney  Frank,  Race  Mixture  in  the  Roman  Em- 
pire, pp.  704  seq. 

217  13.  Plutarch's  Life  of  Pompey  the  Great,  and  his  Life 
of  Ccesar;  also  Ferrero,  The  Greatness  and  Decline  of  Rome, 
vol.  II,  "Oesar,"  chap.  VII. 

217  :  12.  Decline  of  the  Romans  and  the  Punic  Wars. 
Livy,  I,  XXI  seq.,  and  Appian,  De  rebus  hispaniensibus,  and 
De  bello  Annibalico.  Also  Pliny,  I,  and  Polybius,  I.  D'Ar- 
bois  de  Jubainville,  1,  section  entitled  "Les  Celtiberes  pen- 
dant la  seconde  guerre  punique,"  pp.  44  seq.,  says  that  Han- 
nibal's success  in  Rome  was  due  to  the  aid  of  the  Celts  and 
the  Celtiberians.     Hannibal  gained  much  of  his  army  from 


the  Celts  of  Spain,  Gaul,  and  Cis-Alpine  Gaul,  as  he  marched 
toward  Rome. 

217  :  16.  Social  and  Servile  Wars.  Plutarch's  Lives  of 
Fabius  Maximus  and  of  Sylla. 

217  :  26.     See  the  note  to  p.  51  :  18. 

218  :  16.  Tenney  Frank,  1  and  2;  Dill,  2,  book  II,  chaps. 
II  and  III;  and  1,  book  II,  chap.  I;  Myers,  Ancient  History, 
pp.  498-499,  523-525.  Bury,  in  A  History  of  the  Later  Roman 
Empire,  vol.  I,  chap.  Ill,  makes  slavery,  oppressive  taxation, 
the  importation  of  barbarians  and  Christianity  the  four 
chief  causes  of  the  weakness  and  failure  of  the  Empire. 

Gibbon,  vol  I,  at  the  end  of  chap.  X,  says,  in  speaking 
of  the  extinction  of  the  old  Roman  families,  that  only  the 
Calpurnian  gens  long  survived  the  tyranny  of  the  Caesars. 
See  the  last  three  or  four  pages  of  the  chapter.  Also  Fred- 
erick Adams  Woods,  The  Influence  of  Monarchs,  p.  295. 

219  :  11-220  :  19.     Frank,  1,  p.  705. 

220  :  21.     See  p.  216  of  this  book. 

221  :  25.  Gibbon ;  Lecky ,  The  History  of  European  Morals  ; 
and  the  note  to  p.  218  :  16. 


223  :  2.  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  pp.  380 
seq.;  Myers,  Ancient  History,  p.  33,  footnote.  Also  consult 
Von  Luschan,  The  Early  Inhabitants  of  Western  Asia,  p.  230. 

223  :  5.     DeLapouge,  L'Aryen,  pp.  200  seq. 

223  :  5.  Tamahu.  Authorities  above;  Sergi,  4,  pp.  59 
seq. ;  Beddoe,  4,  p.  14,  for  the  question  of  their  race. 

223  :  12.  Broca,  1;  Collignon,  5  and  7;  Sergi,  1;  and  Rip- 
ley, p.  279.  There  are  numerous  articles  on  the  blond  Ber- 
bers and  references  to  their  relation  to  the  Vandals.  Ripley, 
based  on  Broca,  gives  the  essential  information.  Gibbon, 
chap.  XXXIII,  is  an  important  reference. 

Blond  Moors.  Procopius  says,  D7, 13,  describing  the  fight- 
ing with  the  Moors  in  Mauretania  beyond  Mt.  Aurasium, 
which  is  thirteen  days'  journey  west  of  Carthage:  "I  have 
heard  Ortaias  say  that  beyond  these  nations  of  Moors,  be- 


yond  Aurasium,  which  he  ruled"  [apparently  south]  "there 
was  no  habitation  of  men,  but  desert  land  to  a  great  distance, 
and  that  beyond  this  desert  there  are  men,  not  black-skinned 
like  the  Moors,  but  very  white  in  body  and  fair-haired." 

Mr.  J.  B.  Thornhill  relates  that  about  fifteen  years  ago  he 
was  in  Morocco  (presumably  near  Tangier)  and  while  there 
he  saw  several  purely  blond  Berbers  from  the  Riff  mountains. 
A  young  girl,  especially,  was  an  almost  pure  Swedish  blond. 
The  coloring,  however,  was  pale  and  whitish  rather  than 
pink;  the  eyes  were  blue  and  the  hair  wavy  and  very  blond. 

223  :  21.  For  the  Philistines,  Anakim  and  Achaeans  see 
Ridge  way,  1,  pp.  618  seq.  Sir  William  Ridge  way  places  the 
appearance  of  the  Philistines  as  nearly  synchronous  with 
that  of  the  Achaeans,  and  states  that  their  weapons  and  armor 
were  similar  to  those  of  the  Achaeans,  but  different  from  those 
of  the  other  nations  of  the  early  world.  Cf.  also  Hall,  Ancient 
History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  72,  especially  footnote  1,  where  he 
says:  "The  Philistines  were  specially  receptive  of  Hellenic 
culture  and  eager  to  claim  relationship  with  the  Greeks,  and 
disassociate  themselves  from  the  Semites.  Their  coin  types 
shew  this,  see  p.  399,  n."    He  regards  them  as  Cretans. 

223  :  22-23.  Sons  of  Anak.  Numbers,  XIII,  33:  "And 
there  we  saw  the  giants,  the  sons  of  Anak,  which  came  of 
the  giants;  and  we  were  in  our  own  sight  as  grasshoppers 
and  so  we  were  in  their  sight."  Deuteronomy,  I,  28: 
"Whither  shall  we  go  up?  Our  brethren  have  discouraged 
our  heart,  saying,  'The  people  is  greater  and  taller  than  we; 
the  cities  are  great  and  walled  up  to  heaven;  and  moreover 
we  have  seen  the  sons  of  the  Anakim  there.'" 

Fairness  of  David.  I  Samuel,  XVI,  11,  12:  "And  Samuel 
said  unto  Jesse,  Are  here  all  thy  children?  And  he  said, 
There  remaineth  the  youngest,  and  behold,  he  keepeth  the 
sheep.  And  Samuel  said  unto  Jesse,  Send  and  fetch  him; 
for  we  shall  not  sit  down  till  he  come  hither.  And  he  sent, 
and  brought  him  in.  Now  he  was  ruddy,  and  withal  of  a 
beautiful  countenance,  and  goodly  to  look  to.  .  .  ."  Chap. 
XVII,  41,42 :  "And  the  Philistine  came  on  and  drew  near  unto 
David,  and  when  the  Philistine  looked  about,  and  saw  David, 
he  disdained  him;  for  he  was  but  a  youth,  and  ruddy  and  of 


a  fair  countenance."  In  the  Hebrew,  the  phrase  Of  a  Beauti- 
ful Countenance  means  fair  of  eyes. 

The  presence  of  Nordics  in  Syria  among  the  Amorites  is 
indicated  by  the  tall  stature,  long-headedness  and  fair  skin 
with  which  they  are  depicted  on  the  Egyptian  monuments. 
In  some  instances  their  eyes  are  blue.  See  p.  59  of  Albert 
T.  Clay's  The  Empire  of  the  Amorites,  also  Sayce,  and  Hall. 

224  :  3.  Wu-Suns  and  Hiung-Nu.  Minns,  Scythians  and 
Greeks,  p.  121.  DeLapouge,  L'Aryen,  mentions  the  existence 
of  a  number  of  central  Asiatic  tribes  in  addition  to  the  Wu- 
Suns,  who  were  Nordic.  See  also  J.  Klaproth,  Tableaux  his- 
toriques  de  VAsie.  Zaborowski,  Les  peuples  aryens,  p.  286, 
says:  "The  Hiung-Nu  hurled  themselves  upon  the  Illi,  and 
upon  another  blond  people  the  Wu-Suns,  whose  importance 
was  such  that  the  Chinese,  who  have  made  them  known  to 
us,  sought  their  alliance  against  the  Huns.  The  Chinese 
knew  then,  in  Turkestan,  only  the  Wu-Suns,  the  Sse,  or 
Sacae,  and  the  Ta-hia  (our  Tadjiks)." 

"The  Yue-Tchi,  repulsed  by  the  Wu-Suns  in  130  B.  C, 
hurled  themselves  upon  Bactria"  (see  the  notes  to  p.  119  :  13). 
"The  Sacae  were  then  masters  of  it  and  their  dispossession 
resulted  in  pressing  them  in  part  into  India  where  they 
founded  a  kingdom  and  also  in  part  into  the  Pro-Pamirian 
valleys,  especially  that  of  the  Oxus.  The  Yue-Tchi  ruled 
over  central  Asia  until  425  A.  D.  They  were  dispossessed 
in  their  turn  by  the  Hoas,  or  Epthalite  Huns"  (White  Huns). 

The  remainder  of  the  chapter,  pp.  287-291  is  concerned 
with  Turkestan,  the  Wu-Suns,  Huns,  Kirghizes,  etc. 

224  :  13.  Deniker,  2,  pp.  59  and  371,  says  the  Ainus  are 
dolichocephalic  and  have  in  addition  other  Nordic  traits. 
See  also  Haddon,  1,  pp.  8,  15-16,  49-50,  Ratzel  and  others. 
The  Ainus  are,  according  to  Darwin,  Descent  of  Man,  p.  852, 
the  hairiest  people  in  the  world. 

224  :  19.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  31  :  16-32  :  4. 

224  :  28.     Deniker,  2,  pp.  59  and  371 ;  Haddon,  1,  pp.  8, 15. 

225  :  11.  Phrygians.  Bury,  History  of  Greece,  pp.  46-48, 
says:  "But  about  this  very  time  (1287  B.  C.)  the  Hittite 
power  was  declining  and  northwestern  Asia  Minor  as  far  as 
the  valley  of  the  Sangarius,  was  wrested  from  their  rule  by 


swarms  of  new  invaders  from  Europe.  These  were  the 
Phrygians  to  whose  race  the  Dardanians  belonged  and  who 
were  so  closely  akin  to  the  Thracians  that  we  may  speak  of 
the  Phrygo-Thracian  division  of  the  Indo-European  family." 
On  p.  44  we  read:  "The  dynasty  from  which  the  Homeric 
kings,  Agamemnon  and  Menelaus  sprang,  was  founded  ac- 
cording to  Greek  tradition,  early  in  the  13th  century  (B.  C.) 
by  Pelops,  a  Phrygian.  Agamemnon  and  Menelaus  represent 
the  Achaean  stock.  .  .  .  The  meaning  of  this  Phrygian  re- 
lationship is  not  clear."  But  if  we  follow  the  extent  of  the 
Achaean  invasions  and  the  relation  of  the  art  and  language 
of  archaic  Phrygia  to  archaic  Greece,  the  difficulty  seems 
solved.  See  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  475. 
The  Encyclopedia  Britannica  (Phrygia)  says:  "According  to 
unvarying  Greek  tradition  the  Phrygians  were  most  closely 
akin  to  certain  tribes  of  Macedonia  and  Thrace;  and  their 
near  relationship  to  the  Hellenic  stock  is  proved  by  all  that 
is  known  of  their  language  and  art,  and  is  accepted  by 
almost  every  modern  authority.  .  .  .  The  inference  has 
been  generally  drawn  that  the  Phrygians  belonged  to  a  stock 
widespread  in  the  countries  which  lie  around  the  ^Egean 
Sea.  There  is,  however,  no  conclusive  evidence  whether  this 
stock  came  from  the  east,  over  Armenia,  or  was  European  in 
origin  and  crossed  the  Hellespont  into  Asia  Minor;  but  mod- 
ern opinion  inclines  decidedly  to  the  latter  view";  and  we 
may  add  that  the  recently  demonstrated  linguistic  affilia- 
tions strengthen  this  assumption.  See  also  Ridgeway,  1, 
pp.  396  and  elsewhere;  Peake,  2,  p.  172;  Feist,  5,  p.  407; 
Felix  Sartiaux,  Troie,  la  guerre  de  Troie;  and  O.  Schrader, 
Jevons  translation,  p.  430. 

225  :  15.     Cimmerians.     See  the  note  to  p.  173  :  11. 

225  :  17.     Gauls  and  Galatians.     See  the  note  to  p.  158  :  1. 

225  :  19.  Von  Luschan,  p.  243,  says:  "All  western  Asia 
was  originally  inhabited  by  a  homogeneous,  melanochroic 
race,  with  extreme  hypsi-brachycephaly  and  with  a  'Hittite' 
nose.  About  4000  B.  C.  began  a  Semitic  invasion  from  the 
southeast,  probably  from  Arabia,  by  people  looking  like 
modern  Bedawy.  2000  years  later  commenced  a  second  in- 
vasion, this  time  from  the  northwest  by  xanthochrous  and 


long-headed  tribes  like  the  modern  Kurds,  and  perhaps  con- 
nected with  the  historic  Harri,  Amorites,  Tamahu  and  Gala- 

"The  modern  'Turks,'  Greeks  and  Jews  are  all  three 
equally  composed  of  these  three  elements,  the  Hititte,  the 
Semitic,  and  the  xanthochrous  Nordic.  Not  so  the  Armenians 
and  Persians.  They,  and  still  more,  the  Druses,  Maronites, 
and  the  smaller  sectarian  groups  of  Syria  and  Asia  Minor, 
represent  the  old  Hittite  element,  and  are  little,  or  not  at 
all,  influenced  by  the  somatic  characters  of  alien  invaders." 

Von  Luschan  means  by  Persians,  the  round-headed  Medic 
element,  which  has  always  been  in  the  majority  and  which 
has,  at  the  present  day,  practically  submerged  the  once 
powerful,  dominant  Nordic  class,  which  he  says  is  still  seen 
not  rarely  in  some  old  noble  families. 

225  :  20.  Until  rather  recently  nothing  much  was  known 
about  the  wild  Kurdish  tribes  living  in  southeast  Anatolia, 
and  what  reports  there  were,  were  frequently  conflicting. 
There  are  two  kinds  of  Kurds,  dark  and  light.  More  data 
has  gradually  accumulated,  however,  and  it  seems  that  the 
true  Kurds  are  tall,  blond  people,  who  resemble  very  much 
the  inhabitants  of  northern  Europe. 

Ratzel,  History  of  Mankind,  says,  quoting  Polak:  "The 
Kurds  are,  in  color  of  skin,  hair  and  eyes,  so  little  different  to 
the  northern,  especially  the  Teutonic  breed,  that  they  might 
easily  be  taken  for  Germans.  There  is  nothing  to  contra- 
dict this  racial  affinity  in  the  reputation  for  honor  and  cour- 
age, which  in  spite  of  their  rapacious  tendencies,  the  Kurds 
enjoy  wherever  it  has  been  found  possible  to  compel  them  to 
labor  or  to  the  trade  of  arms.  In  Persia  the  Shah  entrusts 
the  security  of  his  person  to  Kurdish  officers  rather  than  to 
any  others.  Their  loyalty  to  their  hereditary  Wali,  which 
neither  Turks  nor  Persians  have  been  able  to  shake,  is  also 
noted  with  praise.  The  Kurd  prefers  to  wander  with  his 
herds  and  in  the  winter  lives  in  caves  like  Xenophon's  Car- 
duchi.  .  .  .  The  Kurds  are  a  highly  mixed  race  of  a  type 
chiefly  Iranian,  which  has  been  compared  with  the  Afghan 
but  is  not  homogeneous.  The  eastern  Kurds  must  have  re- 
ceived a  larger  infusion  of  Turkish  blood  than  the  western. 


'Husbandmen  by  necessity,  fighters  by  inclination,'  says 
Moltke,  'the  Arab  is  more  of  a  thief,  the  Kurd  more  of  a 
warrior.'  They  are  a  vigorous,  violent  race,  running  wild  in 
tribal  feuds  and  vendettas.  .  .  .  Their  women  hold  a  freer 
position  than  those  of  the  Turks  and  Persians."  The  quo- 
tation is  from  vol.  Ill,  p.  537. 

Von  Luschan,  op.  cit.,  p.  229,  describes  them  thus:  "  [They] 
have  long  heads  and  generally  blue  eyes  and  fair  hair.  They 
are  probably  descended  from  the  Kardouchoi  and  Gordyaeans 
of  old  historians.  They  live  southeast  of  the  Armenian  moun- 
tains. The  western  Kurds  are  dolichocephalic  and  more 
than  half  of  them  are  fair.  The  eastern  Kurds  are  little 
known  but  are  apparently  darker  and  more  round-headed." 

Soane,  in  To  Mesopotamia  and  Kurdistan  in  Disguise,  gives 
a  very  full  description  of  them,  confirming  the  above.  There 
are  so  many  tribes  differing  from  one  another,  that  only  the 
briefest  summary  may  be  given.  It  is  found  on  pp.  398  seq. 
"Judged  as  specimens  of  the  human  form,  there  is  probably 
no  higher  standard  extant  that  that  of  the  Kurds.  The 
northerner  is  a  tall,  thin  man  (obesity  is  absolutely  unknown 
among  the  Kurds).  The  nose  is  long,  thin  and  often  a  little 
hooked,  the  mouth  small,  the  face  oval  and  long.  The  men 
usually  grow  a  long  moustache,  and  invariably  shave  the 
beard.  The  eyes  are  piercing  and  fierce.  Among  them  are 
many  of  yellow  hair  and  bright  blue  eyes;  and  the  Kurdish 
infant  of  this  type,  were  he  placed  among  a  crowd  of  English 
children,  would  be  indistinguishable  from  them,  for  he  has 
a  white  skin.  In  the  south  the  face  is  a  little  broader  some- 
times, and  the  frame  heavier.  Of  forty  men  of  the  southern 
tribes  taken  at  random,  there  were  nine  under  six  feet, 
though  among  some  tribes  the  average  height  is  five  feet 
nine.  The  stride  is  long  and  slow,  and  the  endurance  of 
hardship  great.  They  hold  themselves  as  only  mountain 
men  can  do,  proudly  and  erect.  .  .  .  Many  and  many  a 
man  have  I  seen  among  them  who  might  have  stood  for  the 
picture  of  a  Norseman.  Yellow,  flowing  hair,  a  long  droop- 
ing moustache,  blue  eyes,  and  a  fair  skin — one  of  the  most 
convincing  proofs,  if  physiognomy  be  a  criterion  (were  their 
language  not  a  further  proof),  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  and 


Kurd  are  one  and  the  same  stock."  For  a  list  of  Kurdish 
tribes  and  their  numbers  and  affiliations  see  Mark  Sykes, 
vol.  XXXVIII  of  the  Jour,  of  the  Roy.  Anth.  Soc.  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,  and  Von  Luschan,  op.  cit. 

From  all  this  evidence  by  men  who  have  travelled  among 
them  it  would  appear  that  the  Kurds  are  descendants  of 
some  ancient  Nordic  invaders  who  have  found  refuge  in  the 
mountain  regions  north  of  Mesopotamia.  Cf.  the  note  to 
p.  239  :  16. 


226  :  7.  Conklin,  in  Heredity  and  Environment,  p.  207, 
says:  "Psychological  characters  appear  to  be  inherited  in 
the  same  way  that  anatomical  and  physiological  traits  are; 
indeed,  all  that  has  been  said  regarding  the  correlation  of 
morphological  and  physiological  characters  applies  also  to 
psychological  ones.  No  one  doubts  that  particular  instincts, 
aptitudes  and  capacities  are  inherited  among  both  animals 
and  men,  nor  that  different  races  and  species  differ  heredi- 
tarily in  psychological  characteristics.  The  general  ten- 
dency of  recent  work  on  heredity  is  unmistakable,  whether 
it  concerns  man  or  lower  animals.  The  entire  organism, 
consisting  of  structures  and  functions,  body  and  mind,  de- 
velops out  of  the  germ,  and  the  organization  of  the  germ  de- 
termines all  the  possibilities  of  development  of  the  mind  no 
less  than  of  the  body,  though  the  actual  realization  of  any 
possibility  is  dependent  also  upon  environmental  stimuli." 

Cf.  Haeckel,  The  Riddle  of  the  Universe,  passim. 

226  :  17.     Deniker,  2,  pp.  76,  97-104. 

227  :  1.     Cf.  their  busts  with  other  Greek  statues. 

227  :  15.  This  does  not  refer  to  the  peculiar  nests  of 
round-heads  alluded  to  by  Fleure  and  James,  and  Zabo- 
rowski,  but  to  the  Alpines  proper. 

227  :  20.     DeLapouge,  Les  Selections  sociales. 

228  :  18.     See  Tacitus,  Ger mania. 

229  :  6.  It  may  be  interesting  in  this  connection  to  quote 
Fleure  and  James,  pp.  118-119,  who,  after  giving  illustrations 
of  Mediterranean  types,  say  of  them:  "Types  i(a)  to  i(c) 


contribute  considerable  numbers  to  the  ministries  of  the  vari- 
ous churches,  possibly  in  part  from  inherent  and  racial  lean- 
ings, but  partly  also  because  these  are  the  people  of  the 
Moorlands.  The  idealism  of  such  people  usually  expresses 
itself  in  music,  poetry,  literature  and  religion,  rather  than  in 
architecture,  painting  and  plastic  arts  generally.  They  rarely 
have  a  sufficiency  of  material  resources  for  the  latter  activi- 
ties. These  types  also  contribute  a  number  of  men  to  the 
medical  profession,  for  somewhat  similar  reasons,  no  doubt. 

"  The  successful  commercial  men,  who  have  given  the  Welsh 
their  extraordinarily  prominent  place  in  British  trade  (ship- 
ping firms,  for  example),  usually  belong  to  types  2  or  4" 
[Nordic  and  Nordic- Alpine,  Beaker  Maker],  "rather  than  to 
1,  as  also  do  the  great  majority  of  Welsh  members  of  Parlia- 
ment, though  there  are  exceptions  of  the  first  importance. 

"The  Nordic  type  is  marked  by  ingenuity  and  enterprise 
in  striking  out  new  lines.  Type  2(c)"  [Beaker  Maker]  "in 
Wales  is  remarkable  for  governmental  ability  of  the  admin- 
istrative kind  as  well  as  for  independence  of  thought  and 
critical  power." 

The  following  remarks  are  taken  from  Beddoe,  4,  p.  142: 
"  In  opposition  to  the  current  opinion  it  would  seem  that  the 
Welsh  rise  most  in  commerce,  the  Scotch  coming  after  them 
and  the  Irish  nowhere.  The  people  of  Welsh  descent  and 
name  hold  their  own  fairly  in  science;  the  Scotch  do  more, 
the  Irish  less.  But  when  one  looks  to  the  attainment  of 
military  or  political  distinction,  the  case  is  altered.  Here 
the  Scotchmen,  and  especially  the  Highlanders  bear  away 
the  palm;  the  Irish  retrieve  their  position  and  the  Welsh  are 
little  heard  of." 

See  also  p.  10  of  Beddoe's  Races  of  Britain,  and  Hector 
McLean  in  vol.  IV,  pp.  218  seq.  of  the  Anthropological  Review 
and  elsewhere.  The  following  quotation  from  Hall's  Ancient 
History  of  the  Near  East  is  interesting: 

"Knowing  what  we  do  of  the  psychological  peculiarities 
of  the  different  races  of  mankind,  it  is  perhaps  not  an  illegiti- 
mate speculation  to  wonder  whence  the  Greeks  inherited  this 
sense  of  proportion  in  their  whole  mental  outlook.  The 
feeling  of  Hellenes  for  art  in  general  was  surely  inherited 


from  their  forebears  on  the  yEgean,  not  the  Indo-European 
side.*  The  feeling  for  naturalistic  art,  for  truth  of  represen- 
tation, may  have  come  from  the  ^Egeans,  but  the  equally 
characteristic  love  of  the  crude  and  bizarre  was  not  inherited: 
the  sense  of  proportion  inhibited  it.  In  fact,  we  may  ascribe 
this  sense  to  the  Aryan  element  in  the  Hellenic  brain,  to 
which  must  also  be  attributed  the  Greek  political  sense,  the 
idea  of  the  rights  of  the  folk  and  of  the  individual  in  it.f 
The  Mediterranean  possessed  the  artistic  sense  without  the 
sense  of  proportion:  the  Aryan  had  little  artistic  sense  but 
had  the  sense  of  proportion  and  justice,  and  with  it  the  polit- 
ical sense.  The  result  of  the  fusion  of  the  two  races  we  see 
in  the  true  canon  of  taste  and  beauty  in  all  things  that  had 
become  the  ideal  of  the  Greeks,J  and  was  through  them  to 
become  the  ideal  of  mankind." 

229  :  22.  Fleure  and  James,  p.  146,  say:  "In  the  folk 
tales,  it  is  true,  the  people  are  called  fairies  but  colouring  is 
mentioned  only  in  one  case — that  is  of  a  trader  from  the  sea 
who  is  said  to  be  fair;  i.  e.,  fair  hair  is  treated  as  something 
worthy  of  special  mention.  The  fairy  children  (changelings) 
are  always  described  in  such  a  way  as  to  suggest  they  they 
were  dark,  and  that  they  were  the  children  of  the  Upland- 

*  "We  have  only  to  look  around  and  seek,  vainly,  for  any  self- 
developed  artistic  feeling  among  the  pure  Indo-Europeans.  The 
Kassites  had  none  and  blighted  that  of  Babylonia  for  centuries:  the 
Persians  had  none  and  merely  adopted  that  of  Assyria:  the  Goths 
and  Vandals  had  none :  the  Celts  and  Teutons  have  throughout  the 
centuries  derived  theirs  from  the  Mediterranean  region." 

t  The  predominance  of  the  Aryan  element  in  Greek  political  ideas 
is  obvious.  It  is  not  probable  that  the  old  JEgean  had  any  more 
definite  political  ideas  than  had  his  relative  the  Egyptian. 

%  "In  matters  of  political  and  ordinary  justice  between  man  and 
man  they  fell  short  of  their  ideal  often  enough,  but  they  had  the 
reasonable  ideal:  the  barbarians  had  none.  The  Egyptians  were 
an  imaginative  race,  but  their  imagination  was  untrammelled  by 
the  sense  of  proportion:  their  only  thinker  with  reasonable  and 
logical  ideas,  Akhenaten,  soon  became  as  mad  a  fanatic  as  any  un- 
reasonable Nitrian  monk  or  Arab  Mahdi.  Ordinarily  speaking, 
Egyptian  and  Semitic  ideals  were  purely  religious,  and  so,  to  the 
Greek  mind,  beyond  the  domain  of  reason.  The  Babylonians,  As- 
syrians, and  Phoenicians  cannot  be  said  ever  to  have  possessed  any 
ideals  of  any  kind." 


folk  of  our  hypothesis — i.  e.,  mostly  of  Mediterranean  race. 
In  the  romances  the  princes  and  princesses  are  said  to  be 
fair,  as  though  that  were  exceptional.  Our  friend,  Mr.  J. 
H.  Shaxby,  draws  our  attention  to  the  probability  that  the 
word  fair  in  'fair'  or  'fair-folk'  does  not  refer  to  physical 
traits,  but  is  an  adulatory  term  such  as  men  so  generally 
use  in  describing  beings  about  whom  their  suDerstitions 

230  :  5.    Pope  Gregory,  about  578  A.  D. 

230  :  9.  For  evidence  as  to  the  blond  characters  of 
Christ  and  the  indications  of  His  descent,  see  Haeckel,  The 
Riddle  of  the  Universe,  chap.  XVII. 

Every  now  and  then  some  reference  to  this  question  is 
noted  in  the  daily  papers.  Not  long  ago,  in  one  of  the  large 
New  York  dailies,  there  appeared  a  short  paragraph  concern- 
ing the  letter  of  Lentulus.  All  mention  of  the  extremely 
doubtful  authenticity  of  this  letter  was  omitted.  The 
Catholic  Cyclopaedia,  vol.  LX,  discusses  the  matter  as  follows : 

Publius  Lentulus,  A  fictitious  person  said  to  have  been 
the  governor  of  Judea  before  Pontius  Pilate  and  to  have 
written  the  following  letter  to  the  Roman  Senate :  "  Lentulus, 
the  Governor  of  the  Jerusalemites,  to  the  Roman  Senate 
and  People,  greetings.  There  has  appeared  in  our  times 
and  there  still  lives,  a  man  of  great  power  (virtue),  called 
Jesus  Christ.  The  people  call  him  prophet  of  truth;  his 
disciples  son  of  God.  He  raises  the  dead,  and  heals  infirmi- 
ties. He  is  a  man  of  medium  size  (statura  procerus,  mediocris 
et  spectabilis);  he  has  a  venerable  aspect,  and  his  beholders 
can  both  fear  and  love  him.  His  hair  is  of  the  color  of  the 
ripe  hazel  nut,  straight  down  to  the  ears,  but  below  the  ears 
wavy  and  curled,  with  a  bluish  and  bright  reflection  flowing 
over  his  shoulders.  It  is  parted  in  two  on  the  top  of  the 
head,  after  the  pattern  of  the  Nazarenes.  His  brow  is  smooth 
and  very  cheerful,  with  a  face  without  a  wrinkle  or  spot, 
embellished  by  a  slightly  ruddy  complexion.  His  nose  and 
mouth  are  faultless.  His  beard  is  abundant,  of  the  color  of 
his  hair,  not  long,  but  divided  at  the  chin.  His  aspect  is 
simple  and  mature,  his  eyes  are  changeable  and  bright.  He 
is  terrible  in  his  reprimands,  sweet  and  amiable  in  his  ad- 


monitions,  cheerful  without  loss  of  gravity.  He  was  never 
known  to  laugh,  but  often  to  weep.  His  stature  is  straight, 
his  hands  and  arms  beautiful  to  behold.  His  conversation 
is  grave,  infrequent  and  modest.  He  is  the  most  beautiful 
among  the  children  of  men."  The  letter  was  first  printed 
in  The  Life  of  Christ,  by  Ludolph  the  Carthusian,  at  Cologne, 
1474.  According  to  the  manuscript  of  Jena,  a  certain  Gia- 
como  Colonna  found  the  letter  in  an  ancient  Roman  docu- 
ment sent  to  Rome  from  Constantinople.  It  must  be  of 
Greek  origin  and  have  been  translated  into  Latin  during  the 
thirteenth  or  fourteenth  century,  though  it  received  its 
present  form  at  the  hands  of  a  humanist  of  the  fifteenth  or 
sixteenth  century. 

The  description  agrees  with  the  so-called  Abgar  picture  of 
Our  Lord.  It  also  agrees  with  the  portrait  of  Jesus  Christ 
drawn  by  Nicephorus,  St.  John  Damascene,  and  the  Book 
of  Painters  (of  Mt.  Athos).  Munter,  {Die  Sinnbilder  und 
Kunstvorstellungen  der  alien  Christen,  Altona,  1825,  p.  9), 
believes  he  can  trace  the  letter  down  to  the  time  of  Diocle- 
tian, but  this  is  not  generally  admitted.  The  Letter  of  Len- 
tulus  is  certainly  apocryphal;  there  never  was  a  governor  of 
Jerusalem;  no  procurator  of  Judea  is  known  to  have  been 
called  Lentulus;  a  Roman  governor  would  not  have  ad- 
dressed the  Senate,  but  the  Emperor;  a  Roman  writer  would 
not  have  employed  the  expressions,  "prophet  of  truth," 
"sons  of  men,"  "Jesus  Christ."  The  former  two  are  He- 
brew idioms,  the  third  is  taken  from  the  New  Testament. 
The  letter,  therefore,  shows  us  a  description  of  Our  Lord  such 
as  Christian  piety  conceived  him. 

There  is  considerable  literature  touching  on  this  letter, 
for  which  see  the  Catholic  Cychpcedia.  Although  we  cannot 
credit  the  letter  as  genuine,  it  is  interesting,  as  the  article 
indicated,  in  showing  the  popular  attitude  to  the  traits  in 
question,  and  in  attributing  these  Nordic  characters  to 
Christ,  as  are  the  occasional  efforts  to  bring  the  matter  up 
again  in  the  journals  of  to-day. 



233  :  4.     Synthetic.     See  the  note  on  languages,  p.  242  :  5. 

233  :  13.  Tenney  Frank,  2,  pp.  1,  2,  and  the  authorities 
quoted  at  the  end  of  the  chapter.  Also  Peake,  2,  pp.  154- 
173;  Freeman,  Historical  Geography  of  Europe,  pp.  44-45. 

233  :  20.     See  the  note  to  p.  99  :  27. 

233  :  24.  Ridgeway,  1 ;  Conway,  1 ;  Peake,  2 ;  and  numer- 
ous other  authorities. 

234  :  2.  The  Messapians,  according  to  Ridgeway,  1,  p. 
347,  were  the  remnants  of  the  primitive  Ligurians,  who  once 
occupied  central  Italy  but  who  migrated,  under  the  pressure 
of  the  Umbrians,  toward  the  south.  There  some  of  them 
survived  under  the  name  Iapyges  or  Messapians,  in  the  heel 
of  the  peninsula.  "The  name  Iapyges  seems  identical  with 
that  of  the  Iapodes,  that  Illyrian  tribe  which  dwelt  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Adriatic,  largely  contaminated  with  the 
Celts  (Nordics)  who  had  flowed  down  over  them.  That  the 
Umbrians  had  a  deadly  hatred  of  a  people  of  the  same  name, 
who  had  survived  in  their  coast  area,  is  proved  by  the 
Iguvine  Tables,  where  the  Iapuzkum  numen  is  heartily  cursed 
along  with  the  Etruscans  and  the  men  of  Nar." 

See  also  Giuffrida-Ruggeri. 

234  :  3  seq.    See  the  notes  to  pp.  157  :  10  and  157  :  14. 

234  :  7.    See  the  note  to  p.  192  :  1-4. 

234  :  12.    See  pp.  174,  199  and  247  of  this  book. 

234  :  13  seq.  Non-Aryan  traces  in  central  Europe.  Den- 
iker,  2,  pp.  317,  334;  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  3,  pp.  153  seq., 
gives  Ligurian  place  names.  See  also  4,  t.  II.  It  all  depends 
on  whether  one  considers  the  Ligurians  as  Non-Aryan. 
D'Arbois  de  Jubainville  is  inclined  to  class  them  as  Aryans. 
Burke,  History  of  Spain,  says,  in  his  footnote  to  p.  2,  that 
Basque  place  names  are  found  all  over  Spain.  For  survivals 
in  the  British  Isles  see  the  notes  to  pp.  204  :  5  and  204  :  19, 
and  for  the  general  question,  Taylor,  Words  and  Places. 

234  :  18.  Finnic  dialects.  Zaborowski,  3,  pp.  174-175, 
says  there  are  very  ancient  traces  of  Germanic  elements  in 
the  Finnic  languages  of  the  Baltic.  Prior  to  the  fourth  cen- 
tury they  had  a  Gothic  character. 


234  :  24  seq.  Agglutinative  language.  See  the  note  to 
p.  242  :  5.  For  the  physical  characters  of  the  Basques,  Col- 
lignon,  3,  p.  13;  and  Ripley,  pp.  190  seq.,  who  bases  himself 
upon  Collignon.  On  the  language  see  Pruner-Bey,  1 ;  Feist,  5, 
pp.  362-363,  and  Ripley,  pp.  20, 183-185.  There  are  of  course 
other  writers  on  the  Basque  language.  As  a  result  of  the 
epoch-making  study  of  Keltic  by  Professor  J.  Morris  Jones, 
of  the  University  College,  Bangor,  Wales,  which  appears  as 
Appendix  B,  in  Rhys  and  Jones,  The  Welsh  People,  pp.  616- 
641,  the  assertion  is  made  that  Basque  is  apparently  allied 
to  Berber,  and  that  other  problems  hitherto  unsolved  may 
be  unravelled.  It  has  not  been  possible  to  learn  if  any  very 
recent  progress  has  been  the  result  of  this  new  method. 

235  :  1  seq.  Pseudo-brachycephaly  of  the  Basques.  A. 
C.  Haddon,  correspondence,  says:  "The  Basque  skull  is  long, 
but  with  a  broadening  in  the  temporal  region,  in  the  French 
Basques,  which  forms  a  spurious  kind  of  brachycephaly." 

235  :  11.    See  the  notes  above,  to  p.  234  :  24. 

235  :  17.  Liguria  and  the  Ligurian  language.  Sergi,  4; 
Ripley,  chap.  X.  The  modern  Liguria  comprises  virtually 
the  coast  lands  of  Italy  around  the  Gulf  of  Genoa  as  far 
south  as  Pisa.  For  ancient  Liguria,  which  once  extended 
into  Gaul,  see  Dechellette,  Manuel  d'archeologie,  t.  II,  pp. 
6-25.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville  treats  of  the  Ligurians  at 
length  in  several  of  his  works  mentioned,  but  Dechellette 
shows  his  wrong  reasoning,  rather  convincingly  it  seems  to 
the  author.  The  opinions  of  Jullian,  as  given  in  his  Histoire 
de  la  Gaule,  are  also  discussed  by  Dechellette.  A  full  dis- 
cussion in  English,  of  all  the  authorities  on  ancient  Liguria, 
the  Ligurians  and  their  language  is  given  in  Rice  Holmes, 
Casar's  Conquest  of  Gaul,  pp.  277-287.  The  language  is 
treated  on  pp.  281-284,  and  318,  and  by  Peet,  The  Stone  and 
Bronze  Ages  in  Italy,  pp.  164  seq. ;  see  also  D'Arbois  de  Jubain- 
ville, 3,  pp.  152  seq.  Feist,  5,  p.  369,  says  that  the  Ligurians 
were  Mediterraneans.  A  number  of  others  agree  with  him. 
The  evidence  points  rather  to  their  having  been  an  early 
Alpine  people,  somewhat  less  brachycephalic  than  those  who 
came  later,  and  this  is  the  opinion  held  by  Ratzel,  vol.  Ill,  p. 
561.     The  name  Ligurian  in  this  book  designates  a  Pre- 


Nordic  race  of  Alpine  affinities,  with  a  Pre-Aryan  lan- 

The  peculiar  and  discontinuous  distribution  of  Alpine 
peoples  with  names  which  are  variations  of  the  term  Veneti, 
a  condition  rather  analogous  to  the  scattered  groups  of  Pelas- 
gians  as  noted  by  various  authors  of  antiquity,  may  indicate 
the  last  traces  of  a  once  widely  distributed  race.  It  is  pos- 
sible that  the  Ligurians  displaced  these  "Veneti"  in  southern 
Europe,  and  later  became  confined  to  a  part  of  Gaul  and 
northern  Italy. 

235  :  23.  Deniker,  2,  p.  317,  and  the  note  to  p.  234  :  13 
of  this  book. 

235  :  27-236  :  6.    See  the  note  to  p.  234  :  17. 

236  :  9.  Feist,  1  and  5;  G.  Retzius,  2,  3;  Ripley,  p.  351; 

236  :  14.  Livs  and  Livonians.  Ripley,  pp.  358  seq.; 
Abercromby,  The  Pre-  and  Proto-Finns;  Peake,  2,  p.  150. 

236  :  17  seq.  Ripley,  pp.  365-367-  feist,  5,  p.  55,  says  the 
Finnish  language  was  once  agglutinative  but  is  now  inflec- 
tional. See  also  another  reference  to  it  on  p.  231,  and  our 
note  to  languages,  p.  242  :  5  of  this  book. 

236  :  26.  Magyar  language.  The  most  authoritative 
books  on  Finnish,  Ugrian,  and  Hungarian  speech  are  those  of 
Szinnyei.     See  also  Feist,  pp.  394  seq.,  and  Deniker,  2,  pp. 


237  :  1.  Ripley,  p.  415,  says:  "Turkish  is  the  western- 
most representative  of  a  great  group  of  languages,  best  known, 
perhaps,  as  the  Ural-Altaic  family.  This  comprises  all  those 
of  northern  Asia,  even  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  together  with 
that  of  the  Finns  in  Russian  Europe.  .  .  .  According  to 
Chantre  the  word  Turk  seems  quite  aptly  to  be  derived  from 
a  native  root  meaning  Brigand."  Also  see  pp.  404-405  and 
419  in  Ripley. 

237  :  13.     Ripley,  p.  418,  and  Von  Luschan,  op.  cit. 

237  :  21.  Gibbon,  chap.  LVII,  on  the  "Seljukian  Turks." 
On  the  Osmanli  Turks  see  Ripley,  pp.  415  seq.  On  Turks  in 
general  see  Von  Luschan. 

237  :  25.     See  the  notes  to  p.  173  :  n  and  to  pp.  253-261. 

238  :  12.     G.  Elliot  Smith,  Ancient  Egyptians,  pp.  134  seq.; 


Zaborowski,  i,  and  the  table  of  languages  in  the  note  to  p. 
242  15.  Practically  any  book  dealing  with  Aryans  gives  this 

238  :  24.    Ripley,  p.  415;  Von  Luschan. 

239  :  1.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  158  and  253. 

239  :  2.  Hittites  and  the  Hittite  Empire.  See  S.  J.  Gar- 
stang,  The  Land  of  the  Hittites;  L.  Messerschmidt,  Die  He- 
titer  (Der  Alte  Orient,  IV,  1);  Feist,  5,  pp.  406  seq.,  and  the 
Hittite  Inscriptions,  Cornell  Expedition  of  191 1.  The  his- 
tory of  the  Hittite  Empire  has  been  brought  to  light  by  the 
research  and  investigations  of  Professor  Sayce.  See  his  Hit- 
tites. There  are  a  number  of  short  general  descriptions  in 
practically  all  of  the  histories  of  ancient  peoples,  and  in  those 
of  the  Near  East.  See  for  instance,  Bury,  History  of  Greece, 
pp.  45,  64;  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  pp.  200, 
334  seq.;  Myres,  Dawn  of  History,  pp.  118  seq.,  152  seq.  and 
199  seq.;  Myers,  Ancient  History,  pp.  91-93;  Feist,  Kultur, 
pp.  406  seq.;  Von  Luschan,  pp.  242-243;  and  Zaborowski,  1, 
pp.  121, 134,  138  and  160,  deal  more  with  the  physical  char- 
acters of  the  Hittites. 

According  to  some  of  the  most  recent  authorities,  the  Hit- 
tites were  an  extraordinarily  powerful  nation  and  held  Syria 
from  about  3700  B.  C.  to  700  B.  C,  when  the  Assyrians 
overcame  them.  They  had  some  contact  with  Babylon  and 
probably  their  development  was  influenced  thereby.  They 
seem  to  have  been  the  Kheta  or  Khatti  of  the  Ancient  Egyp- 
tians. "About  1280  B.  C,"  according  to  Von  Luschan, 
"when  Khattusil  made  his  peace  with  Rameses  II,  there  ex- 
isted a  large  empire,  not  much  smaller  than  Germany,  reach- 
ing from  the  ^Egean  Sea  to  Mesopotamia  and  from  Kadesh 
on  the  Orontes  to  the  Black  Sea.  We  do  not  know  at  pres- 
ent if  this  Hittite  Empire  ever  had  a  really  homogeneous 
population,  but  we  have  a  good  many  Hittite  reliefs  and  all 
these,  without  one  single  exception,  show  us  the  high  and 
short  heads,  or  the  characteristic  noses  of  our  modern  brachy- 
cephalic  groups,  (Armenoids)." 

As  to  their  language,  J.  D.  Prince,  correspondence,  says 
that  it  was  not  Aryan,  in  spite  of  all  conjectures  to  the  con- 
trary.    "Friedrich  Delitzsch  analyzed  some  of  the  only  sylla- 


bized  material  we  have  of  this  language,  and  I  analyzed  it 
still  further  in  the  Journal  of  the  American  Oriental  Society, 
vol.  XXII,  'Hittite  Material  in  the  Cuneiform  Inscriptions,' 
reaching  the  conclusion  as  to  the  Non-Aryan  character  of 
this  idiom.  The  so-called  'Hittite  Inscriptions'  are  in  hier- 
oglyphs and  give  us  no  clue  as  to  the  pronunciation  and  hence 
none  to  the  character  of  the  language."  Von  Luschan,  p. 
242,  says:  "Orientalists  are  unanimous  in  assuming  that  the 
Hittite  language  was  not  Semitic."  A  very  recent  com- 
munication from  Fr.  Cumont,  in  L 'Academie  des  inscriptions 
et  belles  lettres  for  April  20,  191 7,  says  that  the  tongue  is 
proved  to  have  been  Aryan. 

As  to  their  physical  characters,  all  are  agreed  that  the 
Hittites  had  short,  brachycephalic  heads,  and  thick,  promi- 
nent noses.  Myres,  p.  44,  remarks  that  the  earliest  por- 
traits, which  he  dates  about  1285  B.  C,  have  been  thought  by 
some  to  be  Mongoloid,  but  the  evidence  is  still  scanty  and 
inconclusive.  Surely  if  the  older  likenesses  were  Mongoloid, 
they  bear  no  resemblance  to  the  later  types.  On  the  monu- 
ments bearded  figures  are  frequent  and  the  type  is  Armenoid. 
See  Hall,  The  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  334,  for  a 
criticism  of  the  Mongol  theory. 

239  :  10.  Sumer.  J.  D.  Prince,  in  his  article  on  the  Su- 
merians  in  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  classes  the  Sumerian 
language  as  agglutinative.  The  language  of  Susiana  is  also 
known  as  Anzanite,  Susian  or  Elamite.  The  Anzanite  may 
have  been  a  dialect  of  Susian.  Schiel's  work  with  de  Mor- 
gan's mission  shows  that  Elamite  was  agglutinative  and 
that  inflections  found  in  derived  words  are  due  to  the  influ- 
ence of  another  language.  The  locality  of  Anzan  is  not 
known  exactly,  but  is  believed  to  have  been  in  the  plain 
south  or  southeast  of  Susa.  See  also  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  149- 
150,  and  Hall,  The  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East.  Hall 
agrees  with  Prince  that  Sumerian  is  agglutinative  (p.  171). 
He  also  states  that  Elamite  was  agglutinative,  but  not  other- 
wise like  Sumerian.  See  his  chap.  V  for  the  relationships  of 
Sumerians  and  Elamites. 

For  Media  see  the  notes  to  p.  254  :  13. 

239  :  12.     Assyria     and     Palestine.     Breasted,     Ancient 


Times,  p.  173  and  Fig.  112;  Hall,  History  of  the  Near  East; 
Myres,  Dawn  of  History,  pp.  114-116,  140;  and  other  his- 
tories of  the  Near  East. 

239  :  13.  Kassites.  See  Hall,  pp.  198-200.  Very  little 
is  known  about  the  Kassites.  Hall  declares  that  there  is 
very  little  doubt  but  that  they  were  Indo-European;  Prince, 
from  the  same  information,  says  this  could  not  possibly  be 
the  case.  They  are  supposed  to  have  been  an  Elamite  tribe 
who  were  living  in  the  northwestern  mountains  of  Elam, 
immediately  south  of  Holwan,  when  Sennacherib  attacked 
them  in  702  B.  C.  They  attacked  Babylonia  in  the  ninth 
year  of;  Samsu-iluma,  the  son  of  Khammurabi,  overran  it 
and  founded  a  dynasty  there  in  1780  B.  C,  which  lasted  576 
years.  They  became  absorbed  into  the  Babylonian  popula- 
tion; the  kings  adopted  Semitic  names  and  married  into  the 
royal  family  of  Assyria.  Like  the  other  languages  of  the 
Non-Semitic  tribes  of  Elam,  according  to  Prince,  that  of  the 
Kassites  was  agglutinative.  That  the  Kassites  had  been  in 
contact  with  the  horse-using  nomads  of  the  northern  steppes, 
is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  they  first  introduced  the  horse 
into  Mesopotamian  lands,  whence  its  use  for  riding  and 
drawing  chariots  spread  into  Egypt  in  1700  B.  C.  See 
Breasted,  Ancient  Times,  p.  138. 

239  :  16.  Mitanni.  Very  little  is  known  of  the  Mitanni. 
Von  Luschan,  p.  230,  dates  them  around  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury B.  C.  In  1380  they  called  themselves  Harri,  from  Har- 
ri-ya,  an  old  form  of  the  word  Aryan.  Myres,  Dawn  of  His- 
tory, says:  "The  conquest  of  Syria  in  1500  B.  C.  brought 
Egypt  face  to  face  with  a  homogeneous  state  called  Mitanni, 
occupying  the  whole  foothill  country  east  of  the  Euphrates. 
.  .  .  The  Egyptian  conquest  came  just  in  time  to  relieve 
the  kingdom  of  Mitanni  from  severe  pressure  exerted  simul- 
taneously and  probably  in  collusion,  by  its  neighbors  in  the 
foothills, — Assyria  on  the  east,  and  the  Hittites  west  of  the 
Euphrates.  Egypt  made  friends  with  Mitanni  and  more 
than  one  marriage  was  arranged  between  the  royal  houses. 
Soon  after  the  treaty  between  Egypt  and  Mitanni,  Subilu- 
liuma,  king  of  the  Hittites  of  Cappadocia,  whom  Egyptian 
scribes  conveniently  abbreviate  as  Saplel,  was  overlord  ap- 


parently  of  a  number  of  outpost  baronies  in  north  Syria. 
Assured  of  their  help,  and  watching  his  opportunity,  he  flung 
his  whole  force,  about  1400  upon  Mitanni.  .  .  .  This  closed 
the  career  of  Mitanni." 

The  racial  affinities  of  Mitanni  are  doubtful.  Prince,  cor- 
respondence, says  the  language  of  Mitanni  was  certainly  not 
Aryan.  It  has  been  thoroughly  analyzed  by  Ferdinand 
Bork,  in  his  Die  Mitanni  Sprache,  who  compares  it  with  the 
Georgian  or  Imeretian  branch  of  the  Caucasic  linguistic 
groups.  The  Mitanni  are  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Ossetes, 
who  speak  a  highly  archaic,  real  Aryan  language.  Mitanni, 
in  structure,  is  like  the  polysynthetic  North  American  groups. 
Feist,  1,  p.  14,  says  the  Mitanni  were  Nordics  and  inhabited 
the  western  mountains  of  Iran,  in  Zagros.  In  5,  p.  406,  he 
places  them  on  the  north  of  the  Euphrates  during  the  fifteenth 
and  sixteenth  centuries  B.  C.  See  also  Hall,  p.  200,  the  fol- 
lowing note  and  that  to  p.  213  :  1-23  of  this  book.  Hall 
also  considers  them  Nordics. 

239  :  16  seq.  Von  Luschan,  p.  230,  asks:  "Can  it  be  mere 
accident  that  a  few  miles  north  of  the  actual  frontier  of 
modern  Kurdish  languages  there  is  Boghaz-Koi,  the  old 
metropolis  of  the  Hittite  Empire,  where  Hugo  Winckler  in 
1908  found  tablets  with  two  political  treaties  of  King  Subilu- 
liuma  with  Mattiuaza,  son  of  Tusrata,  king  of  Mitanni,  and 
in  both  of  these  treaties  Aryan  divinities,  Mithra,  Varuna, 
Indra  and  Nasatya  are  invoked,  together  with  Hittite  divini- 
ties, as  witnesses  and  protectors  ?  And  in  the  same  inscrip- 
tions, which  date  from  about  1380  B.  C,  the  king  of  Mitanni 
and  his  people  are  called  Harri,  just  as  nine  centuries  later 
in  the  Achaemenidian  inscriptions  Xerxes  and  Darius  call 
themselves  Har-ri-ya,  'Aryans  of  Aryan  stock.'  So  the 
Kurds,"  concludes  Von  Luschan,  "are  the  descendants  of 
Aryan  invaders  and  have  maintained  their  type  and  their 
language  for  more  than  3300  years." 

See  also  the  notes  to  p.  173  :  n. 

239  :  29.     See  pp.  128  and  137  of  this  book. 

240  :  4  seq.     See  the  notes  to  p.  173. 
240  :  15  seq.    See  the  notes  to  p.  242  :  5. 



242  :  5.  The  following  notes  on  languages  were  taken 
mostly  from  the  History  of  Language,  by  Henry  Sweet,  and 
were  supplemented  by  the  writings  of  W.  D.  Whitney,  and 
an  article  on  "Indo-European  Languages,"  by  Peter  Giles. 

All  languages  may  be  roughly  divided  into  two  great 
groups,  isolating  and  agglutinative. 

The  isolating  languages  are  constructed  on  the  principle 
of  single,  distinct  words  for  each  idea,  and  do  not  employ 
forms  which  add  or  drop  syllables,  or  letters,  in  order  to  ob- 
tain variety  of  expression,  tense,  mode,  person,  number,  etc. 
However,  the  element  of  intonation  frequently  plays  a  large 
part  in  multiplying  the  number  of  possible  forms,  and  there- 
fore of  ideas,  in  isolating  languages,  by  imparting  to  other- 
wise identical  words  different  meanings  through  pitch,  ris- 
ing or  falling  inflection  or  accent. 

To  the  isolating  languages  belong  most  of  those  of  south- 
eastern Asia, — Chinese,  Burmese,  Siamese,  Thibetan,  An- 
namite,  Cochin-Chinese,  Malayan,  etc.  The  term  isolating 
does  not  necessarily  imply  words  of  one  syllable,  although 
there  is  a  tendency  in  this  direction  since  the  roots  are 
stripped  of  all  incumbrances  of  a  modifying  nature  so  com- 
mon in  agglutinative  or  synthetic  languages.  The  Chinese, 
Burmese,  Siamese  and  Annamite  are  classed  as  monosyllabic, 
the  Thibetan  as  half-monosyllabic,  while  the  Malay  is 

Because  languages  are  isolating  in  structure  does  not  mean 
that  they  necessarily  all  belong  to  one  family.  They  merely 
have  this  structural  principle  in  common.  To  establish 
family  relationships  it  is  necessary  to  investigate  the  sets  of 
phonetics  used,  the  root  forms,  the  types  of  ideas  expressed, 
the  composition  of  the  sentence  and  various  other  important 
points  included  under  the  psychology  of  habit  and  growth 
forms  of  speech.  No  one  of  these  alone  is  ordinarily  suffi- 
cient to  prove  that  two  languages  are  of  one  common  stock, 
since  extensive  borrowing  of  all  kinds  has  occurred  since  time 


Nevertheless,  in  point  of  fact,  taking  languages  as  they 
now  exist,  only  those  have  been  shown  related  which  possess 
a  common  structure,  or  have  together  grown  out  of  the  more 
primitive  radical  stage,  since  structure  proves  itself  a  more 
constant  and  reliable  evidence  than  vocabulary.  But,  on 
the  other  hand,  since  all  structure  is  the  result  of  growth, 
and  any  degree  of  difference  of  structure,  as  well  as  of  differ- 
ence of  material,  may  be  explained  as  the  result  of  discordant 
growth  from  identical  beginnings,  it  is  equally  inadmissible 
to  claim  that  the  diversities  of  languages  prove  them  to  have 
had  different  beginnings. 

In  isolating  languages,  word  order  is  very  important,  but 
here  again  the  peculiar  character  of  any  tongue  of  this  type 
depends  upon  the  order  selected,  or  the  relative  importance 
of  ideas  (general,  specific,  etc.).  The  employment  of  par- 
ticles makes  possible  a  freer  word  order. 

The  agglutinative  languages  are  those  which  combine  roots 
or  parts  of  words  or  elements  into  new  wholes  to  express 
other  related  ideas  than  those  imparted  by  the  single  forms, 
or  else  entirely  new  concepts.  Frequently  these  combina- 
tions are  still  separable  on  occasion  into  their  original  ele- 
ments, or,  if  inseparable  in  their  secondary  meanings,  their 
original  parts  with  their  derivations  are  still  recognizable  as 
such.  Again,  the  component  parts  are  no  longer  independent, 
but  form  a  firmly  knit  whole. 

In  some  languages  certain  classes  of  elements  have  arisen 
which  may  be  added  in  a  perfectly  formal  manner  to  other 
fixed  roots  or  elements,  with  or  without  slight  phonetic  modi- 
fications of  either  or  both  parts.  Since  this  occurs  in  con- 
formity with  fairly  fixed  rules,  the  meanings  of  the  resultant 
combinations  are,  according  to  the  class  of  the  attached  ele- 
ments used,  fairly  analogous.  Thus  in  English  many  verb 
roots  obtain  the  present  participle  by  the  addition  of  the 
formal  element  ing,  in  itself  now  meaningless,  but  once,  no 
doubt,  a  separate  root. 

The  process  of  agglutination  may  be  accomplished  in  many 
different  ways,  any  of  which  may  be  characteristic  of  whole 
groups  of  unrelated  languages.  These  may  be  roughly 
divided  first  into  mono-  or  oligo-synthetic  and  polysynthetic. 


The  former  very  nearly  approach  the  isolating  languages, 
since  usually  only  one  element  may  be  added  at  a  time,  but 
the  process  of  addition  may  be  accomplished  in  any  of  the 
ways  possible  to  agglutination. 

Agglutination  includes  prefixing,  suffixing  and  infixing 
in  all  degrees  of  complexity  and  fixity.  Thus  languages  may 
be  spoken  of  as  agglutinative  only  in  a  relative  sense.  Some 
are  much  more  so  than  others,  both  in  point  of  the  number 
of  elements  which  it  is  possible  to  add,  and  their  dependence 
upon  one  another  and  the  root,  denoting  a  higher  or  lower 
degree  of  inextricability  in  blending. 

Many  languages  are  only  loosely  agglutinative  and  the 
component  parts  of  the  compounds  readily  resolve.  In 
others,  as  in  the  inflecting  languages,  the  combination  is 

Thus  under  the  head  of  agglutinative  we  have  the  merely 
agglutinative  or  synthetic,  readily  resolvable  combinations, 
which  are  often  hardly  distinguishable  from  isolating  lan- 
guages, and  the  less  easily  divisible  inflectional  and  incor- 
porating types.  Any  or  all  of  the  three  processes  of  infixing, 
prefixing  and  suffixing  may  be  employed  in  simple  agglutina- 
tive combinations. 

In  inflectional  languages  the  root  is  attended  by  prefixes 
or  suffixes  which  form  inseparable  modifiers.  At  times 
phonetic  changes  occur  which  render  the  complex  unlike  the 
simple  joining  of  its  component  parts. 

As  Mr.  Sweet  says:  "If  we  define  inflection  as  'agglutina- 
tion run  mad'  we  may  regard  incorporation  as  inflection 
run  madder  still,  for  it  is  the  result  of  attempting  to  develop 
a  verb  into  a  complete  sentence."  In  some  languages,  such 
as  the  incorporating,  a  verb  is  sufficiently  distinct  in  its  mean- 
ing not  to  require  an  independent  pronoun.  French  and 
Spanish,  though  not  belonging  to  this  category,  contain 
words  with  the  incorporating  idea,  as  in  Spanish  hablo,  I 
speak,  and  French,  pluit,  it  rains.  Where  polysynthesism 
is  the  prevailing  character,  the  verb  may  be  sufficiently  com- 
prehensive to  include  the  objective  pronoun  as  well  as  the 
subjective,  so  that  it  is  possible  to  find  in  one  word  a  transi- 
tive, as  well  as  in  others  an  intransitive,  sentence.    But  this 


is  only  rudimentary  incorporation,  and  borders  on  inflection. 
Some  American  Indian  languages  carry  it  to  a  very  high 
degree,  appending  to  or  inserting  into  this  simple  complex 
not  only  nouns  which  may  stand  in  apposition  to  the  implied 
or  actual  pronouns,  but  particles  and  modifiers  of  every  de- 
scription. (See  the  Handbook  of  American  Indian  Languages, 
published  by  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  at  Wash- 
ington.) Frequently  during  this  process  various  parts  un- 
dergo phonetic  changes  in  accordance  with  fixed  laws,  so  that 
the  final  complex  may  not  at  all  resemble  a  string  of  the 
original  elements,  but  becomes  a  new,  inseparable  and  fixed 
word  containing  a  whole  sentence  of  ideas.  This  sentence, 
in  some  languages,  may  carry  throughout  certain  modifiers 
for  all  noun  elements — for  instance,  as  to  whether  the  objects 
under  discussion  are  visible  or  invisible.  These  modifiers 
bear  definite  relationships  to  the  nouns,  and  the  "sentence 
word"  in  each  of  its  parts  must  then  be  conjugated  as  a  verb 
in  an  even  more  complicated  manner.  This  is  agglutination 
par  excellence,  and  is  frequently  so  complex  as  to  be  utterly 
bewildering  to  the  Indo-European  mind,  even  though  the 
Indo-European  languages  themselves  employ  agglutination 
to  a  limited  degree  and  of  certain  varieties,  particularly  of 
the  inflectional  order. 

Compared  to  the  most  complicated  Indian  tongues,  Eng- 
lish is  in  the  position  of  Chinese  to  Indo-European  languages 
in  its  structural  simplicity,  though  of  course  in  Chinese  we 
have  an  added  complexity  in  the  use  of  pitch,  etc. 

There  are  certain  types  of  speech  which  secure  changes 
(plurals,  etc.)  by  internal  vowel  modification.  English  it- 
self makes  use  of  this  device,  but  it  is  the  outstanding  feature 
of  Semitic  tongues. 

Sweet  says:  "There  are  many  other  minor  criteria  of  mor- 
phological classification.  The  most  important  of  these  is 
perhaps  that  of  the  agglutinative  or  inflectional  elements 
before  or  after  the  word  or  stem  [modified].  In  Turkish 
and  in  other  Altaic  languages,  as  also  in  Finnish,  these  are 
always  post-positions,  so  that  every  word  begins  with  the 
root  which  always  has  chief  stress.  The  Bantu  languages  of 
South  Africa,  on  the  other  hand,  favor  prefixes.  .  .  .     The 


Semitic  languages  favor  prefixes  and  post-positions  about 
equally.  The  Aryan  languages  are  mainly  post-positional, 
with  occasional  use  of  prefixes,  most  of  which,  however,  are 
of  later  origin." 

It  must  not  be  supposed  that  languages  fall  into  abso- 
lutely distinct  categories  because  of  their  structure.  No 
language  to-day  is  purely  of  one  type  or  another.  There 
have  been  too  many  centuries  of  borrowing  and  change  for 
that  condition  to  now  be  possible  for  any  language,  nor 
are  there  any  longer  what  might  be  called  primitive  tongues. 
They  have  all  long  since  outgrown  that  state,  whatever  it 
may  have  been,  even  the  Botocudo  of  Brazil,  which  is  gen- 
erally ranked  as  the  most  primitive. 

Languages  may  now  be  classified  only  according  to  their 
prevailing  tendencies.  Thus,  modern  English  is  in  part 
isolating,  in  part  inflectional  and  in  part  agglutinative,  as 
that  term  is  generally  applied.  Basque  is  an  incorporating 
language,  far  removed  geographically  and  linguistically  from 
any  other  of  that  character.  The  Indo-European  family 
may  be  considered  as  inflectional,  because  that  process  is  a 
prominent  feature,  but  it  is  by  no  means  the  only  one  pres- 
ent, nor  is  it  exclusively  typical  of  that  family. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  all  languages  pass  through  certain 
stages  in  their  development,  but  it  is  not  at  all  true  that  they 
all  have  eventually  the  same  or  even  similar  histories.  There 
are  endless  possibilities  of  growth  and  decay,  and  this  fact 
alone  excludes  any  set  evolutionary  scheme.  Nor  are  the 
isolating  languages  the  most  primitive.  On  the  contrary, 
they  are  as  complex  in  their  way  as  the  most  agglutinative 
North  American  tongues,  and  as  expressive,  for  some  psy- 
chological categories. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  all  languages  have  begun  on  an 
isolating  principle  of  simple  roots  for  single  ideas,  from  which 
they  have  diverged  in  endless  variety.  Probably  all  inflec- 
tional languages  had  an  isolating  and  agglutinative  stage, 
although  this  is  by  no  means  proved.  The  Chinese  seems  to 
have  undergone  an  agglutinative  past  of  some  sort,  but  to 
have  resolved  again  into  simple  roots,  with  only  traces  of 
fuller  forms,  but  with  the  added  complexity  of  tone,  accent, 
and  order,  to  give,  as  Sweet  puts  it,  "that  extreme  of  el- 


liptical  conciseness  and  concentrated  force  of  expression, 
which  excites  our  admiration." 

English  has  become  analytical,  for  many  older  inflected 
words  have  now  been  worked  over  into  combinations  of  in- 
dependent words,  but  this  is  far  from  a  complete  or  con- 
sistent process.  Probably  it  will  never  become  like  the  Chi- 
nese, for  to  do  away  now  with  its  inflectional  system  entirely 
would  necessitate  a  complete  upheaval  of  structure  which 
is  not  likely  to  happen  in  the  course  of  normal  inner  devel- 
opment, particularly  with  a  vast  literature  to  assist  in  stabi- 
lizing present  forms. 

As  regards  polysynthesism,  or  amount  of  agglutination,  the 
Aryan  tongues  are  intermediate;  they  allow  affixes,  but  only 
within  certain  limits. 

Languages  undoubtedly  differ  from  one  another  in  their 
richness  and  power  of  expression,  but  may  not  be  used  as  a 
test  of  the  intellectual  capacity  of  those  who  now  speak  them. 
In  fact,  men  of  any  race  can  learn  any  language,  unless  ab- 
normal. To  account  for  the  great  and  striking  difference  of 
structure  among  human  languages  is  beyond  the  power  of 
the  linguistic  student,  and  will  doubtless  always  continue  so. 
We  are  not  likely  to  be  able  even  to  demonstrate  a  corre- 
lation of  capacities,  saying  that  a  race  which  has  done  this 
and  that  in  other  departments  might  have  been  expected  to 
form  such  and  such  a  language.  Every  tongue  represents 
the  general  outcome  of  the  capacity  of  a  race  as  exerted  in 
this  particular  direction,  under  the  influence  of  historical 
circumstances  which  we  can  have  no  hope  of  tracing,  but 
there  are  striking  anomalies  to  be  noted. 

"The  Chinese  and  the  Egyptians  have  shown  themselves 
to  be  among  the  most  gifted  races  the  earth  has  known; 
but  the  Chinese  tongue  is  of  unsurpassed  jejuneness,  and  the 
Egyptian,  in  point  of  structure,  little  better,  while  among 
the  wild  tribes  of  Africa  and  America  we  find  tongues  of 
every  grade  up  to  a  high  one  or  the  highest.  This  shows 
clearly  enough  that  mental  power  is  not  measured  by  lan- 
guage structure.  On  the  whole  the  value  and  rank  of  a 
language  are  determined  by  what  its  users  have  made  it 
do — a  poor  tool  in  skilful  hands  can  do  vastly  better  work 
than  the  best  tool  in  unskilful  hands,  even  as  the  ancient 


Egyptians,  without  steel  or  steam,  turned  out  products 
which,  both  for  colossal  grandeur  and  for  exquisite  finish, 
are  the  despair  of  modern  engineers  and  artists."  In  other 
words,  we  must  not  underestimate  the  important  part  played 
by  habit  or  inertia.  "The  formation  of  habit  is  slow,  and 
once  formed  it  exercises  a  constraining  as  well  as  a  guiding 

The  Indo-European  language  is  one  of  the  most  highly 
organized  families  of  tongues  that  exist,  and  its  greatest 
power  lies  (in  modern  English,  etc.)  in  its  mixed  structural 
and  material  character.  So  to  the  Indo-European  family 
belongs  incontestably  the  first  place,  and  for  many  reasons, — 
the  historical  position  of  the  peoples  speaking  its  dialects, 
who  have  now  long  been  the  leaders  in  world  history,  the 
abundance,  variety  and  merit  of  its  literatures  ancient  and 
modern  and,  most  of  all,  the  great  variety  and  richness  of  its 
development.  These  have  made  it  an  illustration  of  the 
history  of  human  speech,  which  is  extremely  valuable  and 
the  training  ground  of  comparative  philology. 

W.  D.  Whitney  gives  the  following  linguistic  groups  in 
order  of  their  importance  from  a  literary  standpoint: 

1.  Indo-European  (Indo-Germanic). 

2.  Semitic. 

3.  Hamitic. 

4.  Monosyllabic  or  Southeastern  Asiatic. 

5.  Ural-Altaic  (Scythian,  Turanian). 

6.  Dravidian  or  South  Indian. 

7.  Malay-Polynesian. 

8.  Oceanic — 

a.  Australian  and  Tasmanian. 

b.  Papuan  and  Negrito,  etc. 

9.  Caucasian — 

a.  Circassian. 

b.  Mitsjeghian. 

c.  Lesghian,  Georgian. 
10.  European  Remnants — 

Etruscan  ? 
Lydian  ? 



11.  South  African,  Bantu. 

12.  Central  African. 

13.  American. 

The  first  ten  groups  are  families.  So  little  is  or  was 
known  about  the  last  three  groups  that  the  author  of  the 
article  classed  together  what  are  now  known  to  be  vast 
agglomerations  of  families.  For  instance,  the  American 
languages  include  several  hundred  distinct  stocks,  of  which 
fifty  are  found  in  California  alone.  These  are  all,  according 
to  our  present  knowledge,  utterly  unrelated.  It  is  known 
that  the  central  African  tongues  belong  to  a  different  group 
than  the  southern,  and  it  would  be  advisable  to  consult  Sir 
Harry  Johnston's  recent  large  work  on  the  Bantu  languages. 

The  subdivision  of  the  Indo-European  family  into  cognate 
languages  is  given  here  to  show  the  great  diversity  of  tongues 
that  may  spring  from  one  ancestor.  Not  all  the  dialects, 
nor  even  languages,  have  been  included,  but  only  those  best 

Centum  (European). 
1.  Greek. 

2.  Italic 

Minor  dialects  of 
ancient  Italy. 

3.  Celtic 


Q.  Celtic 

P.  Celtic  < 







Scotch  Gaelic. 

Ancient  Gaulish. 



Breton  or  Armorican. 

/  Tuscan. 

\  Calabrian. 



'  Gothic" 

Scandinavian  - 

Germanic  or 

5.  Armenian. 
[6.  Tokharian?] 

Old  Norse. 



Low  Frankish  (  Zutc\ 
[  Flemish. 

Low  German. 

High  German. 

II.     Satem.     (Eastern  Europe  and  Asia.) 

I.  Aryan  or 


2.  Balto-Slavonic 

3.  Albanian. 

Old  Persian. 
Modern  Persian. 

Hindu,  and  nearly  all  the  modern  lan- 
guages of  India  [and  of  the  Pamirs]. 


Old  Prussian  or  Borussian,  extinct 
since  the  17th  century. 



S.  E. 



Old  Bulgarian. 

Great  Russian 
and  White  Rus- 

Little  Russian  or 



West       f Polish- 

Cl     .   <  Czech  or  Bohemian. 


242  :  16.  Cf  S.  Feist,  2,  p.  250.  On  the  archaic  character 
of  Lithuanian,  see  Taylor,  1,  p.  15,  and  the  authorities  he 
quotes.    Also  Schrader,  Jevons  translation. 

242  :  20-243  :  4.    Deniker,  2,  p.  320,  sums  up  Hirt's  posi- 


tion  on  this  question  in  the  footnote:  "According  to  Hirt  the 
home  of  dispersion  of  the  primitive  Aryan  language  would 
be  found  to  the  north  of  the  Carpathians,  in  the  Letto- 
Lithuanian  region.  From  this  point  two  linguistic  streams 
would  start  flowing  around  the  mountains  to  the  west  and 
east;  the  western  stream,  after  spreading  over  Germany 
(Teutonic  languages),  left  behind  the  Celtic  languages  in 
the  upper  valley  of  the  Danube,  and  filtered  through  on  the 
one  side  into  Italy  (Latin  languages),  on  the  other  side  into 
Illyria,  Albania,  and  Greece  (Helleno-Illyrian  languages). 
The  eastern  stream  formed  the  Slav  languages  in  the  plains 
traversed  by  the  Dnieper,  then  spread  by  way  of  the  Cau- 
casus into  Asia  (Iranian  languages  and  Sanscrit).  In  this 
way  we  can  account,  on  the  one  hand,  for  the  less  and  less 
marked  relationship  between  the  Aryan  languages  of  the 
present  day  and  the  common  primitive  dialect,  and  on  the 
other  hand,  for  the  diversity  between  the  two  groups  of 
Aryan  languages,  western  and  eastern." 

If  this  were  so,  Sanskrit  should  more  closely  resemble  the 
Slavic  than  the  western  languages.  As  it  is,  the  old  Vedic 
speech,  the  earliest  form  of  Sanskrit,  is  said  to  show  more 
affiliations  with  Greek  than  with  any  other  of  the  Aryan 
tongues  (see  Taylor,  1,  p.  21,  and  authorities  quoted),  a 
fact  which  merely  adds  another  proof  to  our  hypothesis  that 
sometime  between  2000  and  1500  B.C.  the  Nordics  filtered 
down  the  Balkan  peninsula  in  their  earliest  wave  and  about 
the  same  time  other  branches  found  their  way  into  north- 
western India.  The  Sanskrit  alphabet  is  more  closely  re- 
lated to  the  Phoenician  than  to  any  other.  At  the  time  of 
the  first  Nordic  expansion  their  language  was  not  reduced 
to  writing.  The  alphabet  used  for  early  Sanskrit,  was,  ac- 
cording to  Professor  Buhler,  probably  introduced  into  India 
by  traders  from  Mesopotamia  about  800  B.  C.  Another 
authority  on  the  relations  of  Greek  and  Sanskrit  is  Johannes 
Schmidt,  Die  VerwandtschqftsverhUltnisse  der  Indo-germanische 
Sprachen,  Weimar,  1872. 

243  :  4.  Prof.  J.  D.  Prince,  correspondence,  in  discussing 
the  kinship  of  prehistoric  Ugrian  to  Aryan  says  that,  al- 
though it  is  a  temptation  to  believe  in  it,  there  is  insuf- 


ficient  data  for  proving  it.  As  careful  a  scholar  as  Szinnyei, 
in  his  Vergleichende  Grammatik  der  Ugrischen  Sprache,  is 
careful  not  to  commit  himself.  But  see  Zaborowski,  3; 
also  the  notes  to  p.  236  :  26;  and  Deniker,  2,  pp.  349-351. 

243  :  12.     Deniker,  2,  p.  320  and  the  authorities  he  quotes. 

243  :  20.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  158  :  21  and  159. 

243  :  25.  See  p.  158  and  also  the  notes  on  languages  to 
p.  242  :  5. 

244  :  1.    See  p.  157  and  the  notes. 

244  : 6.  Latin  derivatives.  Zaborowski,  1,  p.  2.  See 
table  of  languages,  in  the  note  to  p.  242  :  5  of  this  book. 

244  :  12-28.  Ripley,  pp.  423-424;  Freeman,  2,  p.  217; 
Obedenare,  p.  350;  Ratzel,  vol.  Ill,  p.  564;  and  the  articles 
on  the  Balkans  and  Hungary  in  the  Geographical  Review,  by 
Cvijic  and  Wallis.  Cf.  G.  Poisson,  The  Latin  Origin  of  the 

244  :  29-245  :  3.    Freeman,  1,  p.  439. 

245  :  3.  Jordanes,  History  of  the  Goths;  Procopius,  The 
History  of  the  Wars;  Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman 
Empire,  chaps.  I  and  XI;  Freeman,  The  Historical  Geography 
of  Europe,  pp.  70-71;  also  the  notes  to  pp.  143  and  156  :  10. 

245  :  12.  Sarmatians.  See  the  note  to  p.  143  :  21.  The 
same  for  the  Venethi.  Under  the  Roman  dominion  Latin 
speech  appears  to  have  spread  from  the  Adriatic  coast  east- 
ward over  the  Balkans  replacing  the  native  dialects  except 
along  the  shores  of  the  ^gean  and  in  the  large  cities. 

246  :  9.    Freeman,  1,  pp.  440-441. 
246  :  15.    Ripley,  p.  425. 

246  :  24.    See  the  note  to  p.  173  of  this  book. 

246  :  27.    Rhys  and  Jones,  The  Welsh  People,  pp.  12,  13. 

247  :  3.  See  the  note  to  p.  174;  Oman,  2,  pp.  13,  14;  Rice 
Holmes,  1,  pp.  409-410;  2,  pp.  319-320;  Rhys  and  Jones, 
pp.  1,  2. 

247  : 9.  Goidels.  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  227,  291  and  455-456- 

247  :  16.  Rice  Holmes,  1,  pp.  229,  456;  Oman,  2,  p.  16. 
See  also  p.  174  of  this  book. 

247  :  23.  Ripley,  p.  127;  Feist,  4,  p.  14;  Ridgeway,  1, 
p.  373;  and  pp.  195  and  212  of  this  book. 

247  :  27.    See  the  note  to  247  :  3. 


248  :  3.  Fleure  and  James,  pp.  146,  148;  D'Arbois  de 
Jubainville,  2,  p.  88. 

248  :  6.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  319-321;  Taylor,  2,  pp.  138, 
167-168;  Beddoe,  4,  p.  20. 

248  :  12.  Neo-Celtic.  D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  2,  p.  88; 
Fleure  and  James,  p.  143. 

248  :  14.    Rice  Holmes,  2,  p.  12. 

248  :  20-249  :  4.    See  the  notes  to  pp.  177-178  of  this  book. 

249  :  16.    Beddoe,  4,  p.  223. 

249  :  20.  The  same,  pp.  241-242;  Ripley's  maps,  pp.  23 
and  313;  but  consult  Beddoe,  4,  p.  66,  for  criticisms  of  evi- 
dence derived  from  place  names;  Taylor,  2,  p.  119. 

249  :  27-250  :  1.    Beddoe,  4,  pp.  139,  241-242. 

250  :  1  seq.  Taylor,  2,  p.  173;  Palgrave,  vol.  I  of  The  Eng- 
lish Commonwealth;  Oman,  2,  pp.  158  seq. 

250  :  6.    Taylor,  2,  pp.  170-171. 
250  :  14.    Ripley,  p.  22;  Taylor,  2,  pp.  I37"i38- 
250  :  20.    Jordanes,  XXXVI;  Gibbon  and  others. 
250  :  24.    Ripley,  pp.  53!-533- 

250  :  28  seq.    Cf.  Ripley,  pp.  101,  151  seq. 

251  :  7  seq.    Cf.  Rice  Holmes,  2,  pp.  309-314. 
251  :  18.     See  the  note  to  p.  182  of  this  book. 

251  :  26.  Since  the  Belgae  were  the  last  wave  of  the  Celts, 
and  Cymric  was  the  later  Celtic,  this  deduction  is  inevitable, 
even  if  there  were  no  facts,  such  as  place  names,  history,  etc., 
to  prove  it.     See  the  note  to  p.  248  :  6. 

251  :  28-252  :  2.  Beddoe,  4,  p.  35;  Ripley,  pp.  101,  152; 
Taylor,  2,  pp.  95,  98. 

252  :  5.    See  the  note  to  p.  196  :  7. 

m  ASIA 

253  :  1.  See  p.  158  and  note.  Also  Peake,  2,  p.  165; 
Breasted,  1,  p.  176;  Von  Luschan,  pp.  241-243;  Zaborowski, 
1,  p.  112;  DeLapouge,  i,p.  252,  says:  "Aryans  were  in  India 
about  1500  B.  C." 

253  :  10.  See  Peake,  2;  also  pp.  170-171  and  213  of  this 


253  :  13.    See  the  note  to  p.  225  :  11. 
253  :  I3-I5-     Eduard  Meyer,  Zur  dltesien  Geschichte  der 

253  :  16  seq.    See  the  note  to  p.  239  :  16  seq. 

253  :  19.     Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  137  and  214. 

254  :  1.     See  pp.  173  and  225  of  this  book. 

254  :  3  seq.  For  Sacae  see  the  note  to  p.  259  :  21.  Cahun, 
Histoire  de  I'Asie,  says  on  p.  35:  "The  Sacae  and  the  Ephta- 
lites  and  Massagetae  were  from  the  Kiptchak."  See  also 
Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  94,  100-101,  215  seq. 

254  :  6.    Massagetae.    See  the  note  to  p.  259  :  21. 

254  :  8.  Ephtalites,  or  White  Huns.  Cahun,  Histoire  de 
VAsie,  pp.  43-55:  "The  Turks  destroyed  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventh  century  a  powerful  nation,  the  Ephtalites  of 
Soghdiana,  north  of  Persia.  They  were  called  Ephtalites, 
or  White  Huns  or  Tie-le-urn  Turks."  See  also  the  notes  to 
pp.  119  :  15  and  224  :  3  of  this  book,  and  chap.  XXVI  in 
Gibbon  on  the  Huns  in  general. 

Procopius,  vol.  I,  says  in  speaking  of  the  Ephtalite  Huns 
and  describing  their  war  with  the  Persians  about  450  A.  D.: 
"The  White  Huns  are  of  the  stock  of  the  Huns  in  fact  as 
well  as  in  name,  living  in  the  territory  north  of  Persia,  and 
are  settlers  on  the  land  in  contrast  to  the  Nomadic  Huns 
who  live  at  a  distance.  .  .  .  They  are  the  only  ones  among 
the  Huns  who  have  white  bodies  and  countenances  that  are 
not  ugly  and  they  are  far  more  civilized  than  are  the  other 
Huns."  The  general  impression  gained  from  Procopius  is 
that  they  were  not  true  Huns.  "Massagetae"  is  used  as 
another  name  for  Huns  by  Procopius.  He  describes  them 
as  mounted  bowmen.  It  is  clear  that  in  using  this  name  he 
refers  to  Huns  only. 

254  :  13.  Medes.  The  name  Medes  is  variously  applied 
by  different  authorities;  by  many  the  Medes  are  regarded  as 
a  branch  of  the  Persians,  one  of  two  kindred  tribes  of  Nor- 
dics. The  author  follows  Zaborowski  in  applying  the  name 
to  the  round-skulled  population  which  was  conquered  by 
the  Persians.  See  Zaborowski,  1,  chaps.  V  and  VI,  especially 
part  II  and  p.  125.  Also  Herodotus  in  the  references  given 
for  Persia.  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  459, 
gives  an  interesting  bit  of  their  story. 


254  :  15.  Persians.  The  Persians  were  a  branch  of  Nor- 
dics who  invaded  the  territory  of  the  round-skulled  Medes, 
and  gradually  imposed  their  language  and  much  of  their  cul- 
ture on  the  subjugated  populations.  See  Herodotus,  book 
I,  especially  55,  71,  72,  74,  91,  95, 101, 107, 125,  129,  135,  136; 
and  book  VI,  19,  where  he  discusses  both  Medes  and  Per- 
sians. For  modern  commentary  the  author  follows  Zabo- 
rowski,  1,  pp.  138-139,  153  seq.,  chap.  VI,  and  also  pp.  212- 

Von  Luschan,  pp.  233-234,  describes  the  present-day  Per- 
sians, showing  that  there  has  been  a  resurgence  of  types  and 
that  the  Nordic  elements  have  been  largely  absorbed  by  the 
original  inhabitants.  He  adds,  however,  on  p.  234,  that 
while  he  never  saw  Persians  with  light  hair  and  blue  eyes, 
he  was  told  that  in  some  noble  families  fair  types  were  not 
very  rare. 

254  :  19.  See  the  note  on  the  Medes,  and  Zaborowski,  p. 
156,  on  the  Magi. 

254  :  26.  Darius.  Zaborowski,  1,  p.  12.  Herodotus,  I, 
209,  says:  "Now  Hystaspes  the  son  of  Arsames  was  of  the 
race  of  the  Achaemenidae  and  his  eldest  son  Darius  was  at 
that  time  twenty  years  old."  Another  name  for  Hystaspes 
was  Vashtaspa,  whose  father  was  Arsames  (Arshama).  He 
traced  his  descent  through  four  ancestors  to  Achaemenes 
(Hakhamamish) . 

Von  Luschan,  p.  241,  says:  "Nothing  is  known  of  the 
Achaemenides  who  called  themselves  'Aryans  of  Aryan 
stock '  and  who  brought  the  Aryan  language  to  Persia. 
About  1500  B.  C.  or  earlier,  there  seems  to  have  begun  a 
migration  of  northern  men  to  Asia  Minor,  Syria,  Persia* 
Egypt  and  India.  Indeed  we  can  now  connect  even  Further 
India  with  the  Mitanni  of  central  Asia  Minor." 

See  Zaborowski  in  regard  to  the  Behistun  tablet,  etc.,  al- 
though practically  any  writers  on  Persia  and  Mesopotamia 
discuss  this  great  monument. 

255  :  2.    Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  116-117. 

255  :  6.  See  the  note  on  the  Medic  language,  255  :  13. 
Also  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  34,  182-184. 

255  :  7  seq.    Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  180-184;  Feist,  5,  p.  423. 



255  :  13.  Bactria  and  Zendic.  See  the  notes  to  pp. 
119  :  15  and  257  :  12. 

255  :  13.  Zendic  or  the  Medic  language.  See  Zaborowski, 
1,  chap.  VI.  According  to  the  Census  of  India,  vol.  I,  pp. 
291  seq.t  both  Persian  and  Medic  tongues  belong  to  the 
Aryan  stock.    They  are  divided  in  the  following  table: 







(The  language  of 

Old  Persian  of  the  Achaemenides 

the  Avesta.  No 

(Darius'  insc.  at  Behistun,  c. 

transition    lan- 

5th century  B.  C.) 

guage    between 

1                   1 

Medic  and   its 

1                   1 

modern  deriva- 

Pehlevi or  Parthian 

tives  is  known.) 

3d~7th  centu 



1              1 

1     1 

Galchah  dialects  of  the  Pamirs 


Modern  Persian. 




Other  minor 



Zaborowski,  1,  p.  146,  positively  identifies  Medic  as  agglu- 
tinative, in  which  he  agrees  with  Oppert.  See  chaps.  V  and 
VI,  especially  part  II  and  p.  125.  For  early  data  on  the 
Medes  see  the  Herodotus  references  given  under  Persia. 
Zaborowski  says,  p.  121,  that  Medic  was  spoken  until  600 

255  :  15.  Kurdish.  Von  Luschan,  p.  229:  "The  Kurds 
speak  an  Aryan  language.  .  .  .  The  eastern  Kurds  are 
little  known.  .  .  .  They  speak  a  different  dialect  from  the 
western  tribes,  but  both  divisions  are  Aryan."  On  the 
Kurds  as  a  people,  see  the  notes  to  p.  225  :  20. 

255  :  20.    Zaborowski,  1,  p.  216-217. 


255  :  23.  Von  Luschan,  p.  234,  and  the  note  to  p.  225  :  19 
of  this  book. 

255  :  26-256  :  10.  See  Plutarch's  Life  of  Alexander;  His- 
toria  Alexandri  Magni  de  prceliis;  Zaborowski,  1,  p.  171. 

256  :  3.  Alexander  the  Great  and  the  Persians.  Plutarch, 
Life  of  Alexander:  "After  this  he  accommodated  himself 
more  than  ever  to  the  manners  of  the  Asiatics,  and  at  the 
same  time  persuaded  them  to  adopt  some  of  the  Macedonian 
fashions,  for  by  a  mixture  of  both  he  thought  a  union  might 
be  promoted  much  better  than  by  force,  and  his  authority 
maintained  when  he  was  at  a  distance.  For  the  same  reason 
he  selected  30,000  boys  and  gave  them  masters  to  instruct 
them  in  the  Grecian  literature  as  well  as  to  train  them  to 
arms  in  the  Macedonian  manner.  As  for  his  marriage  with 
Roxana,  it  was  entirely  the  effect  of  love.  .  .  .  Nor  was  the 
match  unsuitable  to  the  situation  of  his  affairs.  The  bar- 
barians placed  greater  confidence  in  him  on  account  of  that 
alliance.  .  .  .  Hephaestion  and  Craternus  were  his  two 
favorites.  The  former  praised  the  Persian  fashions  and 
dressed  as  he  did;  the  latter  adhered  to  the  fashions  of  his 
own  country.  He  therefore  employed  Hephaestion  in  his 
transactions  with  the  barbarians  and  Craternus  to  signify 
his  pleasure  to  the  Greeks  and  Macedonians." 

256  :  n  seq.  Armenians.  Ridgeway,  1,  p.  396,  speaking 
of  language,  says:  "That  the  Armenians  were  an  offshoot  of 
the  Phrygians  as  mentioned  in  Herodotus  VII,  73,  is  proved 
by  the  most  modern  linguistic  results,  which  show  that  Ar- 
menian comes  closer  to  Greek  than  to  the  Iranian  tongues." 
Cf.  also  Hall,  Ancient  History  of  the  Near  East,  p.  475.  This 
need  not  imply  racial  affinity,  however.  The  following  notes 
on  Armenian  were  contributed  by  Mr.  Leon  Dominian: 
"The  proof  of  Aryan  affinities  in  the  Hittite  language  has 
not  yet  been  established.  The  great  difficulty  in  establish- 
ing the  pre-Aryan  relation  of  Armenian  is  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  earliest  text  dates  only  from  the  fifth  century 

"The  Cimmerians  and  Scythians,  coming  from  southern 
Europe  by  way  of  the  Caucasus  (Herodotus,  IV,  11,  12), 
reached  Armenia  about  720  B.  C.  (see  Garstang,  The  Land  of 


the  Hitlites,  p.  62).  The  old  Vannic  language  antedating  this 
invasion  resembles  the  Georgian  of  the  Caucasus,  according 
to  Sayce  (Jour.  Roy.  As.  Soc,  XIV,  p.  410),  who  has  studied 
the  local  inscriptions.  On  p.  409  he  infers  that  the  Aryan 
occupation  of  Armenia  was  coeval  with  the  victory  of  Ary- 
anism  in  Persia  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  century,  B.  C. 

"The  fact  that  Armenia  is  linguistically  related  to  the 
western  groups  of  the  Indo-European  languages  and  that 
the  Persian  element  consists  of  loan  words  is  corroborated  by 
geographical  evidence.  The  Armenian  highland  culminating 
in  the  17000  foot  altitude  of  Mt.  Ararat  has  acted  as  a  bar- 
rier dividing  the  plateau  of  Anatolia  from  that  of  Iran. 
Herodotus  called  the  Armenians  the  'beyond'  Phrygians." 
See  also  O.  Schrader,  Jevons  translation,  p.  430. 

256  :  14  seq.    Phrygians.    See  the  note  to  p.  225. 

256  :  15.     Felix  Sartiaux,  Troie,  la  guerre  de  Troie,  pp.  5-9. 

256  :  16-17.    See  the  note  to  p.  239  :  2  seq. 

256  :  21  seq.    See  the  table  of  languages  to  p.  242  :  5. 

256  :  27-257  :  7.    See  pp.  20,  134,  238-239,  of  this  book. 

257  :  12.    Bactria.    See  the  note  to  p.  119  :  15. 

257  :  16  seq.  See  the  notes  to  pp.  15S  and  253.  Also 
Von  Luschan,  p.  243;  Zaborowski,  1,  p.  112;  and  the  Indian 
Census,  1901,  vol.  I,  p.  294. 

257  :  19.  Punjab.  Panch — five,  ah — river,  in  Hindu- 
stani.    Cf.  the  Greek  penta — five. 

257  :  22.    Dravidians.    See  pp.  148-149  of  this  book. 

257  :  23.  See  the  note  to.  p.  259  :  21  and  Zaborowski,  1, 
pp.  113  seq. 

257  :  28-258  :  2.  See  the  note  to  p.  242  :  5.  George 
Tumour's  edition  in  1836,  of  the  Mahavamsa,  first  made  it 
possible  to  trace  Sinhalese  history  and  to  prove  that  about 
the  middle  of  the  sixth  century  B.  C.  a  band  of  Aryan- 
speaking  people  from  India,  under  Vijaya  conquered  and  set- 
tled Ceylon  permanently.  There  are  a  number  of  later 
works  on  Ceylon,  dealing  with  its  archaeology,  flora,  fauna, 
history,  etc. 

According  to  the  British  Indian  Census  of  1901  nearly 
two-thirds  of  the  inhabitants  of  Assam  were  Hindus,  and  the 
language  of  Hinduism  has  become  that  of  the  province.    The 


vernacular  Assamese  is  closely  related  to  Bengali.  E.  A. 
Gait  has  written  a  History  of  Assam  (1906). 

258  :  3.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  158  and  253  of  this  book. 

258  :  8.  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  184-185.  Compare  de  Mor- 
gan's dates  with  those  of  Zaborowski,  the  Indian  Census 
and  Meillet. 

258  :  19.  See  Meillet,  Introduction  a  Vttude  des  langues 
europeens.  On  p.  37  he  claims  that  the  relation  between  the 
two  is  comparable  to  that  prevailing  between  High  and  Low 
German.  Zaborowski',  1,  p.  184,  says:  "The  language  of  the 
Avesta,  the  Zend,  is  a  contemporary  dialect  of  the  Persian 
of  Darius  (*.  e.,  of  Old  Persian),  from  whence  has  come  the 
Pehlevi  and  its  very  close  relative.  It  even  presents  the 
closest  affinities  with  the  Sanskrit  of  the  Vedas,  from  which 
was  derived,  in  the  time  of  Alexander,  classical  Sanskrit. 
This  Sanskrit  of  the  Vedas  is  itself  so  close  to  Old  Persian 
that  it  can  be  said  that  one  and  the  other  are  only  two  pro- 
nunciations of  the  same  tongue."  See  also  the  Indian  Census 
for  1001,  vol.  I,  p.  294. 

258  :  25  seq.  Zaborowski,  1,  pp.  213-216;  Peake,  2,  pp. 
165  seq.  and  especially  pp.  169  and  172. 

259  :  4.  Ellsworth  Huntington,  The  Pulse  of  Asia;  Peake, 
2,  p.  170;  and  Breasted,  passim. 

259  :  9.    See  pp.  173,  237,  253-254  and  257  of  this  book. 

259  :  16.     See  the  notes  to  pp.  119  :  13  and  255  :  7. 

259  :  21 .  Sacae  or  Saka.  The  Sacae  or  Saka  werefthe  blond 
peoples  who  carried  the  Aryan  language  to  India.  Strabo, 
511,  allies  them  with  the  Scythians  as  one  of  their  tribes. 
Many  tribes  were  called  Sacae,  especially  by  the  Hindus,  who 
used  the  term  indiscriminately  to  designate  any  northern 
invaders  of  India. 

One  tribe  gained  the  most  fertile  tract  in  Armenia  which 
was  called  Sacasene,  after  them. 

Zaborowski,  1,  p.  94,  relates  the  Sacae  with  the  Scythians, 
and  says:  "The  Tadjiks  are  a  people  composed  of  suppressed 
elements  where  blonds  are  found  in  an  important  minority. 
These  blonds,  saving  an  atavistic  survival  of  more  ancient 
or  sporadic  characters  I  can  identify.  They  are  the  Sacae." 
He  continues,  in  a  note,  that  a  great  error  has  been  com- 


mitted  on  the  subject  of  the  Sacae.  "Repeating  an  asser- 
tion of  Alfred  Maury,  whose  very  sound  erudition  enjoyed  a 
merited  reputation,  I  myself  once  repeated  that  the  Sacae 
who  figures  on  the  rock  of  Behistun  was  of  the  Kirghiz  type. 
This  assertion  is  completely  erroneous.  I  have  proved  it 
and  can  say  that  the  Sacae  and  the  Scythians  were  iden- 

Zaborowski,  p.  216,  also  identifies  the  Sacae  with  the  Per- 
sians. On  this  whole  subject  see  Herodotus,  VII,  64;  also 
Feist,  5. 

259  :  21.  Massagetae.  Zaborowski,  1,  p.  285,  says:  "The 
first  information  of  history  concerning  the  peoples  of  Turk- 
estan refers  to  the  Massagetae,  whose  life  was  exactly  the 
same  as  that  of  the  Scythians  (Herodotus,  I,  205-216). 
They  enjoyed  a  developed  industrial  civilization  while  they 
remained  nomads.  They  were  doubtless  composed  of  ethnic 
elements  different  from  the  Scythians,  but  probably  already 
spoke  the  Iranian  tongue,  like  them.  And  since  the  time  of 
Darius,  at  least,  there  were  in  Turkestan  with  them  and  be- 
side them,  Sacae,  whom  the  Greeks  have  always  regarded  as 
Scythians  come  from  Europe." 

Minns,  Scythians  and  Greeks,  p.  n,  says:  "The  Scyths  and 
the  Massagetae  were  contemporaneous  and  different.  The 
Massagetae  are  evidently  a  mixed  collection  of  tribes  without 
an  ethnic  unity;  the  variety  of  their  customs  and  states  of 
culture  shows  this  and  Herodotus  does  not  seem  to  suggest 
that  they  are  all  one  people.  They  are  generally  reckoned 
to  be  Iranian.  .  .  .  The  picture  drawn  of  the  nomad  Massa- 
getae seems  very  like  that  of  the  Scythians  in  a  rather  ruder 
stage  of  development." 

Herodotus,  I,  215,  describes  them  as  follows:  "In  their 
dress  and  mode  of  living  the  Massagetae  resemble  the  Scyth- 
ians. They  fight  both  on  horseback  and  on  foot,  neither 
method  is  strange  to  them.  .  .  .  The  following  are  some  of 
their  customs, — each  man  has  but  one  wife,  yet  all  wives  are 
held  in  common;  for  this  is  a  custom  of  the  Massagetae  and 
not  of  the  Scythians,  as  the  Greeks  wrongly  say.  Human 
life  does  not  come  to  its  natural  close  with  this  people;  but 
when  a  man  grows  very  old,  all  his  kinsfolk  collect  together 


and  offer  him  up  in  sacrifice;  offering  at  the  same  time  some 
cattle  also.  After  the  sacrifice  they  boil  the  flesh  and  feast 
on  it;  and  those  who  thus  end  their  days  are  reckoned  the 
happiest.  If  a  man  dies  of  disease  they  do  not  eat  him,  but 
bury  him  in  the  ground,  bewailing  his  ill  fortune  that  he  did 
not  come  to  be  sacrificed.  They  sow  no  grain,  but  live  on 
their  herds  and  on  fish,  of  which  there  is  great  plenty  in  the 
Araxes.  Milk  is  what  they  chiefly  drink.  [Cf.  the  eastern 
Siberian  tribes  of  the  present  day.]  The  only  god  they  wor- 
ship is  the  sun,  and  to  him  they  offer  the  horse  in  sacrifice, 
under  the  notion  of  giving  to  the  swiftest  of  the  gods,  the 
swiftest  of  all  mortal  creatures." 

D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  4,  t.  I,  p.  231  declares  they  were 
the  same  as  the  Scyths. 

Horse  sacrifices  are  said  to  prevail  among  the  modern 
Parses.  On  the  whole,  the  Massagetae  appear  to  have  been 
largely  Nordic. 

259  :  24.    Kirghizes.    See  Zaborowski,  i,pp.  216,  290-291. 

259  :  25  seq.    See  the  note  to  p.  119  :  15. 

260  :  3.  Gibbon,  chap.  LXIV.  Also  called  the  battle  of 
Lignitz.  Lignitz  is  the  duchy,  and  Wahlstatt  a  small  village 
on  the  battle-field. 

260  :  8.    See  the  notes  to  pp.  224  : 3  and  259  :  21. 

260  :  17.  Feist,  5,  pp.  1,  427-431,  says  the  Tokharian  is 
related  to  the  western  rather  than  to  the  Iranian- Indian 
group  of  languages,  and  places  the  Tokhari  in  northeast 
Turkestan.  (See  the  note  to  p.  119  :  13.)  On  p.  471  he 
identifies  the  Yue-Tchi  and  Khang  with  Aryans  from  Chinese 
Turkestan,  basing  himself  on  Chinese  annals,  the  date  being 
given  as  800  B.  C.  Cf.  also  the  notes  to  p.  224  : 3  of  this 

260  :  21.    See  DeLapouge,  1,  p.  248;  Feist,  5,  p.  520. 

260  :  29-261  :  5.     See  Feist,  above,  in  the  note  to  260  :  17. 

261  :  6.    Traces.    See  the  note  to  p.  70  :  12. 

261  :  17.  Deniker,  2,  pp.  407  seq.;  G.  Elliot  Smith,  Ancient 
Egyptians,  p.  61;  Ripley,  p.  450. 



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Aachen,  182. 

Accad,  147;  language  of,  239. 

Achaeans,  158-161,  173,  189,  223, 
225,  243,  253;  at  Troy,  159; 
invade  Greece,  158-159;  lan- 
guage of,  161. 

Acheulean  period,  104-106,  133. 

Achilles,  159. 

Actinic  rays,  38,  84. 

Adamic  theory,  13. 

Adriatic,  36,  138. 

Mgean,  islands  of,  Hellenes  in, 
162 ;  Algean  region,  Nordics  in, 


/Eolian  language,  243. 

iEolians,  159. 

Afghan  hil!  tribes,  physical  char- 
acter of,  261;  language,  261; 
passes,  Nordics  in,  257,  259. 

Afghanistan,  257,  261 ;  Mediter- 
ranean race  in,  148;  physical 
types  of,  257. 

Afghans,  148;  language  of,  148. 

Africa,  23,  33,  82;  Alpines  in, 
140,  158;  Bronze  Age  in,  128; 
cephalic  index  in,  23;  hunting 
tribes  of,  113;  Mediterraneans 
in,  148,  151,  152,  155;  mega- 
liths in,  155;  Negro  population 
of,  33,  79,  80;  no  Nordic  blood 
in,  180,  223;  Nordic  invasion 
of,  223;  North  Africa,  as  part 
of  Europe,  152;  Berbers  of, 
152;  under  Vandals,  180,  233; 
South  Africa,  density  of  native 
population  barrier  to  white 
conquest,  79,  80. 

Agglutinative  languages,  148, 
234,  239,  240. 

Agriculture,  112,  122-124,  138, 
146,  240. 

Ainus,  physical  characters  of, 
224-225;  crossed  with  Mon- 
gols, 225. 

Alabama,  99. 

Alani,  or  Alans,  66,  177,  195. 

Alaska,  45. 

Albania,  30,  36,  164;  stature  in, 

Albanian  language,  164;  origin 
of,  243-244;  Albanian  type, 

Albanians,  25;  blondness  of,  163; 
in  the  Balkan  peninsula,  153. 

Albigensians,  157. 

Albinos,  25. 

Alcoholism,  55. 

Alemanni,  135,  145,  177. 

Alexander  the  Great,  161-162, 
256,  259. 

Alexandria,  92. 

Algeria,  44. 

Alphabet,  earliest  traces  of,  115. 

Alpine  race,  20,  21,  25,  29,  31,  34, 
35,  63,  64,  69,  73,  134-147, 
167,  226;  an  agricultural  race, 
138-139,  146;  and  Aryan  lan- 
guage, 238-241 ;  and  Dorians, 
160;  and  High  German,  188; 
and  iron,  129;  and  lake  dwell- 
ings, 121,  139;  and  Proto- 
Slavic  language,  143;  and 
Round  Barrows,  137;  as  aris- 
tocracy in  Rome,  154;  Asiatic, 
and  earliest  civilizations,  147; 
bringers  of  bronze,  127-128; 
of  cereals,  138,  146;  of  culture, 
138,     146;    of    domesticated 




animals,  138,  146;  of  metals, 
122,  127,  129,  146-147;  of  pot- 
tery, 146;  Celticized,  174;  cen- 
tre of  radiation  of,  124,  136, 
1 41-143;  conquered  by  Nor- 
dics, 129,  145-147;  crossed 
with  Mediterraneans,  151; 
crossed  with  Nordics,  134,  135, 
151,  163;  discovery  of  type  of, 
130;  distribution  of,  241 ;  east- 
ern spread  of,  136;  final  inva- 
sion of  Europe,  127-128;  first 
appearance  of,  116;  in  Europe, 
136;  habitat  of,  43-44;  hair  of, 
34;  in  Africa  (North),  128, 
140,  156;  Alsace,  140;  Armor- 
ica,  251;  Asia,  144;  Austria, 
232;  Auvergne,  146;  Baden, 
140;  Bavaria,  141;  Belgium, 
138,  140;  Britain,  137-138, 
239-240,  247  (present  absence 
of,  137);  British  Isles,  199, 
Brittany,  63,  146;  Canada,  81; 
cities,  94;  Denmark,  136; 
Egypt,  128,  140;  Europe,  117 
(central,  138-139,  141);  (east- 
ern, 44) ;  (western,  44) ;  (during 
the  Neolithic,  124);  France, 
63,  64,  138,  140,  146,  194,  240, 
251;  Gaul,  240;  Germany,  64, 
72,  184,  232;  Greece,  65;  Hol- 
land, 136;  Italy,  64,  128,  140, 
I54i  157  (north,  141);  Ireland, 
128,  137;  Lake  Dwellings,  121; 
Lorraine,  140;  Neolithic  period 
136;  Norway,  136,  211;  Po 
valley,  157;  Rome,  154;  Rus- 
sia, 136,  142-144;  Savoy,  146; 
Sicily,  140;  Spain,  140;  Swit- 
zerland, 131,  135,  141;  Syria, 
140;  Terramara,  122;  Tyrol, 
141;  Wiirtemburg,  140;  maxi- 
mum extension  of,  136-137; 
migrations,  route  of,  116; 
mixed  with  Celts,  177;  with 
Nordics,  25,  35~36,  62,  135- 
136;  Nordicized,  130,  141,  147; 

north  of  the  Black  Sea,  136, 
144;  origin  of,  134,  241;  orig- 
inal language  of,  140,  235; 
physical  characters  of,  35-36, 
73;  racial  aptitudes  of,  227; 
reinforced  by  others,  144;  re- 
placing Nordics  in  Europe, 
260;  resurgence  of  in  Europe, 
131,  146-147,  184,  190-191, 
196, 210;  retreat  of  from  north- 
west Europe,  136-138;  skull 
of,  62;  speech  of,  64;  substra- 
tum in  eastern  Germany,  72; 
underlying  population,  136; 
(in  relation  to  Nordics  in  cen- 
tral Europe,  141);  unimpor- 
tant in  modern  culture,  147. 

Alps,  42,  123,  129,  174,  187;  Al- 
pines in,  124;  lake  dwellings  in, 
121;  Mediterraneans  in,  149, 
151;  Nordics  in,  151. 

Alsace,  182;  Alpines  in,  140. 

Amber,  125. 

America,  6,  10,  14,  57;  change  of 
religion  in,  219;  genius  in,  98; 
immigrants  to,  2 1 8 ;  in  Colonial 
times,  46-48,  83-85;  Mediter- 
ranean element  in,  45;  Nordic 
immigration  to,  211;  Nordics 
in,  83,  84,  87,  89,  206,  231; 
Norman  type  in,  207;  race  de- 
velopment in,  262-263;  re- 
placement of  types  in,  no; 
result  of  immigration  to,  11, 
12, 72, 86, 89-94, IO°,  209,  211; 
Scandinavian  element  in,  211. 

American  aristocracy,  5;  char- 
acters, 26;  colonies,  10;  democ- 
racy, 6;  factories,  n;  farming 
and  artisan  classes,  n;  In- 
dians, 33  (eliminated  by 
smallpox,  55;  arrowheads  of, 
113);  mines,  11;  Negro,  pro- 
venience of,  82 ;  Revolution,  6. 

Americans,  5,  n,  12,  77,  83,  88- 
90,  100;  birth-rate  decline  of, 
46,  91 ;  brunet  type  of,  45, 150; 



destruction  of  in  Civil  War,  88 ; 
future  race  mixture  of,  92-93, 
100;  in  competition  with  im- 
migrants, 91 ;  individualism 
of,  12;  national  consciousness 
of,  90;  Nordic  element  of,  88; 
race  consciousness  among,  86; 
southerners,  42;  typical  hair 
shade  of,  26. 

Amerindian  blood,  61. 

Amerinds,  23,  31,  33,  34. 

Amorites,  223. 

Anak,  sons  of,  223. 

Anaryan  languages,  140,  194, 
204,  233-236;  survivals  of  in 
Europe,  234-236,  240;  in  Rus- 
sia, 243;  in  the  British  Isles, 

Anatolia,  21;  present  population 
of,  225. 

Anatolians,  237. 

Andaman  Islands,  Negroids  in, 

Angles,  177;  in  Britain,  206,  248- 
249;  in  England,  200;  in  Scot- 
land, 203;  origin  of,  200. 

Anglian  blood  of  American  set- 
tlers, 83. 

Anglian  type,  40. 

Anglo-Norman  type,  162. 

Anglo-Normans  of  Ireland,  64. 

Anglo-Saxons,  63,  67,  80,  154; 
and  genius,  109;  in  Colonial 
America,  83. 

Animals,  domesticated,  112,  117, 
122,  123,  138,  146,  240. 

Antes,  141. 

Anthropoid  Apes,  101-102. 

Anthropology,  3,  97;  in  the 
British  Isles,  249. 

Apes,  101-102. 

Aquitaine,  Iberian  language  of, 
194;  brunet  elements  from, 
208;  and  Celtic  language,  248. 

Aquitanian  language,  140. 

Arabia,  44,  152. 

Arabic  language,  in  Spain,  156. 

Arabic  race,  147. 

Arabs,  in  Spain,  156. 

Aral  Sea;  see  also  Caspian-Aral 
Sea,  171,  254. 

Argentine,  78. 

Arian  faith  of  the  barbarians, 

Aristocracy,  5,  10,  140-142, 153- 
154,  187-189,  191-192,  196- 
197;  Alpine,  154;  Austrian, 
141;  Bavarian,  141;  British, 
247;  French,  140;  German, 
141;  Greek,  153;  Italian,  189, 
215;  military,  78;  Persian,  254; 
Roman,  154;  Russian,  142; 
Spanish,  192,  247;  Swabian, 
141 ;  a  true,  7,  8. 

Aristocrats,  188,  191,  192,  197. 

Aristotle,  226. 

Armenians,  59,  63,  66,  238-239, 
256;  language  of,  238,  256. 

Armenoid  Alpines,  254. 

Armenoids,    20,    134,   238,   254, 


Armies,  conscript  and  volunteer, 

Armor,  120;  of  the  Romans,  154. 

Armorica;  see  also  Brittany;  Al- 
pines in,  251;  Celts  in,  250- 

Armorican  language,  248,  251. 

Armoricans,  250. 

Arrow,  in  the  Azilian  Period, 
115;  in  the  Palaeolithic  Period, 
112,  115. 

Art,  Cro-Magnon,  112;  Magda- 
lenian,  114;  in  the  Palaeolithic 
Period,  112;  decline  of  in  the 
Solutrean  Period,  114. 

Artois,  210. 

Arya,  233-241. 

Aryan  deities,  253. 

Aryan  language  or  speech,  20, 
61,  67,  130,  155,  161,  233;  and 
Alpines,  238;  associated  with 
the  Nordics,  234,  241-242; 
diversity  of,  242;  first  appear- 



ance  of  in  Europe,  246;  im- 
posed upon  the  Alpines  and 
Mediterraneans,  242;  in  Ar- 
menia, 239;  in  Asia,  253-263; 
in  Asia  Minor,  238-239;  in  the 
Caucasus,  238-239;  in  Iran, 
238-239;  introduced  into 
Etruria,  244;  into  Europe,  155; 
into  Greece,  203;  into  India, 
258;  into  Media.  254;  into 
Spain,  192;  language  of  the 
Ossetes,  66;  of  Hindustan,  67, 
70;  origin  of,  242-252;  place  of 
development  of,  243 ;  primitive 
212;  Pre-Aryan,  204,  233, 
235»  247.  Proto- Aryan,  61 , 
233,  238,  242-243. 

Aryan  race,  3,  67,  213. 

Asia,  20  21,  61;  Alpines  in,  144: 
area  of  man's  evolution,  13; 
Aryan  languages  in,  253-263; 
Aryanization  of,  255;  blond- 
ness  in,  224;  cradle  of  man- 
kind, 100-101;  cradle  of  the 
Negro,  33;  early  civilizations 
in,  119;  ethnic  conquest  of,  78; 
(western)  Hellenization  of, 
162;  (western)  Macedonian 
dynasties  of,  162;  Mediter- 
ranean languages  in,  253; 
Mediterranean  race  in,  148- 
149;  Mongols  destroy  civiliza- 
tion in,  260;  Negrito  substra- 
tum in,  148-149;  Nordics  in, 
214,  224,  253-263. 

Asia  Minor,  20;  Alpines  in,  127, 
I34i  x36;  Armenians  in,  256; 
bronze  weapons  in,  127;  Cim- 
merians in,  254;  early  iron  in, 
129;  Gauls  in,  158;  Greek  col- 
onies in,  160;  Hellenized,  220; 
invaded  by  Phrygians,  159; 
Nordics  in,  214,  225;  Turkish 
language  in,  237. 

Asiatic  types,  Europeanized,  144. 

Asiatics,  22. 

Assam,  dialects  of,  258. 

Assyria,  147;  ancient  civiliza- 
tions  of,    153;    languages   of, 


Athenians,  instability  and  ver- 
satility of,  229. 

Athens,  160,  162. 

Atlas  Berbers,  25. 

Atlas  Mountains,  223. 

Attica,  and  genius,  109;  Pelas- 
gians  in,  160. 

Attila,  139,  250. 

Augustus,  Emperor,  51,  154,  216. 

Aurignacian  Period,  105,  108, 
m,  112,  114,  132. 

Australia,  Nordic  race  in,  79. 

Australians,  31;  opposing  the 
Japanese  and  Chinese,  79. 

Australoids,  33,  107;  hairiness  of, 

Austria,  56,  183;  Alpines  in.  210, 
232;  Nordics  in,  210;  present 
population  of,  231-232;  Slavs 
in,  141. 

Austrians,  57,  135. 

Auvergne,  Alpines  in,  146;  an- 
cient centre  of  population,  149. 

Avars,  143-145;  language  of,  236. 

Avesta,  255. 

Azilian  Period  (Azilian-Tarde- 
noisian),  99,  105, 115-117.  132, 
136;  and  brachycephalics,  116; 
and  Mediterranean  race,  117; 
bow  and  arrow  in,  113,  115. 

Azilians,  113,  138. 

Babylonia,  147;  ancient  civiliza- 
tion of,  153. 

Bactra,  119. 

Bactria,  language  of,  255;  Mon- 
golization  of,  259 ;  Sacse  in,  259. 

Baden,  Alpines  in,  140. 

Bahamas,  39,  40;  English  in,  40. 

Balkan  Peninsula,  Albanians  tit, 
*53;  Ulyrians  in,  153;  Medi- 
terranean substratum  in,  152- 
153;  Nordics  in,  189;  Slavs  in, 
143,  153- 



Balkan  Question,  156-157. 

Balkans,  56,  57,  144;  Alpines  in, 
116,  124,  127,  136;  immigrants 
from,  89;  language  in,  237. 

Balkh,  119. 

Balochi  dialect,  255. 

Baltic,  coasts,  Neolithic  occupa- 
tion of,  122-123;  Pre-Neo- 
lithic  culture  of,  117;  Prov- 
inces, 211,  212;  Race,  see  Nor- 
dic race;  Russification  of,  58; 
Sea,  20,  37,  117,  122,  124,  151, 
168,  169,  171,  173,  174,  180; 
subspecies,  20;  see  also  Nordic 

Baluchistan,  148. 

Bantus,  80. 

Barbadoes,  39. 

Bashkirs,  144. 

Basques,  140;  language  of  and  its 
affinities,  140;  234;  physical 
characters  of,  234-235. 

Bas-reliefs,  112. 

Batavia,  210. 

Batavians,  177. 

Bavaria,  Alpines  in,  116,  141; 
dolichocephalics  in,  116. 

Bavarians,  135,  141. 

Beaker  Maker  type,  138,  164. 

Bedouins,  100. 

Belgae,  145,  194-195,  200,  269; 
in  Britain,  251;  in  England, 
1 75 ;  in  France,  1 75 ;  Gaul,  251; 
Normandy,  251;  mixed  with 
Teutons,    248;    language    of, 


Belgians  (modern),  195. 

Belgium,  56,  64,  195;  divided 
into  Walloons  and  Flemings, 
57;  Alpines  in,  116,  138,  140; 
Walloons  in,  146. 

Benin,  Bight  of,  82. 

Berbers,  25,  63,  152,  223;  lan- 
guage of,  204,  233;  related 
to  the  Spaniards  and  South 
Italians,  152. 

Berserker,  231. 

Bessarabia,  Rumanian  language 
in,  245. 

Birth  control,  48-49;  increase, 
51;  privilege  of,  6;  rate  in 
upper  and  lower  classes,  47-52, 
91 ;  unconscious  part  played  by 
church  in,  52. 

Black  Belt  of  Mississippi,  76. 

Black  Breed  of  Scotland,  107. 

Black  Sea,  125,  136,  144,  165; 
Alpines  north  of,  136. 

Blends,  14. 

Blond  Hair,  24,  25. 

Blond  type,  24-26;  229,  230; 
crossed  with  brunet,  14,  18, 
26,  28,  202;  origin  of,  214. 

Blondness,  25,  26;  associated 
with  glabrous  skin,  32;  with 
red  hair,  32;  of  Ainus,  224;  of 
Albanians  and  Greeks,  163;  of 
Berbers,  223;  of  Libyans,  223; 
of  Swiss,  136;  of  Tamahu,  223; 
in  Asia,  224;  in  Bosnia,  190; 
in  central  Europe  in  Roman 
times,  131;  in  Ireland,  201;  in 
literature  as  special  trait,  229; 
in  Poland,  190;  in  Russia,  190; 
in  Spain,  192;  of  Christ,  230. 

Blonds,  mixed  with  brunets,  202. 

Bohemia,  59,  183;  revolt  of,  187; 
loss  of  population  in  during 
Thirty  Years'  War,  184. 

Bohemian  national  revival,  58. 

Bone-carving,  112. 

Borreby  type  (see  Beaker  Mak- 
ers), 164. 

Borussian  language,  242. 

Bosnia,  190. 

Boundaries,  of  Catholics  and 
Protestants,  185;  of  Nordics 
and  Alpines,  185-186;  of  East- 
ern and  Western  Empires,  179. 

Bow  and  arrow  in  the  Paleo- 
lithic Period,  112,  113,  115. 

Brachycephalic,  as  a  term,  19; 
races,  first  appearance  of,  116. 

Brachycephaly,     19,     116,     122, 



127-128,  136-138,  144,  146, 
I51.  I57»  I72l  increase  of  in 
France,  197;  Russian,  136. 

Brahmans,  257. 

Brandenburg,  population  of,  72. 

Brazil,  Negro  blood  in,  78. 

Brenner  Pass,  189. 

Brennus,  157. 

Bretons,  62 ;  Asiatic  origin  of,  63. 

Britain,  128,  131,  194;  Alpine  in- 
vasion of,  239;  Angles  in,  206, 
248-249;  Aryan  language  in, 
234;  Beaker  Makers  in,  138; 
Belgae  in,  248,  251;  bronze  in, 
127;  Bronze  Age  in,  163;  Cel- 
tic language  in,  247;  Celts  in, 
248;  Danes  in,  249;  Goidels 
in,  174,  248;  iron  in,  130- 
131;  land  connection  of,  with 
France,  199;  with  Ireland, 
199;  loss  of  Roman  power  in, 
250;  Mediterraneans  in,  123, 
127,  248;  (see  also  British  Isles 
and  England) ;  Neolithic  popu- 
lation of,  123;  Normans  in, 
249;  Norse  in,  249;  Paleo- 
lithic population  of,  123;  Pro- 
to-Mediterraneans  in,  150; 
race  mixture  in,  248;  racial 
composition  of,  199;  Round 
Barrow  Men  in,  163;  Saxons 
in,  248-249;  Welsh  in,  248- 

British,  29;  native  British  stat- 
ure, 29. 

British  Empire,  57. 

British  Isles  {see  also  Britain  and 
England);  Alpines  absent  in, 
63;  absence  of  round  skulls  in, 
63,  137,  138,  247,  249;  an- 
thropology of,  249;  brunets 
of,  28,  29,  149,  150;  conquered 
by  Saxons,  180;  Celtic  lan- 
guages in,  249-250;  Iberian 
substratum  in,  249;  invaded 
by  Belga?  or  Cymry,  199;  by 
Brythons,    199;    by    Goidels, 

199;  Mediterraneans  in,  149, 
198,  266;  Nordics  in,  188,  199- 
206,  269,  271;  Saxon  and  Dan- 
ish parts  of,  88;  Saxons  in, 
180;  Teutonic  languages  in, 
249;  Vikings  in,  249. 

Brittany,  81 ,  129,  146,  202,  248; 
(see  Armorica);  Alpines  in, 
146,  267;  Armorican  language 
in,  248;  Celtic  language  in, 
250-252;  Celts  in,  250-251; 
dolmens  in,  129;  megaliths  in, 
155;  ravaged  by  the  Saxons, 

Bronze,  132,  155;  associated  with 
Alpines,  128,  136;  composi- 
tion and  invention  of,  126; 
effect  of,  127,  128,  129;  fab- 
ulous value  of,  126;  imple- 
ments, wide  diffusion  of  com- 
mon types,  128;  in  Crete,  128; 
in  England,  128,  137;  in  Ire- 
land, 137;  in  Italy,  127-128; 
in  megalithic  monuments,  129; 
in  north  Africa,  128;  in  Scan- 
dinavia, 128;  in  Sweden,  137; 
introduction  of,  157,  158;  on 
Atlantic  coasts,  128;  absence 
of  in  dolmens,  127. 

Bronze  Period  (Age),  120-122, 
126-133,  137,  163,  174,  199, 
213,  238,  267;  and  Beaker 
Makers,  138;  in  the  South 
contemporary  with  the  north- 
ern neolithic,  129. 

Brunet,  crossed  with  blond,  14, 
18,  26,  28,  202. 

Brunetness,  among  Greeks,  163; 
in  central  Europe,  131;  in 
literature,  as  a  special  char- 
acter, 229;  in  England  and 
America,  150, 153;  in  Scotland, 
150,  153,  204. 

Briinn-Pfedmost  race,  113,  114, 

Brutus,  217. 

Brythonic  elements,  in  Scotland, 



203;  (Cymric)  invasion,  247; 

language,  248;  in  France,  248; 

in  Wales,  205. 
Brythons,  203,  247-249,  269;  on 

the  continent,  174;  in  England, 

175,  200,  206;  in  Ireland,  200, 

Bukowina,  Rumanian  language 

in,  245. 
Bulgaria,  Mongoloid  characters 

in,    144;    Mediterraneans    in, 

Bulgarian  national  revival,  58. 
Bulgarians  and  Christianity,  65; 

domination  of  in  Thrace,  246. 
Bulgars,  145. 
Burgund,  142. 
Burgundians,  70,  72,   145,   177, 

194;  in  Gaul,  180. 
Burgundy,  30,  182-183. 
Byzantine  Army,  189;  Empire, 

65,    165-166,    179,    181,    189, 

221,  237,  246;  decline  of,  221; 

Greeks  in,  165. 
Byzantium,  92,  166. 

Cacocracy,  79. 

Caesar,  69,  140,  182,  I93~i95, 
200,  217,  221,  248,  251. 

Caithness,  249. 

Calabrian,  language,  244. 

California,  II,  75. 

Californians,  79. 

Caligula,  217. 

Campignian  Period,  120,  121; 
culture  of,  132. 

Canada,  23;  Nordics  in,  81; 
French  Canada,  47. 

Canadians  (French),  II,  47,  58, 
81;  origin  of,  81;  Alpine  char- 
acter of,  81;  language  of,  81; 
(Irish),  II;  Indian,  9,  87. 

Cantabrian  Alps,  140,  267. 

Carpathian  Mountains,  124, 136, 
141,  142,  143.  244-245. 

Carthage,  126,  165,  180;  ancient 
civilization  of,  153. 

Carthaginians,  228. 

Caspian  Sea  (see  also  Caspian- 
Aral  Sea),  171,  257. 

Caspian-Aral  Sea,  170,  214,  225, 
254.  258. 

Cassiterides,  127. 

Cassius,  217. 

Castes,  70. 

Castilian  language,  156,  244. 

Catalan  language,  156,  244. 

Catholic  boundaries  in  Europe, 

Catholic  colonies,  the  half-breed 
in,  85. 

Caucasian  race,  3,  32,  34,  65,  66, 
67;  hair  of,  34;  in  the  United 
States,  65 ;  origin  of  the  name, 

Caucasus,  66,  144,  225,  238-239, 
253;  Cimmerian  raids  in,  254; 
Nordics  in,  214,  258. 

Caucasus   Mountains,   66,   214, 

Cavalier  type,  185. 
Caverns  of  France  and  Spain, 

112,  132. 
Celtiberians,    192;   language  of, 


Celtic  dialects,  62,  130. 

Celtic  languages,  62;  antedating 
Anglo-Saxons  in  England,  and 
Romans  in  France,  63;  in 
Spain,  155,  234;  Celtic  and 
High  German,  189;  Celtic  in 
France,  194,  248;  Celtic  lan- 
guage of  the  Nordics,  194; 
first  crosses  the  Rhine  west- 
ward, 246;  introduced  into 
Britain,  247-250;  in  Brittany, 
250-251;  in  Gaul,  250;  de- 
scendants of,  250;  remnants 
of,  155-156. 

Celtic  Nordics,  139. 

Celtic  race,  3,  62-64. 

Celtic-speaking  nations,  130, 131, 
139.  173-177.  189,  192,  199; 
physical  characters  of,  175. 



Celtic  tribes,  250;  in  Armorica, 

Celto-Scyths,  174. 

Celts,  62,  63,  194;  in  the  Rhine 
valley,  174;  in  the  Danube 
valley,  174;  expulsion  of  from 
Germany,  174;  physical  char- 
acters of,  175;  mixed  with 
Mediterraneans  and  Alpines, 
177;  "Q"  and  "P,"  247-248. 

Central  America,  61,  75. 

Centum  group  of  Aryan  lan- 
guages, 256. 

Cephalic  index,  19-24;  in  Eng- 
land, 137;  increase  of  in 
France,  197. 

Cereals,  138. 

Ceylon,  258;  Mediterranean  race 
in,  148;  Negroids  in,  149; 
Veddahs  in,  149. 

Chalons,  battle  of,  250,  272. 

Channel  coasts,  201;  depression 
of,  199. 

Characters,  unit,  13  et  seq. 

Charlemagne,  182,  187,  191,  195; 
capital  of,  182;  coronation  of, 
182;  empire  of,  182;  language 
of  the  court  of,  182. 

Charles  V,  183. 

Charles  Martel,  181. 

Chase,  the,  122. 

Chellean  Period,  104-105,  132; 
Pre-Chellean,  104-105. 

Cherbourg,  201. 

China,  whites  in,  78. 

Chinese,  II,  79,  119,  260;  in 
California  and  Australia,  79; 
Nordic  elements  among,  224. 

Chinese  civilization,  119. 

Chinese  coolie,  11. 

Chinese-Turkestan,  Wu-Suns  in, 
260;  Tokharian  language  in, 

Chivalry,  228. 

Christ,  227;  blondness  of,  230. 

Christianity,  181-183,  221-222. 

Chronological  table,  132-133. 

Chronology,  Hebrew,  4. 
Church,  and  birth  control,  52; 

harboring    defective     strains, 

Church  of  Rome  and  democracy, 

,85'  . 
Cimbri,  177. 

Cimmerians,  173,  189,  214,  225, 
253,  258,  269. 

Cinque  cento,  215. 

Circassians,  237. 

Cisalpine  Gaul,  157. 

Cities,  consumers  of  men,  209; 
Alpines  in,  94;  Mediterraneans 
in,  94,  209;  Nordics  in,  94,  209. 

Civil  War,  16,  42-43,  81,  86,  88, 

Civilization,  foundation  of  Eu- 
ropean, 164,  165;  and  race 
mixture,  161;  of  Nordics  and 
Mediterraneans,  214-216. 

Climate  and  arboreal  man,  101. 

Climatic  conditions,  38-42,  215. 

Cnossos,  165. 

Colonial  American  families,  46- 
48,  51,  83-85. 

Colonial  population,  of  America, 
48,  83,  84. 

Colonial  Wars,  causes  of,  85. 

Colonies,  American,  Nordic 
blood  in,  84;  Catholic,  in  New 
France  and  New  Spain,  85. 

Colonization,  93. 

Columbaria,  220. 

Competition  of  races,  46-55. 

Conquistadores,  73,  193. 

Conscript  Armies,  197-198. 

Constantine,  166. 

Constantinople,  166  (see  Byzan- 

Consumption,  55. 

Continuity  of  physical  charac- 
ters, 262. 

Copper,  125,  132;  in  Egypt,  125; 
first  appearance  of  in  Europe, 
122;  implements,  121;  mines, 



Cornish  language,  248. 

Cornwales,  178. 

Cornwall,  178;  racial  types  in, 
206;  Phoenicians  in,  127. 

Cotentin,  201. 

"Crackers,"  39. 

Cretans,  228. 

Crete,  99,  165;  ancient  civiliza- 
tion of,  153;  bronze  in,  128; 
Hellenes  in,  162;  Minoan  cul- 
ture of,  99,  164;  Pre- Aryan 
language,  remnants  in,  233. 

Crimea,  176;  Gauls  in,  174. 

Croats,  143. 

Cro-Magnon,  race,  105-107, 
108-115,  132;  and  art,  112, 
114;  and  Esquimaux,  112; 
cranial  capacity  of,  109;  cul- 
ture of,  m-113;  direction  of 
entrance  of,  into  Europe,  1 1 1 ; 
disappearance  of,  1 1 0-1 1 1 , 
115;  disharmonic  features  of, 
no;  distribution  of,  in;  first 
appearance  of,  108,  1 1 1 ;  genius 
of,  109;  in  France,  265;  origin 
of,  in;  race  characters  of, 
108-109;  remnants  of,  15,  no; 
skull  of,  15,  no;  weapons  of, 
112,  113. 

Crossing,  brunets  and  blonds,  14, 
18,  26,  28,  202. 

Crucifixion,  in  art,  230. 

Crusades,  182,  191. 

Cuba,  76. 

Culture,  European,  derivation 
of,  164. 

Cumberland  Mountains,  39. 

Cymric  invasions,  174;  (Bry- 
thonic),  247. 

Cymric  language,  248;  Anaryan 
syntax  of,  204;  in  Britain,  248; 
in  central  Europe,  248 ;  in  Nor- 
mandy, 251 ;  in  Wales,  205. 

Cymry,  145,  174,  205-206,  247, 
269,  271;  and  La  Tene,  131; 
in  Britain,  175,  200;  in  France, 
175.  251. 

Cyprus,    mines    of,     125;    My- 
cenaean culture  of,  164. 
Cyrus,  254. 
Czechs,  143. 

Da  Vinci,  Leonardo,  215. 

Dacia,  245. 

Dacian  Plain,  176,  244-245;  oc- 
cupation of,  143. 

Dalmatian  Alps,  30;  coast,  138. 

Danes,  69,  145,  177,  196,  206, 
211 ;  along  the  Atlantic  coasts, 
180;  in  Britain,  249;  invasion 
of,  201 ;  Nordic,  64;  of  Ireland, 
63-64,  201 ;  of  Schleswig,  Ger- 
manization  of,  58-59. 

Danish  barbarians,  identified 
with  Normans,  252;  Danish 
blood  of  American  settlers,  83 ; 
Danish  Peninsula,  200. 

Dante,  215. 

Danube,  244-245;  Alpines,  in 
valley  of,  116,  127,  136,  167; 
lake  dwellings  of,  131,  122; 
Nordics  in,  174;  routes  of,  125. 

Dardanelles,  256. 

Darius,  254-255;  Nordic  type, 

Dark  Ages,  99. 

Dart,  barbed,  112;  poisoned,  113. 

David,  fairness  of,  223;  mother 
of,  223-224. 

Dawn  Man,  105. 

Dawn  stones,  102-103. 

DeGeer,  Baron,  169. 

Delphi,  Galatians  at,  158. 

Democracy,  5,  8,  10,  12,  78,  79; 
and  socialism,  79. 

Democratic  forms  of  govern- 
ment, 5. 

Denmark,  Alpines  in,  136,  911 ; 
kitchen  middens  of,  123;  Mag- 
lemose  culture  in,  117,  123, 
169;  Teutons  from,  174. 

Dinaric  race,  or  type,  138,  163- 
164,  190. 

Diogenes,  227. 



Diseases,  54,  55. 

Disharmonic     combinations     of 

physical  characters,  14,  28,  35, 

Dnieper  river,  143. 
Dog,  the,  domesticated,  117, 123; 

Paleolithic,  112. 
Dolichocephalic,  as  a  term,  19; 

Dolichocephalics,  earliest  races 

in  Europe,  116. 
Dolichocephaly,    24,    107,    108, 

I 14,   116,   122,    136,  148-149, 

151.   172. 
Dolichocephs     and     megaliths, 

Dolmens,  of  Brittany,  absence  of 

bronze  in,  129. 
Domesticated  animals,  117,  122- 

123,  138. 
Dominion  of  Canada,  81. 
Dordogne,  stature  in,  198. 
Dorian  dialects,  164,  243;  inva- 
sion of  Greece,  99,  159-160. 
Dorians,  159-160,  164,  189,  269. 
Dravidians,  148,  257;  mixed  with 

Mediterraneans,  150. 
Dutch,  61 ;  in  the  East  Indies,  78; 

in  New  York,  80,  84;  in  South 

Africa,  80. 

East  Indies,  whites  in,  78;  Dutch 
in,  78. 

Eastern  Empire  of  Rome,  165- 
166,  176,  179,  221. 

Ecclesiastics  among  Normans, 
brachycephalic,  208. 

Egypt,  Alpines  in,  128,  140; 
ancient  civilization  of,  119, 
153,  164;  bronze  weapons  in, 
127;  copper  in,  125;  culture 
synchronous  with  the  northern 
Neolithic,  125;  (lower)  earliest 
fixed  date  of,  1 25 ;  fellaheen  of, 
15 ;  freed  menof,ii6;  Hellenized, 
220;  invaded  by  Libyans, 
223;  iron  in,  129;  Macedonian 
dynasties   of,    162;    Mediter- 

ranean race  in,  148;  monu- 
ments in,  155;  national  revival 
of,  58;  Nordics  in,  223. 

Egyptians,  15,  63;  ancient,  152; 
language  of,  233. 

Elam,  147. 

Elimination  of  the  weak  and  un- 
fit, 49-54. 

Eneolithic  Period,  121,  128,  132. 

Energy  of  the  Nordics,  215. 

England,  10,  21,  26,  56,  62,  185- 
186;  Alpines  in,  137;  Angles  in, 
200;  blond  elements  in,  63; 
bronze  introduced  into,  128; 
Brythons  in,  175;  cephalic  in- 
dex in,  137,  138;  conquered  by 
the  Danes,  69,  201;  by  the 
Normans,  69,  206-207 ;  by  the 
Norsemen,  69;  by  the  Saxons, 
69;  blonds  mixed  with  bru- 
nets  in,  202;  deterioration  of, 
209;  economic  change  in,  43, 
209;  ethnic  elements  in,  201- 
210;  Goidelic  elements  in,  201 ; 
Goidelic  speech  in,  200; 
Iberian  substratum  in,  201; 
iron  in,  129-131;  land  connec- 
tion of  with  Ireland  and 
France,  128,  199;  loss  of  Nor- 
dics in,  168,  191;  Mediter- 
ranean race  in,  26, 83, 150, 153, 
J55»  203,  208-210;  megaliths 
in,  155;  nobility  in,  191;  Nor- 
dic race  in,  26,  188,  199-210; 
decline  of  Nordic  element  in, 
190,  191,  208-210;  Norman 
type  in,  206-208,  252 ;  physical 
types  in,  249;  Post-Roman  in- 
vaders of,  73 ;  race  elements  in, 
64,  249;  Round  Barrow  men 
of,  137-138;  Saxon  invasion 
of,  200-201;  Saxon  speech  of, 
69;  severed  from  France  and 
Ireland,  128;  stone  weapons  in, 
120-121;  in  world  war,  191, 

English,  the,  61,  67;  brunet,  149- 



150;  borderers,  40;  characters, 
26,  29,  64;  in  the  Bahamas,  40; 
in  New  York,  80;  in  South 
Africa,  80;  modern,  67;  Nor- 
man type  among,  207;  Round 
Barrow  survivals  among,  164; 
typical  hair  shade  of,  26. 

English  Channel,  199. 

English  language,  61;  a  world 
language,  80,  204. 

English  race  related  to  the  Fris- 
ians, 73. 

Environment,  4,  16,  19,  28,  38- 
39,  98-99;  effects  of,  262. 

Eoanthropus,  105-106. 

Eolithic  culture,  103;  man,  97- 
103;  Period,  102-103,  I05>  I32- 

Eoliths,  102-103. 

Ephtalites,  254. 

Epirus,  164. 

Erse  language,  247. 

Esquimaux,  and  Cro-Magnons, 
no,  112,  225. 

Esthonians,  234;  language  of, 
234,  236,  243;  immigration  of, 

Esths,  236,  243. 

Eternal  City,  153. 

Ethiopia,  151. 

Ethiopian  Negro,  24,  151. 

Etruria,  153,  165;  ancient  civili- 
zation of,  153;  struggles  of 
with  the  Latins,  154;  empire 
of,  165. 

Etruscans,  154,  157,  244;  lan- 
guage of,  234,  244;  empire  of, 
I57:  power  of  destroyed,  157; 
learn  Aryan,  244. 

Eugenics,  ideal  in,  48. 

Eurasia,  100,  202. 

Europe,  20,  21,  24,  27,  30,  44,  56, 
60,  62,  63,  68;  abandoned  to 
invaders,  179;  Alpines  in,  117; 
Anaryan  survivals  in,  234-235 ; 
brain  capacity  of,  53;  Cro- 
Magnons  in,  108,  115;  dolicho- 
cephalic,   116;  early  man  in, 

102;  glaciation  in,  101-102; 
not  the  home  of  the  Alpines, 
43;  nor  of  the  Slavs,  65;  Ger- 
man types  in,  73;  iron  in,  129- 
131;  (mediaeval),  10,  52,  59; 
megaliths  in,  155;  Mongols  in, 
65;  Nordic  aristocracy  in,  188; 
see  also  Aristocracy;  Nordics 
in,  188;  peninsula  of  Asia 
or  Eurasia,  100;  Pre-Aryan 
speech  in,  235;  Teutonic,  179- 
187;  Turkish  language  in,  237; 
(western)  introduction  of  Ar- 
yan speech  into,  234. 

Europe  (Paleolithic),  23. 

European  culture,  derivation  of, 

European  man,  25,000  years  ago, 

European  races,  18-21,  24,  28- 
30,  32,  33,  35,  60,  66,  131; 
natural  habitat  of,  37 ;  physical 
characters  of,  21,  31,  34;  pres- 
ent distribution  of,  272-273. 

European  wars  and  Nordics,  73, 
74;  causes  of,  56. 

Europeans,  in  Brazil,  78;  mod- 
ern, cranial  capacity  of,  109. 

Euskarian  language;  see  also 
Basque,  140,  235. 

Euskarians  (Basques),  234. 

Eye  color,  13,  24,  25,  35,  135, 
168,  175. 

Farms,  immigrants  on,  209; 
nurseries  of  nations,  209. 

Fellaheen,  152. 

Fen  districts,  Mediterraneans 
in,  153. 

Ferdinand  of  Hapsburg,  187. 

Fertility  and  infertility  of  races, 

Feudalism,  228. 

Finland,  59,  236;  Alpines  in,  211; 
colonized  by  Sweden,  211;  con- 
quered by  the  Varangians,  177. 



Finlanders,  language  of,  234,  236, 

Finnic  dialects,  234. 

Finns,  58,  243;  round-skulled, 
invasion  of,  236. 

Firbolgs,  108,  203. 

Flanders,  182;  Nordics  in,  188, 
210,  231. 

Flemings,  57,  61,  195,  210;  lan- 
guage of,  195;  descended  from 
the  Franks,  210. 

Flints,  chipped,  102-104,  113, 
1 19-12 1 ;  polished,  1 19-120. 

Foot,  as  a  race  character,  31. 

Forests,  124. 

Forty-Niners,  75. 

France,  23,  56,  60,  63;  and  the 
church,  181;  and  the  Hugue- 
nots, 53;  Alpines  in,  138,  140, 
142,  194;  Aryan  language  in, 
234;  Athenian  versatility  of, 
161;  Basques  in,  140;  Bronze 
Age  in,  129,  131;  Brythonic 
language  in,  248;  caverns  in, 
112;  Celtic  language  in,  194, 
248-251;  connection  of  by 
land  with  Britain,  199;  ce- 
phalic index  in,  197; conquered 
by  Gauls,  173;  Cro-Magnon 
race  in,  no;  Cymry  or  Belgae 
in,  175,  251;  decline  of  inter- 
national power  in,  197;  first 
Alpines  in,  116;  Hallstatt  relics 
in,  131;  in  Caesar's  time,  194- 
195;  invasion  of  by  Gauls,  199; 
loss  through  war,  197;  Medi- 
terraneans in,  149,  156,  194; 
megaliths  in,  129;  mercenaries 
in»  *35;  Nordic  aristocracy  in, 
140;  Nordics  in,  188,  231; 
Normans  in,  201;  Paleolithic, 
remnants  in,  no;  racial  com- 
position of,  194;  religious  wars 
of,  185,  196;  Saxons  in,  201; 
severed  from  England,  128; 
stature  in,  198;  Tardenoisian 

Period  of,  115;  variation  of 
physical  characters  in,  23. 

Francis  I,  183. 

Franco-Prussian  War,  198. 

Frankish  aristocracy,  196;  dynas- 
ties, 195;  kingdom,  196. 

Franks,  67,  70,  145,  177,  181, 
251;  founders  of  France,  195; 
in  Belgium,  195;  in  Gaul,  206; 
conquer  the  Lombards,  181; 
conversion  of,  181;  control 
western  Christendom,  181 ;  de- 
feat the  Moslems,  181;  king- 
dom of,  180-196. 

French,  67;  stature  of,  197-198; 
conscripts,  198;  language,  244; 
Revolution,  6. 

French  Canadians,  n,  58. 

Frisia,  73. 

Frisian  coast,  210;  dialect  (Taal), 
South  Africa,  80. 

Frisians,  177;  Nordic  character 

of,  73- 
Friulian  language,  244. 
Frontiersmen  of  America,  45,  74- 

75,  85. 
Furfooz-Grenelle  race,  116,  132, 

136,  138. 
"Furor  Normanorum,"  130. 

Gaelic,  247,  249. 

Galatia,  158,  225. 

Galatians,  158;  physical  char- 
acter of,  175. 

Galicia,  245;  Nordics  in,  156. 

Gallicia,  Slavs  in,  143. 

Gaul,  60,  131;  Cisalpine  Gaul, 
157;  Roman  Gaul,  69;  Alpines 
in,  124,  240;  Belgae  in,  251; 
Burgundians  in,  180;  Celtic 
speech  in,  250;  conquered  by 
the  Goths  and  Franks,  251; 
Franks  in,  206;  Goidels  in,  248; 
languages  in,  69-70;  Latinized, 
194;  Latin  speech  in,  251; 
Mediterraneans  in,  123;  Nor- 
dics in,   193-194;  Nordics  or 



Celts  cross  into,  173,  194; 
Teutonic  speech  in,  251;  Visi- 
goths in,  180. 

Gauls,  68,  131,  145,  156,  189, 
194;  ancient,  229;  conquer 
France,  174;  enter  Spain,  174, 
192;  in  Asia  Minor,  158;  in  the 
Crimea,  174;  in  France,  199; 
in  Galatia,  225;  in  Greece,  158; 
in  Italy,  1 57,  1 74,  225 ;  in  south 
Russia,  174;  in  Thrace,  225; 
mixed  with  Alpines,  247 ;  mixed 
with  Mediterraneans,  192, 247; 
physical  characters  of,  175; 
as  a  ruling  class,  247. 

Genius  and  leaders,  98;  and  edu- 
cation or  environment  versus 
race,  98;  in  Greece,  109;  in 
various  states,  99;  genius- pro- 
ducing type  and  rate  of  in- 
crease, 51,  99. 

Georgia,  39,  99. 

Georgians,  237. 

Gepidse,  177. 

German,  Emperor,  182-183;  Em- 
pire, 184;  immigrants  to 
America,  84,  86,  87,  184;  in 
the  Civil  War,  87;  in  Brazil, 
78;  language,  61,  182,  188-189; 
Revolution,  of  1848,  87;  type, 


Germans,  61,  67;  Austrian  Ger- 
mans, 145;  defeat  Mongols, 
260;  descendants  of  Wends, 
72;  immediate  forerunners  of, 
194;  in  America,  84;  in  Brazil, 
78;  in  Civil  War,  87;  of  the 
Palatinate,  84;  Russification 
of,  58;  stature  of,  154. 

Germany,  65,  72,  200;  Alpines  in, 
64,  72,  73,  124,  135,  141-142, 
184-187,  189,  232;  Celts  in, 
173-174,  248;  change  of  race 
in,  141-142,  184-185;  Chris- 
tian overlordship  of,  183;  early 
Nordics  in,  124,  131;  gentry 
of,  185,  198;  Goidels  in,  247- 

248;  imperial  idea  in,  187; 
loss  of  population  of  during 
Thirty  Years'  War,  183;  Medi- 
terraneans in,  123;  in  Middle 
Ages,  183;  modern  population 
of,  186,  231-232;  nobility  of, 
185;  Nordics  in,  73,  124,  131, 
141-142,  170,  174,  184,  187- 
188,  210,  213,  231;  peasantry 
(Alpine)  in,  185;  race  con- 
sciousness of,  57;  race  mixture 
mi  l35't  racial  composition  of, 
72,  73,  184;  Slavic  substratum 
in,  72,  131,  141-142;  Teutons 
m»  72»  73.  184-189;  Thirty 
Years'  War,  effect  of,  183- 
187,  198;  unified,  56-57,  186; 
Wends  in,  236;  women  of,  228; 
in  world  war,  186-187,  231. 

Ghalcha,  255,  259. 

Ghalchic,  261. 

Ghettos,  209. 

Gizeh  round  skulls,  127. 

Glacial  stages,  101,  105-106,  133. 

Glaciation,  100-106,  132. 

Goidelic  dialects,  200-201,  248; 
elements  in  Scotland,  203; 
language,  Anaryan  syntax  in, 
204;  in  Wales,  205;  older  in 
central  Europe,  248. 

Goidels,  131,  173-174,  I94"i95» 
200,  247,  269,  271;  crossed 
with  Mediterraneans,  248-249; 
invade  Britain,  199;  late  wave 
of  from  Ireland  to  Scotland, 
250;  a  ruling  class,  247. 

Gold,  125. 

Gothic  language  in  Spain,  156. 

Goths,  66,  73,  142,  145,  176-177, 
180-181,  189,  192,  206,  211, 
251,  270;  early  home  of,  176; 
in  Italy,  157. 

Graeculus,  163. 

Greece,  59;  ancient,  absence  of 
Dinaric  type  in,  164;  ancient 
civilization  of,  153;  classic 
period  of,  99,   160-161;  con- 



quered  by  Achaeans,  158;  cul- 
ture of,  contrasted  with  that 
of  the  Persians,  255;  dark 
period  of,  99;  Dorian  invasion 
of.  99,  J59J  Homeric,  163-164; 
Homeric-Mycenaean  culture  of, 
99;  Mediterranean  substratum 
in,  152;  modern,  161-164; 
Hellenes  in,  162;  Mycenaean 
culture  of,  164;  Nordics  in, 
159-160,  173,  214;  Pelasgians 
in,  158;  race  mixture  in,  161; 
war  of  with  Persia,  255. 
Greek  language,  179;  origin  of, 

Greek  states,  162. 
Greeks,  in  Asia  Minor,  160. 

ancient,  cranial  capacity  of, 
109;  brunets  among,  159, 
163;  blonds  among,  159, 
163;  genius  of,  109;  lan- 
guage of,   158;    Mediter- 
raneans, 153,  158 
classic,  161,  256;  blondness 
of,     159,     163;     brunets 
among,  160-161;  charac- 
ter of,  154,  160;  language 
of,   161;  Nordic  type  of, 
162 ;  physical  character  of, 
163;  race  mixture  among, 
modern,  68;  Alpines  among, 
65;     language    of,     163; 
physical  character  of,  162- 
Greenland,  211. 
Gregory,  Pope,  230. 
Grenelle  race,  116,  132,  136,  138, 

Gulf  States,  Negroes  in,  76. 
Giinz  glaciation,  101,  132. 
Giinz-Mindel  glaciation,  132. 
Gustavus  Adolphus,  210. 

Hair,  of  the  head,  33;  character 
of,  33-34- 

Hair  color,  13,  24,  25,  28,  32,  35, 
135.  168,  175. 

Hairiness,  31,  168;  of  the  Ainus, 
224;  of  the  Australoids,  224; 
of  the  Scandinavians,  224. 

Haiti,  76,  77. 

Hallstatt  iron  culture,  129,  130- 

Hamitic  peoples,  152;  speech, 

Hannibal,  217. 

Hanover,  73. 

Hapsburg,  House  of,  183;  Ferdi- 
nand of,  187. 

Harold,  King  of  England,  120. 

Hebrew  chronology,  4. 

Heidelberg  jaw,  102;  man,  106, 

118,  133. 

Hellas,  ancient  civilization  of, 
153,  160,  215;  conquered  by 
Macedon,  161-162. 

Hellenes,  68,  158-163,  215,  243; 
language  of,  233-234. 

Hellenic  colonies,  165;  language, 
233-234;  states,  165. 

Henry  VIII,  183. 

Henry  the  Fowler,  142. 

Heredity,  4,  13  et  seq.;  in  relation 
to  environment,  16;  unaltera- 
ble, 16-19. 

Heroes,  blondness  of,  159,  229. 

Heruli,  177. 

Hidalgo,  meaning  of  the  term, 
192.  ( 

High  German,  and  Teutonized 
Alpines,  189;  and  Celtic  ele- 
ments, 189;  High  German  peo- 
ple, 73;  High  and  Low  Ger- 
man, 258. 

Highlanders,  Scottish,  62. 

Highlands,  Goidelic  speech  in, 
250;  language  of,  247. 

Himalayas,  western,  22;  Alpines 
in,  134- 

Hindu  Kush,  20,  256;  Alpines  in, 

Hindus,    18,   21,   70,    159,   216; 



Aryan  speech  of,  67;  languages 
of,  148,  216,  257. 

Hindustan,  67,  70,  148-149,  255; 
Mediterraneans  in,  149;  Nor- 
dic invaders  of,  67,  70;  physi- 
cal types  of,  257;  whites  in, 

Hittite  empire,   256;   language, 


Hittites,  ancestors  of  the  Ar- 
menians, 239;  and  iron,  129. 

Hiung-Nu,  224. 

Hohenstaufen  emperors,  186. 

Holland,  26,  73,  182,  210;  Al- 
pines in,  136;  bronze  in,  127; 
Nordics  in,  188,  210. 

Hollanders,  related  to  Anglo- 
Saxons  of  England,  80. 

Holstein,  73. 

Holy  Roman  Empire,  182,  184. 

Homer,  159,  189. 

Homeric-Mycenaean  civilization, 


Homo,  32,  33,  167;  eoanthropus, 
105-106;  europcBus,  167;  heidel- 
bergensis,  102,  106,  118;  pithe- 
canthropus, 101. 

Horse,  112. 

"House  of  Refuge,"  115. 

Hudson  Bay  Company,  9. 

Huguenots,  exterminated  in 
France,  53:  in  exile,  53;  in 
America,  84. 

Humboldt,  skull  of,  226. 

Hungarian  nation,  59. 

Hungarians,  143;  modern,  145. 

Hungary,  144;  Alpines  and  Nor- 
dics in,  210;  early  Nordics  in, 
131;  independent,  59;  lan- 
guages in,  236;  Saxons  in,  201 ; 
Slavs  in,  131. 

Huns,  176. 

Hunting,  113,  122. 

Hybridism,  14,  17,  18,  60,  188. 

Iberian  language,  194,  235. 
Iberian    Peninsula,    Aryan    lan- 

guage in,  192;  Mediterraneans 
in,  152,  156;  states,  60. 

Iberian  subspecies,  20,  148 
(see  Mediterranean  race);  as 
substratum  in  British  Isles, 
249;  in  England,  201;  in  Ire- 
land, 201. 

Iberian  type  or  race,  148,  202 
(see  Mediterranean  race);  re- 
surgence of,  in  Scotland,  249. 

Iberians,  68,  156,  193,  201,  249. 

Iceland,  211. 

Illyria,  stature  in,  190. 

Illyrian  language,  164;  origin  of, 


Illyrians,  mixed  with  Slavs,  153, 

Immigrants,  71,  74,  84,  100,  218; 
Americanization  of,  90-9 1 ;  and 
American  institutions  and  en- 
vironment, 90;  in  America,  II, 
12,  84,  86-92,  209,  2ii,  218; 
German  and  Irish,  84,  86,  87; 
large  families  among,  47;  Nor- 
wegian, 211;  Scandinavian, 
211;  skulls  of,  17;  Teutonic 
and  Nordic  types  of,  184. 

Immigration,  and  decline  of 
American  birth  rate,  91;  Ger- 
man, in  Brazil,  78;  Italian,  in 
Brazil,  78;  Japanese  and  Chi- 
nese, 79;  result  of,  in  the 
United  States,  II,  12,  89-94. 

Immigration  Commission,  Con- 
gressional, report  of,  17. 

Immutability  of  characters,  15, 

Imperial  idea,  182;  of  Germany, 

Implements,  bronze,  121,  122; 
copper,  125:  flint,  103-104; 
wide  diffusion  of,  128. 

Incineration,  128. 

Increase  of  native  Americans, 
88,  89;  and  immigration,  89. 

India,  22,  33,  66,  78,  119,  171, 
241,  261;  Aryan  languages  in, 



173,  216,  237,  257-261;  con- 
quering classes  in,  70,  71; 
Dravidians  in,  148;  fossil  de- 
posits in,  101 ;  Mediterraneans 
in,  150-151,  261;  Negroids  in, 
149;  Nordics  in,  257;  physical 
types  of,  257;  Pre-Dravidians 
in,  149;  prehistoric  remains  in, 
101;  race  mixture  in,  150; 
Saca  in,  257-258;  Sanskrit 
introduced  into,  216;  selection 
in,  150;  whites  in,  78. 

Indian  languages,  173,  216,  237, 

Indians,  9,  18,  23,  33,  55,  65,  76, 
77,  85,  87. 

Individualism,  12. 

Indo-European  race,  3,  66;  Indo- 
Germanic  race,  3,  66;  Indo- 
Iranian  group  of  Aryan  lan- 
guages, 261. 

Inequality,  law  of  nature,  79. 

Inheritance  of  genius,  15,  18,  98. 

Inhumation,  128. 

Inquisition,  in  selection,  53. 

Instep,  as  race  character,  31. 

Intellect,  privilege  of,  6. 

Interglacial  periods,  102,  104, 
105,  133- 

Invaded  countries,  effect  on  lan- 
guage and  population  in,  70- 


Ionia,  Pelasgians  in,  160. 

Ionian  language,  163-164,  243. 

Ionians,  159. 

Iran,  Alpines  in,  134,  261. 

Iranian,  division  of  Aryan  lan- 
guages, 255,  259,  261;  pla- 
teaux, 116,  238. 

Ireland,  59;  Alpines  in,  128; 
blond  elements  in,  63,  201; 
Celtic  language  in,  247;  con- 
nection of,  by  land,  with 
Britain,  199;  Danes  in,  201; 
Erse  language  in,  247;  Goidelic 
element  in,  201 ;  Goidelic  in- 
vasion of,  199,  200;  Goidelic 

speech  in,  200;  Goidels  leave 
Ireland  for  Scotland,  250; 
Iberian  substratum  in,  201; 
Mediterraneans  in,  203;  Nor- 
dics in,  201 ;  Paleolithic  man 
in,  202-203;  Paleolithic  rem- 
nants in,  108;  religion  in,  203; 
severed  from  England,  128. 

Irish,  29,  58;  immigrants,  II,  86, 
87;  instability  and  versatility 
of,  229;  intellectual  inferiority 
of,  203;  Neanderthal  type  of, 
108;  race  elements  in,  63,  64, 
175,  201-203,  229;  red  hair 
of,  175;  stature  of,  29. 

Irish  Canadians,  1 1 ;  Irish  Cath- 
olic immigrants  to  America, 
84,  86,  87;  Irish  coasts,  Norse 
language  on,  249-250;  Irish 
immigrants  in  the  Civil  War, 
87;  Irish  language,  Pre-Aryan 
syntax  of,  204,  249;  Irish  na- 
tional movement,  58,  64;  Irish 
recruits,  pigmentation  of,  202 ; 
Irish  type,  202. 

Iron,  123,  124,  129,  132;  discov- 
ery and  effect  of,  129;  fabulous 
value  of,  126;  first  appearance 
of,  121;  in  Asia  Minor,  129; 
in  eastern  Europe,  129;  in 
Egypt,  129 ;  in  western  Europe, 
130;  weapons,  126,  159,  200. 

Iroquois,  85. 

Islam,  59. 

Isle  of  Man,  language  of,  247. 

Italia  Irredenta  Movement,  58. 

Italians,  68,  91;  decline  of,  217; 
descended  from  slaves,  216; 
loss  in  war,  216;  (south)  im- 
migrants in  Brazil,  78 ;  (south) 
mixture  of,  71;  related  to  the 
Berbers,  152. 

Italy,  29,  120;  Alpines  in,  64, 
127,  139-140,  157;  and  the 
Huguenots,  53;  bronze  in,  127; 
introduction  of,  from  Crete, 
128;  Eneolithic  Period  in,  121, 



128;  Gauls  in,  174,  225;  Goths 
in,  157;  Lake  dwellings  in,  139; 
languages  in,  234,  244;  Lom- 
bards in,  157,  180;  Mediter- 
raneans in,  29,  123,  152,  157- 
158;  mercenaries  in,  135;  My- 
cenaean culture  in,  164;  Nor- 
dics in,  42,  145,  157,  173,  174. 
180,  189,  215,  220-221,  269- 
271;  Ostrogoths  in,  180;  races 
in  the  north,  157,  189;  races  in 
the  south,  158;  Terramara 
Period  in,  122;  Teutons  in, 
176,  180;  slaves  in,  218; 
Saxons  in,  201 ;  Umbrians  and 
Oscans  in,  173;  under  Austria, 
183;  unification  of,  56,  57. 
Ivory  carving,  112. 

Jamaica,  population  of,  76. 

Japan,  Ainus  of,  224. 

Japanese,  1 1 ;  in  California  and 
Australia,  79. 

Java,  connection  of  with  main- 
land, 101 ;  prehistoric  remains 
in,  101. 

Jews,  16-18,  82,  91,  227. 

Jutes,  177. 

Jutland,  200. 

Kalmucks,  144. 

Kassites,  214,  239;  language  of, 
239;  Aryan  names  among,  253. 

Kentish  dialect,  related  to  Fris- 
ian and  Taal,  80. 

Kentucky,  39,  40. 

Kiptchak,  254. 

Kirghizes,  259. 

Kitchen  Middens,  123. 

Kurd,  100. 

Kurdish  dialect,  255. 

Kurgans,  Russian,  265. 

Lacedaemonian  power,  160. 
Ladin  language,  244. 
Lake    Dwellers,    121,    123,    139; 
physical  characters  of,  139. 

Lake  Dwellings,  132;  bronze  in, 

Languages,  3,  4,  233-263;  and 
nationality,  56-57;  changes  in, 
249-252;  through  superposi- 
tion, 204;  in  invaded  countries, 
70;  a  measure  of  culture,  240; 
nationalities  founded  on,  56, 
57;  no  indication  of  race,**6o- 
68.  See  also  under  various 

Languedoc,  Mediterraneans  in, 
156;  Nordics  in,  180. 

Langue  d'oll,  140,  180,  244. 

Lapps,  language  of,  234,  236. 

La  Tene  culture,  131;  Period, 
130-132,  266. 

Latifundia,  218. 

"Latin  America,"  61. 

Latin  language,  69;  ancestral 
forms  of,  234;  derivation  of, 
244;  descendants  of,  244;  in 
Gaul,  182,  251;  in  Normandy, 
251;  in  Spain,  156;  limiting 
Western  Roman  Empire  on 
the  east,  179;  Teutons  adopt  it 
in  Artois  and  Picardy,  210; 
Vlachs  in  Thrace  adopt  it,  246; 
Latin  nations,  61;  race,  3,  61, 
76,  154;  stock,  61;  type,  76. 

Latins,  struggle  of  with  Etruria, 


Leaders  and  genius,  98. 

Legendary  characters  and  physi- 
cal types,  229-230. 

Leonardo  da  Vinci,  215. 

Lettish  language,  212,  242. 

Levant,  Hellenization  of,  162, 

Libya,  152. 

Libyans,  blondness  of,  223;  in- 
vade Egypt,  223. 

Liguria,  Mediterraneans  in,  152, 

Ligurian  language,  140,  234. 
Lips,  as  race  character,  31. 



Literary  characters  and  physical 
types,  229-230. 

Lithuanian  language,  212,  242. 

"Litus  Saxonicum,"  252. 

Livonian  language,  236. 

Livonians,  or  Livs,  236. 

Lombards,  73, 142, 145, 177,  271 ; 
in  Italy,  157,  180;  overthrow 
of,  by  Franks,  181,  191. 

Lombardy,  25,  35,  183;  Nordics 
in,  189,  221. 

London,  29,  153. 

Long  skulls  in  India,  261. 

Lorraine,  182;  Alpines  in,  140. 

Low  Countries  and  the  Hugue- 
nots, 53. 

Low  German  language,  258 ;  and 
the  Nordics,  188-189. 

Low  German  people,  73. 

Lower  Paleolithic,  104-106,  132. 

Loyalists,  6. 

Lusitania  (Portugal),  occupied 
by  the  Suevi,  180. 

Luxemburg,  183. 

Macedon,  161-162. 

Macedonian  dynasties,  162. 

Macedonians,  mixed  with  Asiat- 
ics, 161-162. 

Magdalenian  bow,  112-113; 
Period,  105,  ill,  112,  114,  115, 
132;  art,  114. 

Magi,  254. 

Maglemose  culture,  117,  123, 
132,  169,  265. 

Magna  Gracia,  158. 

Magyar  language,  236,  244. 

Magyars,  143,  144. 

Malay  Peninsula,  Negroids  in, 

Male,  as  indicating  the  trend  of 
the  race,  27. 

Man,  ancestry  of,  104-118;  ar- 
boreal, 101;  ascent  of,  97-98; 
classification  of,  32;  definition 
of,  104;  earliest  skeletal  evi- 
dence of,  in  Europe,  101,  102; 

evolution  of,  101 ;  phases  of 
development  of ,  101-103;  place 
of  origin,  100;  predisposition 
to  mismate,  22 ;  race,  language, 
and  nationality  of,  3,  4;  three 
distinct  subspecies  of,  in  Eu- 
rope, 19-22. 

Manx  language,  247. 

Marcomanni,  177. 

Maritime  architecture,  165,  199. 

Marius,  177,  217. 

Marriages  between  contrasted 
races,  60. 

Mas  d'Azil,  115,  265. 

Massachusetts,  genius  produced 
in,  99. 

Massageta?  (see  Sacae),  214,  254, 
257,  270;  physical  characters 
of,  259. 

Massif  Central,  141. 

Medes,  173,  216,  254;  Nordics  in 
the  Empire  of,  254. 

Media,  147;  language  of,  239; 
introduction  of  Aryan  lan- 
guage into,  254;  Nordics  in, 


Mediaeval  Europe,  10,  52,  179- 
188.     See  also  Middle  Ages. 

Medic  language  (see  Media,  also 
Zendic  language),  255. 

Mediterranean  basin,  89,  in, 
123;  immigrants  from  to 
America,  89. 

Mediterranean  race,  or  sub- 
species, 20,  21,  23,  24,  26,  29, 
31,  34,  66,  68,  69,  in,  134, 
145,  148-167,  226;  and  Alpine 
race,  146,  181;  and  ancient 
civilization,  153,  214-215;  and 
Aryan  speech,  155,  233,  235, 
237-238,  257;  and  Celtic  lan- 
guage, 247-251;  and  Gauls, 
156;  and  Negroes,  151;  and 
Negritos,  151;  and  synthetic 
languages,  237;  as  sailors,  227- 
228;  classic  civilization  due  to, 
!53»  165-166;  Celticized,  248; 



crossed  with  Goidels,  248;  de- 
scription of,  20,  148;  distribu- 
tion of,  148-149,  241 ;  distribu- 
tion in  the  Neolithic,  123,  148- 
149;  in  the  Paleolithic,  147; 
to-day,  20,  148  seq.,  152,  167, 
273;  habitat  of,  44,  45;  hair  of, 
20,  26,  31,  34;  expansion  of, 
266;  eye  color  of,  20;  fore- 
runners of,  117;  handsomest 
types  of,  158;  in  Afghanistan, 
148;  Africa,  148,  151-152,  155; 
Algeria,  44;  America,  44,  45; 
Arabia,  153;  Argentine,  78; 
Asia,  148-150,  257;  Azilian 
Period,  117;  Baluchistan,  148; 
Britain  (see  also  British  Isles 
and  England),  123,  149,  247- 
249;  British  Isles,  137,  149- 
153,  177  (Pre-Nordic),  153, 
198-199,  247;  Bronze  Age, 
128,  155;  Eastern  Bulgaria, 
145;  Canada,  44;  Ceylon,  148; 
cities,  94,  209;  north  and 
western  Europe,  149,  155; 
Egypt,  148;  England,  or  the 
British  Isles,  64,  83,  123,  127, 
137,  149,  150,  153,  208-210, 
249;  France,  44,  149,  156,  194, 
197;  Greece,  158-161;  Iberian 
Peninsula,  152,  156;  India,  66, 
148,  150,  257,  261;  Italy,  122, 
127, 157, 158;  Languedoc,  156; 
Liguria,  152,  157;  Morocco, 
148;  Nile  Valley,  151;  Paleo- 
lithic Period,  149;  Persia,  66, 
148;  Po  Valley,  157;  Provence, 
156;  Rome,  153-154;  Sahara, 
151;  Scotland,  150,  153,  203- 
204 ;  Senegambian  regions,  151; 
i  n  Sicily,  1 58 ;  in  South  America , 
78;  in  Spain,  149, 151, 155-156, 
192;  in  the  Terramara  Period, 
122;  in  Wales,  62,63, 153, 177, 
203,  205;  increasing  in  Amer- 
ica, 45;  language  of,  155-158, 
233;    (in    Spain,    Italy,    and 

France,  238);  knowledge  of 
metallurgy,  146;  mental  char- 
acteristics of,  229;  mixed  with 
Celts,  177;  with  Dra vidians, 
150;  with  Gauls,  192;  with 
Negroids,  150,  241;  with  Nor- 
dics, 161 ;  with  other  ethnic 
elements,  149-166;  never  in 
Scandinavia,  150-151;  not  in 
the  Alps,  149,  151;  not  purely 
European,  155,  241;  origin  of, 
241;  original  language  of,  235; 
physical  characters  of,  34,  117, 
134,  148;  racial  aptitudes  of, 
228-229;  ri3e  °fi  m  Europe, 
190;  route  of  migration  of,  155; 
resurgence  of,  190,  196;  in 
England,  83,  208;  skulls  of,  20, 
24,  117,  134;  stature  of,  20,  29; 
underlying  the  Alpines  and 
Nordics',  in  western  Europe, 
150;  victims  of  tuberculosis, 
45;  yielding  to  the  Alpines  at 
the  present  time,  177;  Proto- 
Mediterraneans,  132,  149, 150. 

Mediterranean  Sea,  71,  89,  111, 
117,  123,  148,  155,  165,  179. 

Megalithic  monuments,  128-129; 
distribution  of,  155,  265. 

Melanesians,  33. 

Melting  Pot,  16,  263. 

Mendelian  characters,  13. 

Mercenaries,  135,  216. 

Mesaticephaly,  19. 

Mesopotamia,  147,  239;  chron- 
icles of,  253;  city  states  of,  1 19; 
copper  in,  125;  culture  syn- 
chronous with  the  northern 
Neolithic,  125;  earliest  fixed 
date  of,  126. 

Messapian  language,  234. 

Messina,  Pelasgians  in,  160. 

Mesvinian  river  terraces,  133. 

Metallurgy,  120,  122,  123,  125- 
132,  146,  238-240,  267. 

Metals,  120-132. 

Mexican  War,  86. 



Mexico,  17,  76;  peons  of,  9. 

Michael  Angelo,  215. 

Microliths,  113. 

Middle  Ages,  65,  135,  156,  183, 
185,  189,  197,  202,  227;  civili- 
zation of,  165;  elimination  of 
good  strains  of,  52-53. 

Middle  Paleolithic  Period,  104, 
106,  132. 

Middle  West,  settlement  of  by 
poor  whites,  40. 

Migrating  types,  10,  208. 

Mikklegard,  179. 

Mindel  glaciation,  133. 

Mindel-Riss  Interglacial  stage, 
102,  133. 

Minoan  culture  of  Crete,  99, 164; 
Minoan  Empire,  164. 

Miocene  Period,  101-102. 

Miscegenation,  60. 

Mississippi,  99;  black  belt  of,  76. 

Missouri,  40;  river,  40. 

Mitanni,  214;  Aryan  names 
among,  253;  Empire  of,  239. 

Mixture  of  races,  18,  34,  60;  see 
also  race  mixture. 

Mohammedan  invasion  of  Eu- 
rope, 181. 

Moldavia,  Vlachs  in,  246. 

Mongolian  elements  in  Europe, 


Mongolians,  see  Mongols. 

Mongoloid  race,  33,  144,  237; 
hair  of,  34;  invasions  of  Eu- 
rope by,  65,  259-260,  272. 

Mongols,  31,  33,  34,  65,  134,  139, 
144,  224,  241,  260;  crossed 
with  Ainus,  225;  crossed  with 
Esquimaux,  225;  in  Russia,  65. 

Monosyllabic  languages,  240. 

Moors,  in  Spain,  156,  181,  192. 

Moral,  intellectual  and  physical 
characters,  race  differences  in, 
226  et  seq. 

Mordvins,  144. 

Morocco,  bronze  in,  128;  Medi- 
terranean race  in,  148. 

Mosaics,  13. 
Moscovy,  212. 
Moslems  in  Europe,  181. 
Mound  burials,  129. 
Mousterian  Period,  104, 106-107, 

Muscovite  expansion  in  Europe, 

Mycenae,  ancient  civilization  of, 


Mycenaean  civilization,  159,  161, 
164;  culture,  of  Crete,  164;  of 
Greece,  99;  of  Sardinia,  164. 

Myrmidons,  159. 

Napoleon,  186. 

Napoleonic  Wars,  197. 

National  consciousness  of  Ameri- 
cans, 90. 

National  movements,  57,  58; 
types,  absorption  of  higher  by 
lower,  58,  59. 

Nationalities,  formed  around 
language  and  religion,  57,  58. 

Nationality,  3, 4;  artificial  group- 
ing, 56;  and  language,  56-68. 

Navigation,  development  of ,  165, 

Neanderthal  man,  15,  104-107, 
in,  114,  118,  132;  habits  of, 
107;  race  characters  of,  107; 
remnants  or  survivals  of,  15, 
107-108;  skull  of,  15,  107-108. 

Neanderthaloids,  106-107;  rem- 
nants of,  114. 

Negritos,  and  Mediterraneans, 
151 ;  as  substratum  in  southern 
Asia,  148-149. 

Negroes,  16,  18,  23,  24,  31,  33, 
34,  40,  65,  76,  80,  88,  152; 
African,  80;  American,  pro- 
venience of,  82;  and  genius, 
109;  and  the  Mediterranean 
race,  151-152;  and  socialism, 
87;  citizenship  of,  218;  hair  of, 
34;  in  Africa,  23,  24,  33,  79,  80; 
America,  82;  Brazil,  78;  Haiti, 



76,  77;  Mexico,  76;  New  Eng- 
land, 86;  South  America,  76, 
78 ;  Southern  States,  42 ;  United 
States,  16,  40,  65,  76,  82,  85- 
87,  99;  West  Indies,  76;  Nor- 
dic blood  in,  82;  rapid  multi- 
plication of,  79;  replacing 
whites  in  the  South,  76-78;  a 
servient  race,  87,  88;  station- 
ary character  of  their  devel- 
opment, 77. 

Negroids,  33,  III,  149;  crossed 
with  Mediterraneans,  150,  241, 
257;  hair  of,  34;  (in  India) 
physical  character  of,  261. 

Neo-Celtic  languages,  248. 

Neo-Latin,  250. 

Neolithic  (New  Stone  Age),  29, 
105,  136,  139.  148,  157,  169, 
199,  205,  213-214,  248;  Beaker 
Makers  in,  138;  beginning  of, 
118-122;  duration  of,  121; 
distribution  of  races  during, 
123-124;  in  western  Europe, 
121;  northern  Neolithic  con- 
temporary with  southern 
Bronze,  129;  Pre-Neolithic, 
117,  207;  Upper  or  Late  Neo- 
lithic, 121,  132;  and  writing, 

Neolithic  ancestors  of  the  Proto- 
Mediterraneans,  149;  invasion 
of  the  Alpines,  138. 

Nero,  217. 

New  England,  11,  38,  41,  55; 
immigrants  in,  11,  72;  lack 
of  race  consciousness  in,  86; 
Negro  in,  86;  Nordic  in  Co- 
lonial times,  83;  race  mixture 
in,  72;  settlers  of,  83. 

New  England  type,  83. 

New  France,  Catholic  colonies 
in,  85. 

New  Spain,  Catholic  colonies  in, 

New  Stone  Age,  119;  see  Neo- 

New  York,  5,  41,  80;  immigrants 
in,  91,  92. 

New  Zealand,  whites  in,  79. 

Nile  river,  80;  Nile  valley,  Medi- 
terraneans in,  151. 

Nobility  (French),  Oriental  and 
Mediterranean  strains  in,  197. 

Nomads,  10,  209,  258,  259;  see 
also  migratory  types. 

Non-Aryan,  204.     See  Anaryan. 

Nordic  aristocracy,  213;  see  also 
aristocracy;  in  Austria,  141; 
Britain,  247 ;  eastern  Germany, 
141;  France,  140,  196-197; 
Gaul,  247;  Germany,  187; 
Greece,  153;  Italy,  215;  Lom- 
bardy,  189;  Persia,  254;  Rome, 
154;  Russia,  142;  Spain,  192, 
247;  southern  Europe,  188; 
Venice,  189;  loss  of  through 
war,  191. 

Nordic  broodland,  141,  213  et 
seq.;  Nordic  conquerors  of  In- 
dia, 71,  216;  fatherland,  213- 
222;  immigrants  to  America, 
211;  invaders  of  Italy,  215; 
invasions  of  Asia,  257-259; 
nations,  142. 

Nordic  race,  or  subspecies,  20, 
24,  31,  61,  131,  133,  149,  151, 
167-178;  adventurers,  pioneers 
and  sailors,  74;  affected  by  the 
actinic  rays,  84;  allied  to  the 
Mediterraneans,  24;  depleted 
by  war,  73-74;  a  European 
type,  167;  in  the  Great  War, 
168;  habitat  of,  37-38;  hair  of, 
34;  in  Italy,  42;  in  the  sub- 
tropics  and  elsewhere  outside 
of  its  native  habitat,  41-42; 
location  of,  in  Roman  times, 
131;  mixed  with  Alpines,  25, 
35-36,  135-136;  mixed  with 
other  types  in  the  United 
States,  82-94;  passing  of,  168; 
physical  character  of,  20,  26, 
27i  29,  31,  32,  167-168;  at  the 



present  time,  168;  racial  apti- 
tudes of,  226-228;  red-haired 
branch  of,  32. 

Nordic  stature,  29. 

Nordic  substratum  in  eastern 
Germany  and  Poland,  141; 
in  Russia,  172. 

Nordic  troops  of  Philip  and  Alex- 
ander, 161. 

Nordic  type,  40;  among  native 
Americans,  88;  in  California, 
75;  in  Scotland,  249. 

Nordic  vice,  55. 

Nordics,  58,  61,  72,  129;  absorp- 
tion of  by  conquered  nations, 
176;  and  alcoholism,  55;  and 
consumption,  55;  and  Low 
German,  188-189;  and  Aryan 
languages,  240-242 ;  and  Proto- 
Slavic  languages,  143;  and 
specialized  features,  92 ;  around 
the  Caspian-Aral  Sea,  214; 
among  the  Amorites,  223; 
among  the  Philistines,  223; 
as  mercenaries,  155,  216;  as 
officers,  142;  as  raiders,  130; 
Celtic  dialects  of,  157,  194; 
Celtic  and  Teutonic  Nordics, 
139;  centre  of  evolution  of, 
169-171;  checked  by  the 
Etruscans  in  their  advance 
southward,  157;  carriers  of 
Aryan  speech,  234;  conquer 
Alpines,  145,  147;  continental, 
73;  cross  the  Rhine  westward, 
J73>  I94i  24°;  decline  of,  190, 
196;  (in  England)  208-210, 
(in  India)  216,  (in  Europe  and 
Asia)  260,  (in  Spain)  192; 
destroyed  by  war,  230-231; 
distribution  of,  242;  early 
movements  of,  253 ;  energy  of, 
215;  expansion  of,  174,  188- 
212;  first,  130-132;  first  ap- 
pearance of  along  the  Baltic, 
169;  first  appearance  of  in 
Scandinavia,  117;  founders  of 

France,  England  and  America, 
206;  in  agriculture,  209; 
Africa,  223;  Afghan  passes, 
257;  the  ^Egean  region,  253; 
the  Alps,  151:  Austria,  210; 
Asia,  214,  224;  Asia  Minor, 
214,  225;  the  Balkan  Penin- 
sula, 189;  the  British  Isles, 
188;  the  Caucasus,  214,  225; 
south  of  the  Caucasus,  253- 
254;  cities,  94,  209;  colonies, 
84;  England  (Britain),  64,  137, 
188,  249;  France,  188,  231; 
Flanders,  188,  210,  231;  Gaul, 
69,  193-194;  Germany,  170, 
174,  188,  210,  231;  Europe, 
188;  Hindustan,  67;  Holland, 
188;  Galicia,  156;  Greece,  158- 
160,  214;  India,  257;  Ireland, 
201 ;  Italy,  189,  220-221 ;  Lom- 
bardy,  221;  Persia,  254;  Po- 
land, 188;  Portugal,  192;  the 
Punjab,  257-258;  Rome,  154; 
Russia,  188,  214,  231;  Scan- 
dinavia, 188,  210;  Scotland, 
188;  Spain,  156;  Styria,  210; 
Thrace,  214;  the  Tyrol,  210; 
invade  Greece,  158-160; 
landed  gentry  in  Wales,  205; 
later  in  central  Europe,  141; 
long  skulls  of,  134;  loss  of 
through  war,  184,  191-193, 
196-197;  mixed  with  Alpines, 
134-135,  I5i»  163;  with  Medi- 
terraneans, 161,  192;  Neo- 
lithic location  of,  124;  outside 
of  Europe,  223-224;  owners 
of  fertile  lands  and  valleys, 
141;  physical  characters  of, 
214;  Protestants,  228;  reach 
the  MediterraneanjjSea  through 
the  Alpines,  145,  id**;  seize  the 
Po  valley,  157. 

Norman  language,  spoken  by 
French  Canadians,  81. 

Norman  type,  in  England  and 
America,  207. 



Normandy,  23,  206;  conquest  of, 
196;  Belgae  in,  251;  change  of 
language  in,  251;  Cymric  lan- 
guage in,  251 ;  Latin  speech  in, 
251;  Normans  in,  252;  Norse 
pirates  in,  70;  ravaged  by 
Saxons,  251-252. 

Normans,  201,  206-207;  char- 
acters of  in  Sicily,  207;  eccle- 
siastics among,  208;  in  Britain, 
249;  in  England,  252;  language 
of,  252;  racial  aptitudes  of, 
207-208 ;  racial  mixture  among, 
208;  settle  Normandy,  252; 
transformation  of,  252. 

Norse,  along  the  Atlantic  coasts, 
180;  Norse  blood  of  American 
settlers,  83;  Norse  in  Britain, 
200,  249;  in  Ireland,  64;  in 
Scotland,  203;  Norsemen,  201 ; 
Norse  pirates,  70 ;  language  of, 
250;  Norse  Vikings,  see  Vik- 

North  Europeans,  67. 

North  Germans,  61. 

North  Sea,  20,  73,  166,  168,  171. 

Northmen,  145,  196;  invasion  of, 
201 ;  language  of,  70. 

Norway,  201;  Alpines  in,  136, 
2ii ;  bronze  in,  127;  intellec- 
tual anaemia  of,  210. 

Norwegian  immigrants,  211. 

Nose  form,  13,  30,  31. 

Of  net  race,  116. 

Oklahoma,  87. 

Old  Persian,  254-255,  258. 

Old  Prussian,  212,  242. 

Old  Sanskrit,  257. 

Old  Saxon  (related  to  Frisian  and 
Taal),  80. 

Old  South,  42-43. 

Old  Stone  Age  {see  also  Paleo- 
lithic), 120,  123. 

Oscan  language,  234. 

Oscans,  157,  160,  173,  244,  269. 

Osmanli  Turks,  237. 

Ossetes,  66;  language  of,  66. 
Ostrogoths,  176;  in  Italy,  180. 
Ottoman  Turks,  166. 

Paintings,  polychrome,  112. 

Palatine  Germans,  84. 

Paleolithic  Period,  23,  38;  art  of, 
112,  114;  close  of,  117,  149; 
dates  of,  104;  man,  104-118, 
107-108,  124,  149,  227,  247; 
in  Ireland,  202 ;  remnants  of  in 
England,  64;  in  Wales,  205; 
races  of  the  Paleolithic  Period, 
118;  Lower  Paleolithic  Period, 
104-106,  133;  Middle  Paleo- 
lithic Period,  104,  106,  133; 
Upper  Paleolithic  Period,  100, 
105,  108,  in,  113,  132;  close 
of,  115. 

Palestine,  223;  bronze  weapons 
in,  127;  language  of,  239. 

Pamirs,  the,  20,  254,  261;  Al- 
pines in,  134;  language  of,  259. 

Pan-Germanic  movement,  58. 

Pan-Rumanian  movement,  58. 

Pan-Slavic  movement,  58. 

Parthian  language,  255. 

Patagonia,  23. 

Patricians  in  Rome,  II,  217. 

Pax  Romana,  195. 

Peasant,  European,  117;  see  also 
under  Alpines  and  Racial 

Pehlevi  language,  255. 

Pelasgians,  158-161,  215;  at 
Troy,  159;  language  of,  158, 
233,  243. 

Peloponnesus,  160. 

Pennsylvania  Dutch,  84. 

Peons,  Mexican,  9. 

Pericles,  263. 

Persia,  22,  66,  147,  171,  241,  254; 
Aryan  language  in,  237;  Ary- 
anization  of,  225;  language  of 
(see  Old  Persian),  255;  Medi- 
terraneans   in,    148;    physical 



types  in,   257;   wars  of  with 
Greece,  255. 
Persian  Empire,  organization  of, 


Persians,  63,  73,  161,  214,  216, 
253_256,  269;  culture  of,  255; 
date  of  separation  of,  from  the 
Sacae,  258;  expansion  of,  225; 
Hellenization  of,  256;  as  Nor- 
dics, 255;  physical  character 
of,  259. 

Pharsalia,  217. 

Philip  of  Macedon,  161. 

Philippi,  217. 

Philippines,  33;  Spanish  in,  78; 
whites  in,  78. 

Philistines,  Nordics  among,  223. 

Phoenicia,  165;  ancient  civiliza- 
tion of,  153. 

Phoenician  language  in  Spain, 

Phoenicians,  228;  colonies  of,  126; 
in  Spain,  156;  voyages  of,  126- 

Phrygians,  173,  225,  253,  256; 
invade  Asia  Minor,  159;  lan- 
guage of,  256. 

Physical  types  and  literary  or 
legendary  characters,  229-230; 
physical  types  of  Normans, 
207-208;  of  British  soldiers 
and  sailors,  208;  see  also  under 
various  races. 

Picardy,  210. 

Pictish  language,  204,  247. 

Picts,  204. 

Pile  dwellings,  121,  127,  132. 

Piltdown  man,  105-106. 

Pindus  mountains,  Vlachs  in, 

Pioneers,  45,  74-75. 

Pithecanthropus  erectus,  1 01,  133. 

Plebeians  or  Plebs  of  Rome,  11, 
154,  217-218. 

Pleistocene  Period,  100. 

Pliocene  Period,  22,  101. 

Po  valley,  Alpines  in,    157;   as 

Cisalpine  Gaul,  157;  Mediter- 
raneans in,  157;  seized  by  Nor- 
dics, 157;  Terramara  settle- 
ments in,  127. 

Poetry,  241. 

Poland,  59;  Alpines  in,  44,  124, 
141-142;  blondness  in,  190; 
dolichocephaly  in,  190;  Nor- 
dics in,  124, 131, 170, 188-213; 
Nordic  substratum  in,  141; 
Slavs  in,  131,  142;  stature  in, 

Poles,  58,  72,  143;  increase  in 
East  Germany,  184. 

Polesia,  143. 

Polish  Ghettos,  immigrants  from, 

Polish  Jews,  16;  in  New  York, 


Polished    Stone   Age,    see   Neo- 
lithic; beginning  of,  n  8-1 19. 
Polygamy,    among    the    Turks, 


Pompey,  217. 

"Poor  Whites,"  39-40;  physical 
types  of,  40. 

Population,  direction  of  pressure 
of,  171;  effect  of  foreign  in- 
vasion on,  69-71;  infiltration 
into,  of  slaves  or  immigrants, 
71;  value  and  efficiency  of  a, 

Portugal,  Nordics  in,  192;  occu- 
pied by  the  Suevi,  180,  192. 

Portuguese  language,  156,  244. 

Posen,  72. 

Post-Glacial    Periods,    105-106, 

Post-Roman  invaders  of  Britain, 


Pottery,  138,  146,  241;  first  ap- 
pearance of,  122-123. 

Pre-Aryan  language,  204,  233, 
235,  247;  in  the  British  Isles, 

Pre-Dravidians,  149;  physical 
character  of,  261. 



Pre-Neolithic  culture  on  the 
Baltic,  117. 

Pre-Nordic  brunets  in  New  Eng- 
land, 83. 

Pre- Nordics,  29,  63;  of  Ireland, 

Primates,  3,  24,  106;  erect,  101. 

Pripet  swamps,  143. 

Procopius,  189. 

Propontis,  179. 

Proto- Alpines,  135;  language  of, 
235">    physical    characters   of, 


Proto-Aryan  language,  67,  233, 
242;  and  Alpines,  237;  Nordic 
origin  of,  61. 

Proto-Mediterranean  Race,  132; 
descended  from  the  Neolithic, 

Proto- Nordics,  224,  233;  in  Rus- 
sia, 64,  170. 

Proto-Slavic  language,  Aryan 
character  of,  143. 

Proto- Teutonic  race,  169. 

Provencal,  244;  Provencal  lan- 
guage, 244. 

Provencals,  156. 

Provence,  23;  Mediterraneans  in, 

Prussia,  Spartan  culture  of,  161. 

Prussian,  Old  (Borussian),  lan- 
guage, •312,  242. 

Prussians,  ethnic  origin  of,  72. 

Punic  Wars,  217. 

Punjab,  the,  257;  entrance  of 
Aryans  into,  258;  decline  of 
Nordics  in,  261. 

Puritans,  55. 

Pyrenees,  caverns  of,  115. 

Quebec  Frenchmen,  81. 

Race,  3,  4;  Aryan,  3;  Caucasian, 
3;  Celtic,  3;  Indo-Germanic,  3; 
Latin,  3;  adjustment  to  habi- 
tat of,  93 ;  characters,  13  et  seq.; 
consciousness,  4,  57,  60,  90;  in 

Germany,  57;  in  Sweden,  57; 
in  the  United  States,  86;  de- 
generation, 39-43,  109;  deter- 
mination, 15,  19,  24,  28;  dis- 
harmonic  combinations  of,  14, 
28,  35,  no;  distinguished  from 
language  and  nationality,  34; 
effect  of  democracy  on,  5;  feel- 
ing, 222;  importance  of,  98- 
100;  physical  basis  of,  13-16; 
positions  of  the  three  main 
races  in  Roman  times,  131; 
resistance  to  foreign  invasion, 
71;  selection,  46,  50,154,  55, 
215;  versus  species  and  sub- 
species, 22. 
Race  mixture,  18,  34,  60,  77,  85, 
116,  262;  among  the  Gauls, 
145;  among  the  Normans,  208; 
among  the  Turks,  237;  among 
the  Umbrians,  145;  and  civili- 
zation, 214-216;  in  North 
Africa,  151;  in  South  Africa, 
80;  in  the  Argentine,  78;  in 
Brazil,  78;  in  Britain,  248;  in 
Canada,  81;  in  Europe,  261- 
262;  in  Germany,  135;  in 
Greece,  161;  in  Jamaica,  76; 
in  large  cities,  92 ;  in  Macedon, 
161;  in  Mexico,  76;  in  the 
Roman  Empire,  71;  in  Rome, 
154,  220;  in  Russia,  174;  in 
Spain,  192;  in  Switzerland, 
135;  in  the  United  States,  77, 
82-94;  in  Venezuela,  76;  in 
Tunis,  158;  of  Alpines  and 
Celts,  177;  of  Alpines  and  Nor- 
dics, 151 ;  of  Alpines  and  Medi- 
terraneans, 151;  of  Ainus  and 
Mongols,  225;  of  Belgse  and 
Teutonic  tribes,  248;  of  Celts 
and  Mediterraneans,  177;  of 
Goidels  and  Mediterraneans, 
248;  of  Mediterraneans  and 
Dra vidians  and  Negroids,  150; 
of  Nordics  and  Negroes,  82; 
of  late  Nordics  and  Paleoliths, 



149;  of  Slavs  and  Illyrians, 
153,  190- 

Race  supplanting,  77, 46-48,  no. 

Races,  European  distribution  of 
during  the  Neolithic,  123;  in 
Europe,  131 ;  laws  of  distribu- 
tion of,  37;  evolution  of 
through  selection,  37  et  seq. 

Racial,  aptitudes,  226-232;  of 
Alpines,  138-139,  146;  of 
Negroes,  77,  109;  of  Normans, 
207-208 ;  elements  of  the  Great 
War,  187;  resistance  of  accli- 
mated populations,  71;  types, 
intellectual  and  moral  differ- 
ences of,  206. 

Raphael,  215. 

Ravenna,  surrender  of,  189. 

Recapitulation  of  development 
in  infants,  30. 

Reformation,  the,  191,  210,  228; 
in  England,  10. 

Regiments,  German,  composi- 
tion of,  142. 

Religion,  64;  nationalities 
founded  on,  57,  58. 

Renaissance,  215,  231. 

Republic,  a  true,  7,  8. 

Resurgence  of  types,  15;  of  Al- 
pines in  Europe,  146-147,  184, 
190-191,  196,  210;  of  Iberians 
in  Scotland,  249;  of  Mediter- 
raneans, 190,  196;  in  England, 
83,  208. 

Revolution,  6;  French,  6,  16, 
191,  196,  197;  German,  87. 

Revolutionary  Wars,  197. 

Riss  glaciation,  105,  133. 

Riss-Wurm,     105;     interglacial, 


Robenhausian  culture,  132;  Pe- 
riod, 121;  Upper,  122,  265. 

Rollo,  263. 

Romaic  language,  origin  of,  243. 

Roman,  abandonment  of  Britain, 
200;  aristocracy,  217;  busts, 
154;  church,  53,  85;  Empire, 

10,  71-72,  142,  176,  179-182, 
187,  217-222;  component 
states  of,  183;  fall  of,  221; 
Eastern  Empire,  165-166; 
population  of,  216,  220;  slaves 
in,  216;  Western  Empire,  re- 
established, 182;  ideals,  153; 
occupation  of  Britain,  effect 
of,  ethnically,  200;  provinces, 
Teutonized,  191;  Republic, 
71,  154,  217,  219;  State,  an- 
cient civilization  of,  153,  216; 
stature,  154;  stock,  extinction 
of,  51. 

Romance  tongues,  61,  238,  244. 

Romans,  68,  156,  174-176,  193, 
194,  216-221,  246;  decline  of, 
217-222;  features  of,  154;  in 
Britain,  200,  250;  in  France, 
63;  in  Spain,  156;  a  modified 
race  in  Gaul,  69;  stature  of, 


Romansch  language,  244. 

Rome,  11,  52,  61,  70,  92,  130, 
154,  157,  158,  165,  179,  180, 
191,  195,  215-221,  245,  251; 
Alpines,  Nordics  and  Mediter- 
raneans in,  130,  153,  154; 
change  of  race  in,  218-220; 
change  of  religion  in,  219; 
early  struggles  in,  154;  in 
Dacia,  245;  language  of,  61, 
70;  Northern  qualities  of,  153- 
154;  race  mixture  in,  154,  220; 
slaves  in,  71,  100,  216,  218- 
220;  stormed  by  Brennus,  157. 

Rough  Stone  Age,  see  Paleo- 

Round  Barrows,  1 37-1 38,  163, 
247,  267;  brachycephalic  sur- 
vivals of,  163-164. 

Round  skulls,  absence  of  in 
Britain,  249.  See  also  physi- 
cal characters  of  the  Alpines, 
Armenoids,  etc. 

Rumania,  59,  245;  Alpines  in,  65; 
Mediterraneans  in,  153. 



Rumanian  language,  244-246; 
origin  of,  244-245;  distribu- 
tion of,  245. 

Rumanians,  21,  145;  and  Chris- 
tianity, 65;  descent  of,  244- 
246;  Latin  language  of,  244- 

Russia,  38,  143,  253;  Alans  and 
Goths  in,  66;  Alpines  in,  44, 
131,  136,  142-144,  147;  An- 
aryan  survivals  in,  235,  243; 
Asiatic  types  in,  144;  Baltic 
provinces  of,  Nordic,  212; 
blondness  in,  190;  Bulgars 
from,  145;  burial  mounds  or 
kurgans  in,  172;  changes  m 
racial  predominance  in,  142- 
144,  147;  dolichocephaly  in, 
190;  early  Nordics  in,  124,  131, 
142;  Esthonians  in,  236;  Finns 
in,  236;  Gauls  in,  174;  grass- 
lands and  steppes  of,  240,  253- 
254,  257".  language  in,  235-236, 
243;  Livs  in,  236;  Mongols  in, 
65,  142;  Muscovite  expansion 
in,  65;  Nordic  substratum  in, 
64,  142;  Nordics  in,  170,  188, 
213-214,  231;  organized  by 
Sweden,  180;  race  mixture  in, 
174;  races  in,  142;  Saxons  in, 
201;  Slavs  or  Alpines  in,  64, 
131,  142;  Slavic  dialects  in, 
143;  Slavic  future  of,  147;  stat- 
ure in,  190;  Swedes  in,  211; 
Varangians  in,  177;  water  con- 
nections across,  170. 

Russian  brachycephaly,  136- 
137;  settlements  of  Siberia, 

Russians  and  Christianity,  65. 

Ruthenia,  245;  Slavs  in,  143. 

Sacae,  173,  214,  216,  254  (see 
Massagetae);  date  of  separa- 
tion from  Persia,  258 ;  evidence 
of  conquests  of,  261 ;  identified 
with  the  Wu-Suns,  260;  in  In- 

dia, 257-258;  language  of,  259; 
physical  characters  of,  259, 

Sahara,  the,  33,  44;  Mediter- 
raneans in,  1 51-152. 

St.  Bartholomew,  Massacre  of, 

Sakai,  149. 

Sangre  Azul,  derivation  of  the 
term,  192. 

Sanskrit,  148,  243,  255,  257-258, 
261;  introduction  of  into  In- 
dia, 173,  216.  See  Old  San- 

Santa  Fe  Trail,  40. 

Sardinia,  29;  Mediterraneans  in, 
152;  Mycenaean  culture  of,  164. 

Sardinian,  the,  28;  stature  of,  28. 

Sarmatians,  143,  245,  269,  272. 

Satem  group  of  Aryan  languages, 

Saviour,  the,  blondness  of,  230. 

Savoy,  Alpines  in,  146. 

Savoyard,  21,  23. 

Saxon  blood  of  American  settlers, 
83;  in  Normandy  and  Scot- 
land, 208;  Saxon  type,  40. 

Saxons,  69,  73, 141-142, 145, 177, 
180,  195,  206;  in  Britain,  248- 
249;  in  Brittany,  251-252;  in 
England,  200-201;  in  France, 
201 ;  in  Hungary,  201 ;  in  Italy, 
201;  in  Russia,  201;  invaders, 
201;  invasions  of,  200-201, 
252,  270;  origin  of,  200;  ravage 
Normandy,  251-252. 

Saxony,  73, 200-201. 

Scandinavia,  brunets  in,  151; 
centre  of  radiation  of  the  Teu- 
tons, 168;  character  of  the 
population  of,  169;  first  Nor- 
dics in,  117,  124,  169;  first  oc- 
cupation of  by  human  beings, 
169;  introduction  of  bronze 
into,  128;  megaliths  in,  155; 
Mediterraneans  never  in,  150- 
151;  Neolithic  culture  in,  117, 



122;  Nordics  in,  117,  124,  188, 

Scandinavian  blood  in  Nor- 
mandy and  Scotland,  208; 
place  names  in  Scotland,  249; 
states,  4,  20,  60. 

Scandinavians,  61,  68;  hairiness 
of,  224. 

Schleswig,  58,  73. 

Sclaveni,  141. 

Scotch,  29;  brunet  type  of,  150; 
red  hair  of,  175;  stature  of,  28, 

Scotch  borders,  40;  Highlanders, 

Scotch-Irish  in  America,  84. 

Scotland,  40,  69;  Angles  in,  203; 
blond  elements